There is no written record Wancho communities have script language. Therefore Wancho have rich oral language and literature. The Wancho communities have no script. The oral literature means the literature which is practice only in spoken from generation to generation.
Oral literature of a Wancho comprises those anonymous, group product incorporating all the views and values, belief, mythology, sentiment etc. of the folk to which the literature belongs. It is practiced since time immemorial. Oral literature is badge as anonymous in the sense that no one writer can be assigned as the writer of the particular literature, it belongs to the one who uses it, it the forms of as old literature handed over down from generation to generation. Oral literature is retained and maintained by practicing the traditional system in the form of folksong, folktales, story, proverb, saying, hymn, etc. thus oral literature of a region has an indispensable relation with its traditional culture. The oral songs and languages are handed down orally from family to family and generation to generation, which are kept in their heart.
Wancho oral language is not an exception. Wancho folk songs and dramas are the diverse forms. The folksong and folklores basing upon the folk psychology is one of the richest areas of oral literature.
There are many Wancho folk song sung by single person. Most of the ritual songs are sung by individuals called ram-ring tsai-kah [chanting performed by a male priest (rampa) to perform only the social occasion], ram-nu ramring tsai kah (chanting by a female priest while healing rituals is performed), Wan-no (chanting while worshiping the God) mot-tsõ mihpa (a male priest perform to heal the sick person), mot-tso mihnu (a female priest perform to heal the sick person), lai-lung (a love song), roikhol tsai (romantic song), fao-kha tsai (forest song), tsai-not-tsai (love sharing song), Mang-sap (mourning song by narrating the life history of a death person), Tsah-tu-tsai (song sung while harvesting the paddy and millets), Thok kho pop (chanting by male members while performing social rituals in village-entrance (pan) by a male priest), Kah-gan otang (chanting performed by a male or head of the family in his own new field during the social occasion), the field owner which etc. are the worth mentionable individuals songs. Except rampa all songs can be sung by both sexes.
Oral literature pertaining to groups is more elaborative as compared to the individual forms. The group literature is term as hotham tsai-kah in Wancho. The group forms are – Oria (annual festival song), Tsan-mot tsai (song sung while clearing the burnt debris in the new field), Chaomot tsai (song sung while doing 1st weeding work in the new field) Higmot tsai (song sung while doing weeding for the 2nd time, The new field weeding is called rangran hali hongmot while the old field weeding as Kon-hing mot tsai), konsuak tsai (last weeding song of new field), rangtu tsai (Song sung while doing slashing, cutting and clearing of a new field), Ranlang tsai (Song sung while celebrating social occasion of war victory), Lam tsai (song sung while coming back after successful war), Dingmoh-bo (song sung while coming back from field after weeding by the boys as a retreating song), Sak-sai-phat tsai (Song sung while by girls folk while celebrating women festival), Kham-thut tsai (Song sung by beating Log drum as music in major occasion), Phong-khã tsai (Song sung during the occasion of annual feast in traditional male youths institution, maibõ (Love folksong sung in girls dormitory by both boys and girls), Lailung (Young boys and girls love song), roikhoi tsai(romantics song), Lamrai tsai (road clearing) pãtho tsai (Boys night recreational song), Pongwan tsai (Kingdom festival song), Sho-thut tsai (community fishing song), Rangwan pao tsai/Jang ngan gak (song sung while retreating the annual festival worship bamboo altar post), etc.
The types of oral literature may be classified into following part.
