I. History

1. Details from Proto Stage to Current Stage

Though Wancho do not have their own script, like other communities of the world they are rich in oral language, which have been handed down generation to generation. According to linguistics history, Wancho is one of the sister languages of Tibeto-Burman Sub-family of Sino-Tibetan family of Language. However, some British authors have included Wancho in Naga group. It is included only for their convenience in linguistics classification viz: Hodgson, 1859 under Mithan, Brown, 1851 under Mithun and Khulung-Muthun, Joboka and Banfera, Grierson, in Linguistic survey of India, III, II 1903, Pp 331-332, 342-377 under Banpara, S.E. Peal, Vocabulary of the Banpara Nagas (JASB Vol. 41, 1872, Vol.2 1873), W.Robinson: Descriptive account of Aassam (London, 1841, p. 380) etc. But based on this evidence, we can not say that Wancho is part of Greater Nagaland. Moreover, Geoffer Edward Marrison in his PhD thesis on the classification of the Naga languages of North East India described that the name Naga is Assamese, and in that language, it is used with reference to a number of tribes who inhabit the mountainous country to the south the Brahmaputra or upper Assam valley. Most specifically, the Wancho speak a language belonging to the Bodo-Naga family of Assam Burman, of Tibeto Burman language. In former times it was employed not only in respect of so called Tibeto-Burman tribes, but also for certain Shan groups inhabiting the same region; but this latter usage are now obsolete. In fact, in 19th century the British writers took over the term Naga for the tribes in the hills to the south east and east of Sibsagar; the Konyaks whom they knew as Tableng, Jaktung and Sema Nagas; the Wancho then called Jaboka and Banpara Nagas; and the Noctes refer to as Borduria, Jaipuria and Namsagia Nagas. As British power reached further into the hills, the term Naga was gradually extended to denominate more tribes, to the south as far as Manipur, and east ward as far as the India-Burma border and even beyond as far as the upper Chindwin valley. It was not until recent times that any of the tribes called themselves Naga or claim that they were one group. They are not homogenous, in race, culture or language. However, they do occupy a continuous belt of hill country between the valleys of the Brahmaputra and Chindwin (Marrison, London, 1967, p. 12).

In the present decade, the recognition of Nagaland as a state within the Indian Union has given a political significance to the term. There is however some tribes, who claim to be, or have been generally recognized to be Nagas, but occupy territory outside Nagaland itself. On the other hand there are many mythologies which said that the word Naga derived from local word Na kha means the hole of ear which is used to wear the earring. Other mythologies said that it is derived from the word naked, Hillman or mountainous people etc. Therefore, there is no consensus meaning among the people of North East, as the Naga word might have been used only by the Assamese people to introduce the hill man to the Britisher not only to the indigenous tribes of Nagaland.

Till today no one has worked specifically on Wancho language. However, the first attempt to classify the Nag language was made by Nathan Brown, the pioneers American Baptist Missionary in Assam, in two articles published in 1837 and 1851; who worked in close co-operation with M. Bronson, and corresponded with BAH Hodgson (Morrison G.E., London, 1967, p. 19).

In next two decades, R. Stewart, W. McCulloch, W. Robinson and J. Butler collected more material which work contained comparative vocabularies of various languages of Cachar and Manipur including Angamis and Zeme. In 1878, E.L. Brandreth and C.J, Forbes both this was followed in 1880 by a survey by G.H. Darmants. Of these, Damant’s articles on the tribes between the Brahmaputra and the Ningthi (Chindwin) influenced Grierson in his classifications in the Linguistics Survey of India. The volumes of the Linguistics Survey of India which were allotted to the Tibeto-Burma languages were largely compiled under the editionship of Sten Konow, but the part relating to the director, Sir George Grierson. The Naga Language are described in Volume - III, part II (Calcutta, 1903). This was the most extensive survey of the Naga Languages which had been attempted.

Grierson treated the Naga languages as one of the group within the Tibeto-Burman Family, and proposed five sub-groups based on Phonological structure and Geographical location viz: (i) Western Naga (ii) Central Naga (iii) Eastern Naga (iv) Naga-Bodo (v) Naga - Kuki. Wancho falls under Eastern Naga as Banpara along with Tableng (Konyak), Tamlu (Phom), Chang, Namsangia (Nocte), Moshang (Tangsa) and some others.

In the course of surveying the whole of the Tibeto-Burman linguistics field, R. Shafer produced two articles in 1950 and 1953, in which he attempted a new classification of the languages. In these, he re-assesses published material, chiefly through phonological analysis, with special reference to syllable finals. He classifies Konyak, and the other languages of the North, including Chang, Phom, Wancho, Nocte, Tangsa and some minor dialects as belonging to one group. In fact, from the new research findings it is learnt that Tibeto-Burman languages began to develop from about the early Christian era and became fully characterized from about 7th Century A.D.