The Wancho word for folksong is apu apa tsai. There are many Wancho folk song sung by the community. They are single person. Most of the rituals songs are sung by individuals called ram-ring tsai-kah (chanting performed by a male priest (rampa) to perform only the social occasion), ram-nu ramring tsai kah (chanting by a female priest while healing rituals is performed), Wan-no (chanting while worshiping the God) mot-tso mihpa (a male priest perform to heal the patient), mot-tso mihnu (a female priest perform to heal the sick person), lai-lung (a love song), roikhoi tsai (a romantic songs sung while collecting the water from the streams, river etc.), fao-kha tsai (forest song), Mang-sap (mourning song by narrating the life history of a death person), Tsah-tu tsai (song sung while harvesting the paddy and millets), Thok kho pəp (chanting by male members while performing social rituals in village-entrance (pan) by a male priest), Kah-gan otang (chanting performed by a male or head of the family in his own). Other collective songs are lamrai tsai (a community song sung during clearing of footpath), rang tu tsai (a song sung during the clearing of the forest for new shifting cultivation field), lam tsai (a song sing while coming back weeding stage in the field), Chahnu lang tsa (song sung while celebrating the killing of ferocious animals like tiger, lion etc.), Ranlang tsai (a war song sung to mark the victory during the tribal war), Pongwan tsai (a song sung while celebrating the mega festival of declaring the maturity age of successor ruling king of the village), hingmot tsai (a song sung during weeding in the field), chao mot tsai (a song sung during the first weeding in new field), bum puih tsai (a song sung during clearing uprooting the paddy plants after harvesting), pãtho tsai (a song sung in the male youths institution. Like these there are other folksong i.e. dishon, ma phuh goi (chanting while performing the ritual with stone to heal the stomach pain suspected to be result of other jealously), Gak tan, etc. The group folksong are lailung (Love song), Hohai shon, Tho kho pəp, gan shon (a song sung to while celebrating the events of victory during tribals war), Jangan gak (festival song), Kham thut tsai (a song sung by beating the Asia largest log drum instrument), tham thut tsai (song sung by women folks while pounding the paddy), tsai-not-tsai (a love sharing songs sung by the lovers in the pounding of place paddy), chak sai tsai (song sung during the women festival), now-oht-tsai (a song sung to stop the crying child), etc.
The Wancho word for festival song is Oria tsai. The festival song is a part of sacred and entertainment. Through this song the life history of the community and a particular village or clan is narrated. The activities of oria (annual festival) depict the creation of the universe; the living beings, how settlement started and how the food production produces procedure are conducted. The festival song varies from village to village due to different in migration history. The common festival song are hambo tsai (sing and dance throughout the night in the resident of newly betrothal couple in Rusa Village), jang ngan gak (at the time of retreating or taking away of sacred and worshipping bamboo alter to its traditional sacred place in the last day of animal festival). Other type of festival song sung by the community is Pongwan tsai (a mega festival whose is celebrated after 20 to 25 year to declare the maturity age of successor of ruling king of the village. Here the alliance villages that have helped during the tribal war are invited as special guests. During this festival people participate from different villages. They compete to each other in knowledge by narration the mythologies of origin of universe and all activities of human life. Here an emotional attachment environment is created as people from different villages would meet after long gap and share their hardship life.
The Wancho word for hymns is ramring rang som tsai. They are god fearing people. The hymns in Wancho are circulated, taught and learnt orally. The hymns are associated with the animistic belief of the people. Numbers of hymns is meant for natural objects and spirits. All the priest or performer sung the number by asking to accept his prayer and thereby show him kindness to prosper and may bless with a long life. Wancho have their indigenous hymn practice by the priest. The name of hymns is given according to the nature of its action such as pong dak (a prayer hymns performed during the before felling the alter tree for pong wan festival of king directly to nature God), rangwan pao kah re? refers to the hymns chanted while taking away of alter bamboo post in the last day of orial festival, mot tsõ (a hymns chanted while performing healing rituals), orok or othok (a hymn chanted while performing the ritual for selecting a new field for community), põtak (a hymns sung on the first day of paddy or millet harvesting), təmpo roi hymn refers to the hymn sung when the people propitiate the rain god at the time of draught, Wanno hymns refers to the refers to the praying of God before taking food. Pan shom refers to the praying the tree god before felling the tree the big tree, nantak kah reh? refers to the chanting of hymn while performing the act of guest with the help of broom or banana leaves, Mei phum refers to hymns chanted while performing thanksgiving prayer to nature God after the successful expedition of hunting, lingtheir longli hymn refers to the prayer offering to the river God while performing special ritual community fishing in Rusa Village, gan tak, etc. However, a new Christian hymns written in Wancho language have been for converted Wancho Christianity. The name of this books are kah ho tsai lai, chak ra tsailai, etc.
The Wancho word for lyric is tsai kah mik. Wancho are rich in lyrics in their own way. They do compose their song whether folk song, hymns, modern song, Christian song etc. Many a time they compose the lyrics on spot which is not easy the general people other then gifted person. Therefore, few people can compose well which can narrate the life related activities. The nature and history play a vital role in composing the lyrics of folksong and modern song but Christian song.
The Wancho term for ballad is tsai kah reh? Ballads are the folk song, narrative songs thriving among the unlettered people and are freshly created from memory at each performance and they are subject to constant variation in text. The only way in which they are preserved is the tradition by recreating repeatedly making it more suitable to audience’s expectation. The texts of the ballads are long and narrative with elaborative in every part of the tale. The ballads can be classified into two parts.
1. Based on historical and legendary episodes and 2. Based on emotion
Ballads of historical and legendary nature are represented through the song of kham thut tsai. Its song is sung by beating the long drum called Kham. Wancho ballads are long and narratives, the singer elaborate every part of the tale and it support by the chorus thereby making the climax finally. Other ballads of this group are annual festival of some villages, pongwan etc.
Among the ballads of emotion, the ballad of Wangcha-Wangham səm tsai is major one. This song sung during the marriage ceremony of King or Wangham. Songs of ballad of are dealing basically with stories, stories of romance, stories of loves, courage stories are being describe. All the ballads of this kind are romantic affairs, blessing, experience an inevitable separation. It also expressed eternal union after a long separation. These ballads manifested the value given to the real love, which is being acknowledged even by the king. It has romantic notes, what follow is the ads of life, sometimes the fate, sometimes the difference between the status of the lovers. Sometimes the king wishes, ultimately the lovers were separated despite deep romanticism. The Wawa ballad song is sung by the male folks of marriageable clan in the evening of girl’s tattoo day, rangson tsai refers to community condolence cum mourning ballad when the king of other village is passing away.
Other types of ballad are sungdan and chahnu lang shon tsai. There are two types of sungdan viz: Sungdan for man and sungdan for animal. The former is performed when a man pass away and latter is performed when the game is killed. In both the cases, the life story of each is narrated. In case of chanulang shon tsai, it is celebrated when the lion or tiger or leopard is killed. In this ballad, the story of war victory is narrated by comparing with corpse of tiger. The ballad of Wancho not only serves the purpose of amusement but also serve the purpose of giving moral encouragement to the people.
The Wancho word for mourning song is səp ngao or səp ŋao. Generally, there are three types of mourning Mang-sap, mang sung dan and rang son. The mang sap refers to the general mourning song by narrating the life story of a death person while mang sung dan refers to deep and heart touching mourn by shouting loudly in front of the head of dead body by relative, parent and close friends and the rang son refers to community condolence mourn when the king of other alliance villages is passing away.
The Wancho word for travelogue song is lam tasi. These song sung while journey in the forest, ran long tsai, fao kha tsai, roikhoi tsai, lai lung, dingmoh bõ, ngat pot tsai, mang jo səp etc.
Ran lang tsai is the song sung while coming back to home in the evening from the forest or paddy and millet field by the boys youth the wording are apu khang dak ke chang sa, wan rak sa mao pho ah........ It is sung with chorus.
Fao kha tsai refers to the folksong sung in the forest while going for individual fishing and collecting betel leave in Rusa Village by the male youths.
Roikhoi tsai refers to the folksong sung in the forest while going for collecting water from the river or stream, firewood etc. It is sung by both male and female individually or in group in Chopnu and Rusa Villages of Lower or Northern Wanchos.
Lai lung tsai refers to the love making folksong sung in the girls house by both boys and girl but it can also be sung while journey inter the village in the forest.
Ding moh bõ refers to the group folksong sung by both male and female members while coming back to home after weeding the paddy field in the month of June or August.
Ngat pot tsai refers to the folksong sung in journey in the forest for collecting the house constructional materials especially bamboo. Mang jo tsai refers to the mourn folksong while taking away the human dead body journey to its graveyard or burial ground. Chanu lang shon refers to the folksong with dance after killing the king of forest like lion, tiger and leopard etc. Like these, there are many travelogue folksong and modern song in the Wancho area.
The Wancho word for rituals song is ramring tsaikah. As said earlier that Wancho is God fearing people. The ritual is performed by a priest assigned for different tasks. The name of ritual song is given according to the type of ritual such as ; the chanted rituals song are ram ring lai pha ja, gan tak, wãwa, pung ram, nantak, orok or othok, põtak, meiram (sacrificing of animal for certain ritual like during house construction and phong khõ (ritual performed during annual feast in male youths sacred institution), meiphum (thank giving ritual performed by the hunter after successful hunting expedition), pong dak (a ritual performed during the before felling the alter tree for pong wan festival of king directly to nature God), rangwan pao kah re? refers to the ritual performed while taking away of alter bamboo post in the last day of orial festival, mot tsõ (a ritual performed while performing healing rituals, orok or othok (a ritual performed while performing the ritual for selecting a new field for community), põtak (ritual performed on the first day of paddy or millet harvesting, təmpo roi refers to the ritual performed when the people propitiate the rain god at the time of draught, Wanno rituals refers to the praying of God before taking food. Pan shom refers to the praying ritual performed before felling the tree the big tree, nantak kah reh? refers to the ritual performed while performing the act of guest with the help of broom or banana leaves, Mei phum refers to ritual performed while performing thanks giving prayer to nature God after the successful expedition by hunter, lingthei longli refers to the prayer offering ritual performed to the river God while performing special ritual community fishing in Rusa Village, gan tak, etc. However, after the advent of new religion i.e. Christianity all these ritual is in the verge of extinction.
(ix) Mavagi song (x) Marsiya (xi) Lullabies (xii) Nautanlei (xiii) Kirtan/Bhajan
There are many types of individual folk song, which varies from village to village. For example –
There are two types of mourning songs i.e. Mang sap (common mourn) and Sung dan (a type of mourn by narrating the life story of death person loudly by the male member). The example of sungdan mourn is –
Pulam tangoyo, palam tongoyo, “Chapnyu mu-mai nyak Ganpa mu-mai nak Maila ga suwok nak Lebang oh nang sakai Jin fai fai shom le le bang oh Nang kaptai laufai shomle Lebang oh! Mo kap kappu tato Maifa fo ganfa fo satak Gangto jubam lo kiyo”
(Translation: Your father will be there, you go to the place of the dead, your father will be there, you have killed bear, you have killed man, you have killed boar, and you take your foodstuff with you. Whatever you have eaten, so long you take all. You got many articles for yourself. Whatever you did not get, leave them for us. We want those articles, Give us deer, boar, etc. let us be victory over enemy. Give us enough paddies and let the long bamboo containers of rice beer touched the sky). NB: This song is collected from the Wakkah village of upper Wancho.
This song is sung by the baby sitter while child is crying and waiting for coming of child’s parent from paddy field and so on. After singing this generally child do stop crying.
“Api mason Songoi sa kong kong Phongoi mit ma poi mikma jaklasa wan ha Jakla phumphaksa phumphak ngoi ku sak Ngoiku laikhasa laikha tahpoi satapoi Susingsai suching niauka khing Niauka long bi takmapa Longbi afai nunami Afai sok sok sai sok sok kona lok Kona tampa pa tampa hasi sa Hasi tai malitai tai hasik sai Hasik japoi Somali Minmapoi tat a la la Atchai wangnow pasu jing dow khak”
(Translation: Our parents will come soon we should not weep. They will bring flowers and fruits for us. Look they are coming by ringing the bell in their baskets. Our grandfather will bring flowers putting in his earring). NB: This song is collected from Wakkak village of upper Wancho.
This particular song is sung only in Chopjen group of Wancho. Especially young male and female sings it in the forest while they are going to fetch the water from river or stream, collect the firewood etc. For example –
(i) Ta či lam to roikhoi ∫a ngan pu e nang, pi and thei pú bachu rang man rai le, oruikhui o ley. (Translation: When I see a friend in other side of the hills, I wanted to meet him/her but God has not given me a wing to fly, thus never mind my friend). (ii) Tem pʰi dənheh aɲiʔ ču, ∫at ma loŋ dʒa dətpu niŋ ley, oruikhui o ley (Translation: What a feeling today have I! It is like falling of water from the bamboo pipe in the river stream) (iii) Anu tatei oh tam jang ma nang, teh ang penurao am pe rim meilo, oroikhoi o ley (Translation: If we say the word ‘Oh’, we recall all the things of the past). (iv) Roikhoi ∫ãthe anyih ču ku mong kao cheri o le, baču manlak roikhui nang rao a ley, o ruikhui o ley (Translation: Oh friend, whenever I remember you my heartbeat seems to stop for a moment, even though If I happen to die I will not forget you). (v) Apong hei chak e jap, long tson le jang dao ma nang, chi pong ley man tei oh ku hun sarao, oroikhoi oh ley. (Translation: When I call you by waving hand, you should not reply me throwing a stone to me; otherwise, I will never come to meet you). (vi) Apong pong le ra nai kunang wum nu sui oh, orik pechak suioh ja wei nai ley, oroikhoi oh ley. (Translation: My heart is delicate like leave and vegetable of pumpkin, rather than the rough leave of orik pačak (a leave that is used as a tastemaker in
vegetable) which is mastered of rigid or ego. (vii) Ku pi man lak ley ngo dai, ngam pujo man dang, jaman dang o ku tsan bachu ah ley, o ruikhui o ley (Translation: O my friend, I am proud and living not to forget the youthful life in my life). (viii) etc.
Wancho have many types of minor and major of festival. Among these, oria is main festival because it is an annual festival of the community. Nevertheless, Wancho does not celebrate this annual festival same month rather celebrates in different time begins from February and continues until April. Here is the example of oria festival of Rusa, Khãsa and Patao (Pongchau) village. By tradition, only male are participated. The female folk prepared festival dresses worn by male. However, they also compete with each other in decorating the dresses of their brothers and lover. They would witness the dance. The Khãsa village call their oria folksong as dʒaŋ gan gāk while oria tsai in Rusa village. Khãsa village is situated in Southern part of Wancho and Rusa in North. This folksong is sung in the evening of annual festival. However, the festival song and dance style of Wancho varies from village to village. For example:
Main singer (Elderly men): paŋpõ onu tamwei rẽ, senu tamwei doŋ. Hajf laʔley ebi-bi-o ∫am hirui, tata apon ala ley ɲohai, tai ca, naŋ moŋ matei ca, naŋ moŋ matei ca.
(Translation: Festival is celebrated once in year, season come only one time and Oh friends, let us entertain to each, Do you have same feeling like me)?
Answer in-group: tei ley, ku moŋ ma-ta tai-ley (Lead by replying singer). (Translation: Yes, we have). Main singer: Tem phe dan heh aɲi cu, ∫at ma loŋ ja dat ou niŋ oh ley, hadʒa lah ley-oh-lah le, ibi bi oh, ∫am hi rui, tata upon pu ah tihe, mai ca naŋ roŋ ma mei ca.
(Translation: What kind of remembrance today we have in this great occasion like water falling from the bamboo pipe in the stream and Oh friend, we shall remember this gathering in future, what you feel)?
Answer in-group: caŋ niŋ caŋ ɲa le hi ah. caŋ ɲa le hi ah (Translation: Absolutely right)
Main singer: Oaa, raŋpõ tam wei re, ∫eɲu tam wei doŋ. Ija lah le oha le, ija baŋ kya niŋ ley, ɲa raŋ ohlem cibaŋ tei, ∫on mei ∫on hei oh, mei ∫om hai oh.
(Translation: Annual festival celebrated once in a year, as life comes only one time. Who knows we may not meet next year. Thus, dance well).
Answer in-group: caŋ ŋiŋ caŋ ɲa le hi ah. caŋ ɲa le hi ah. (Translation: Absolutely right) etc. NB: This song is collected from Rusa village of lower Wancho. (ii) Adia bung or Adia festival song of Pongchau village. ‘Mandiye nai man mandiye Wan’O sa koijang wan’O sa Han ho lin ne lil lil lie Mandiye nai man mandiye Wan’O sa koijang wan’O sa’ (Translation: The little bevy of birds came to our field to eat paddy but our snares fixed in the paddy field killed them).
NB: Mrs. Nyonon Wangsa and Reference book “The Wanchos by Parul Dutta translate this song of Pongchau Village. Unique of this song is that the workings mean for war but resented only during the festival called oria/ odia.
i. Koi jang gan ley ngan kan hanu leydai maah, Long bom Saah tho thomaah Gan pooh thang chang haiooh. ii. Longbom gangsa thongang ngamting sai baahooh. iii. Longbom Gangsa thong gang Ngamtong sai baa ooh. iv. Jaan chong Panuh ye leylang tongley Maah yeh jai v. Jangan Nuh naa gojaan Nuh….. ley dai ley ooh Pau bey pau vi. Jangan Ngailey Gojaan Nugaan Gan ley ooh vii. Adidi Saa Di..... Agangang sa toi toju viii. Chat phai longbom gaan o koiphi mandong ooh ix. abi bi pu kem cha di an ba o ley yaan baa jo oh x. sephot longnuh ngamhah hung jong bang jo oh xi. ngagang ching choo janingley mai jaa si oh xii. Mai ma chok khang ma am tai dai oh o koi janggan ma xiii. Jangloh khaetat jempa ngojoi gang to ley xiv. Janggan ngai lay goojah nuh gaan gau ley oh xv. Long so tikpa gohji jook ley sahgam tu xvi. Ley lah oh ley lah o ley xvii. Lai haai lai haai oh joley xviii. Laan hu jansa maa gai pum oh koi janggan oh xix. Nyigang thanah thingnuh cham ganthok liya ley xx. Nyi haah ma pu gonuh chong oh nah ley tong xxi. Nang she oma kaooh…. Kaooh Jana tong lama ka o xxii. Nang she ophau kau mah leyooh xxiii. Aipa na yan jaa oh xxiv. Aipa aipa nah jaa oh
(This song is collected from Khasa village of upper Wancho)
This is a romantic song collected from central Wancho area. Particularly to the village of the group of villages including Niunu, Niausa, Mintong, Zedua, Longsom etc. This song can be sing by both individual and group depending upon the situation. But this song is generally sung in jeepham (the girl’s dormitory) in which they exchange the warmth and tenderness which they feels for their beloved. The Wancho love songs are marked by a definite air of dignity as their singing is confined to the male pã (dormitory) only. It is against social norms to sing a love song publicly or in presence of the elders. It is also not sung between members of the same clan group. It is very rich in thought and is imbibed by beautiful idea. These songs are characterized by their rich poetics imaginary.
Boy: Cejāng cāi-dai, I-wit tuhi wān dang-daisa cāñnmā mangjen-ā. (Translation: We have remained separated a long time. O dear, has your mind been filled with new thoughts during our separation)? Girl: A-mā kowā-cā ngai hāipu cingān – ta-powā pikcā ning-le-ā
(Translation: Where from have you come? Come nearer, your arrival is like the floating of a petal of an unknown red flower in the air and its dropping to the ground).
Boy: Te-hāmsā Nānge-jau hāmsā ile jācāi nāploá mānā-cu (Translation: The days of our separation are over. Did you think of me in the days gone by)? Girl: Te-te-cung-cung jāu-jāu Lā-le fi-dang dang-ān-dāi jau-jau-ta-le (Translation: I thought of you all the while and shed my tears). Boy: Yāngte-yāng-cu jāng-jāu menāng-ā fi-fi-yāk lā-le fāñja mepang hei
(Translation: If your love makes you think of me all the time, then come out of the confinement even by digging the earth or breaking the earth barrier and then meet me at a lonely place).
Girl: Pongha-ále jācā-cāuhā-ale cowāk rāngwin mekā-hatei khānge (Translation: I shall tell the moving wind to convey you the date I desire to meet you). Boy: Cowāk-rāngwin menāng cemkā hále keni tunpāng muwei cāu-ce-ā (Translation: Why are you going to tell the wind and divulge the secrete when the meeting is going to be between the two of us)? Boy: Nāng-tun jāmā jò hāng-á wān-jāu māndong-hi nāi-cám lā-le laifā cyā anta.
(Translation: O dear, why are you keeping mum and not singing? If the words fail you, then worship the Nai (Banyan) tree by offerings sacrifices of the Laifa (Kau) leaves).
Girl: Katun jāmā wān jāu lab-le dang cāiwāi jang-jing dádān kowā-wai-he (Translation: Oh! My lips are full of words and songs. I am just keeping mum out of laziness). Boy: Kám ngá I ká -le nāusā-ām khang jen me-jāng-rāk han tai pā-ngái ká le jāngmāi powan-á
(Translation: As we get together, you are just darkening your face an eyes and look downcast. But when the boy to whom you are betrothed comes to you, your mind dances like a bird in a fair weather).
Girl: Kān kowā-ton eyā cānyākowā-ton-e pān-dan nauli mālen nya-jāi-dai (Translation: We like you and have developed a love for you. Moreover, our love embraces all the young boys of your dormitory. Boy: Powanle cājau anlā-i-pangmā jā-nān āng tai-cā menā lā-le.
(Translation: This is not the right time for us to meet frequently. As you are betrothed to someone else, you shall have to leave me and go away to your husband’s house after your marriage.
Girl: Taitá ale ju ai-ci kangkā-cá i mā tām-jang monglo jáhāng ajak meijā dān-le
(Translation: It is as though I was standing anxiously on a mountain peak and I do not quite know under whose care I could leave my love and then go to my husband’s house. ETC.
NB: This song is collected from the villages of Niunu, Niausa, Mintong, Zedua, Longsom etc of central or middle Wancho area).
(iii) Tham thus tsai/ čakthut tsai: Wancho have grain-pounding folksong it tunes and wording varies from village to village. Traditionally, female in pounding place inside the house sings this). For example-
“Ding mai pha bo, ding mai pha, Wanjawa bo pu, ding mai pha Koijongman ngan wan aa aa Bo pu le ngoi som Laisong sam nu ning le Majong somlole manna wan Sam ka pu sa wan tah hu Ngo ju pan sat a nga la le dangsi Sam ma koi mong nga Thamle man dong koi mong manjong jai Jap on la le ngoi ta long ja lo ma Long is lo mapule ngoi tan ta Sip am ja ja wang nai ajong dai” etc.
(Translation: My song is better than others are, I know how to sing. My song is very comprehensive. All are listening to my song-but I am waiting only for you beloved. I am waiting for you-merrily singing and singing. Sometimes I feel that by crossing the high hills I shall fly and sit near the spring alone. Oh! Beloved-my love is more pure than water. (This song is collected from Wakka village of Southern/Upper Wancho.
IV. Čaʔnulaŋ ∫on (A folksong sung after killing the animals like lion, tiger, leopard etc). It is sing after the triumph over these ferocious animals. As Wancho believed, that brainpower of man is more powerful than physical power of animal. This also mean for defeating the spirit of other king of enemy people. This is practice only by the chopdʒen group of Wancho situated in Northeastern part of Wancho area. First, the hunter informs the killing of tiger or lion or leopard by beating the log drum with its specific beating style. Then log drum is beat by the people and gather in a sacred dancing place and dance until the particularly assigned hereditary priest performed the ritual. The priest performed the ritual by chanting the hymn and hit the egg on the head of dead lion/ tiger etc. Afterward youngest dormitory members of village carry it to another holy place call sautoŋ. Other people make a two dancing group of different age i.e. Age below 30 year and above it. The song is different from each other. The former is present here but the latter could not present now due to lack of data. For example:
i. Main singer (MS) : atei man pon p˚ liŋ sa (Translation: Enjoy the triumph of killing Lion/ tiger etc). Answer by group (GR): man pon pon p˚ liŋ sa oh ah (Translation: Enjoying now) ii. MS: ruwaŋ kat∫o lam matān (Translation: Ambushed in the path of Ru people) GR: kat∫o lam ma tan oh-ah (Translation: Ambushed in the path) iii. MS: ipa čaʔhnu pá ču wei (Translation: This king of animal) GR: ku long ma liak ri lah pu (Translation: Died after slipped and felled down in my stone) iv. MS: hi lin aŋ ley dong puta (Translation: He came to take dog, but) GR: ku loŋma liak ri-lah-pu (Translation: Died after slipped and felled down in my stone) v. MS. Wak lin aŋei ley dong puta (Translation: He came to take pig, but) GR: ku long ma liak ri lah pu (Translation: Died after slipped and felled down in my stone) vi. MS: ron lin aŋ ley doŋ puta (Translation: He came to take pig, but) GR: ku loŋ ma liak ri lah pu (Translation:Died after slipped and felled down in my stone) vii. MS: čawaŋ kat∫o lam matān, (Translation: Ambushed in the path of čã people) GR: kat∫o lam ma tan oh-ah (Translation: Ambushed in the path). Etc. (This song is collected from the Rusa village the prominent village of Wancho situated in northern or lower part of Wancho area)
‘Pupa Singlang long lo sibang ma Liat kai sedaimai ha Swaitang dam lo le’
Translation: If there would not have been the demarcation symbol of our ancestors, we could have taken the land beyond our boundary. (This song is collected from the Wakka village of upper Wancho).
After the completion of the construction of new house, Kam nyap or inaugural ceremony is arranged. A particular type of bamboo is put in the fire and allowed to burst. With this, all utter in the following way:
“Lu gu lo Gang go fo Ngai sai ju awe Yan that le San dan le Kam nyap gang to To tyam mai to Sa nyam mai to Aonyu gaknyu Sa sam mai to”
(Translation: We have entered the house on a god day after seeing the new moon. Give enough of paddy, arum, pigs, fowls etc. Keep us well for long time). It is from Wakkah village of upper Wancho.
NB: There are many song to be submitted as when get the interpretator. Reference: Baruah M. Kumar Tapan (1981) “Wancho Love song” Directorate of Research, Arunachal Pradesh, Shillong.
1. History 2. Genres
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