It is believed that the Wancho tribe was originated some where in Mongolia. Later they migrated to present place via North and South China, North Burma, Northern part of Nagaland. The Longding is the headquarters and central place of Wancho community of Arunachal Pradesh. About 80% of Wanchoo speakers inhabits in Arunachal Pradesh and 12% in Konyak area of Nagaland and 8% in Burma.

As far as Wancho of Arunachal Pradesh is concerned, it is one of the major tribe of Arunachal Pradesh. Before independent of India in 1947, the Wancho was popularly known as a tribe of furious head hunting war of Arunachal. The Tirap district is divided into two parts, i.e. North Western half and South - Eastern half by the mighty river Tissa. Based on dialectical differences, Wanchos are classified into three groups viz: Upper Wancho, Middle Wancho and Lower Wancho. Middle Wancho can slightly converse with upper and lower Wancho. But extreme upper Wancho and extreme lower Wancho are usually do not understand of each other. But upper Wancho can understand the dialects of lower Wancho thus it the dialect of lower Wancho has became popularly spoken language of Wancho. As a result it is merging as common language of Wancho.

The origin of Wancho language goes back to the origin of Wancho people. Like other tribes of Arunachal, the Wanchos have their own tradition, mythology or legends about origin and migration. After interaction with the elderly persons of Wanchos. It came to know that, there is no consensus concept among the people regarding the origin of name and meaning of the term Wancho and there are three to four mythologies on it. They are as follows:-

1. Wang-cho:  According to this mythology, the word Wancho is derived from local term Wang-cho means the hill man of Wang follower or hill man lived 
under the ruler of king. The word Wang stand for Wang (king) and the Cho means Hillman.
2. Wang-to: Wang-to mythology narrates that the word Wancho means follower of Wang ham (king).
3. Waan-to: The Waan-to mythology said that, the meaning of Wancho means Waanto (Law-follow) means to live under the law of village formulated by the forefather.
4. Rang wanto: The mythology of rang wan-to narrates that, the meaning of Wancho means tribe of celebrating the annual festival with the help of rangwan means use of long bamboo with its branches and leafs on the occasion of oria (annual festival).
Among these mythologies, the Wang-cho mythology is accepted as the meaning of Wancho. Therefore, the meaning of Wancho is hill man of Wang ham follower.

Mythology of Origin and Migration:

In every tribal society there are legends to describe the origin of human beings. These legends beside the origin of the first man also tell about the various activities of man, such as how man learnt cultivation, construction of house, how he got weapons of war and chase, how he learnt singing and dancing, where from the seeds came. The Wanchos also have similar huge store of such legends about their origin as well as the origin human being. As in olden days, the Wanchos were known as “Rang pang”. Mother in the plain of Assam used to subdue naughty children by telling them if they didn’t behave properly and cry then rang pang could come and take them away. They have referred to Wanchos who lived in forfeited village along the patkai range, who would descend on the plain and forced men, women and children to slavery and even for sacrifice. The Ahom who entered the valley of Brahmaputra along the Buri Dihing valley crossing patkai range in the vicinity of present Vijaya Nagar in 1226, perhaps preceded the Wanchos.

There are many mythologies or legends regarding the origin and migration of Wancho. There are at least three to four mythologies on the origin of Wanchos. According to myths of Wanchos, the lore relates how and when Wancho tribe was originated. It said that, in time immemorial the king of water named “Namwang” (crocodile). Ones came out from the water in the form of buffalo and were wondering in the jungle. A group of hunters killed that buffalo and everybody took the meat at meal. Only women named “Khangtheak” and her beautiful daughter “Toizam” didn’t prefer to take. Other Namwang were provoked by this news. They let water to flow out of river and thus, the whole earth got submerged in flood, except that women and her daughter who were not with them in feast. The lore continue that Koizam was conceived by the wind and after nine months she gave birth a child and named as “Ophannu” also as “Nyannu Uphann” there after this generation was called as “OPHANNU”. Therefore, Uphannu is regarded as ancestor of whole Wanchos.

Verrier Elwin (1960) narrates the mythology of Wancho and the story goes like that; two brothers jointly migrated from a place named Ophannu. Perhaps in North China to Patkai Mountain range. The reason behind their migration perhaps may be due to natural calamities like flood etc. that compelled them to migrate to safer place. The elder one decided to settle in the area of Burma and the younger one came towards the present area of Tirap district. He came a crossed many tribes like Nocte and Assamese in the hill tract of north and northeast and the plain area below. According to Wancho myths Assamese and Wanchos are said to be descendents of one ancestor. There were no differences among the people in respect of different tribes and classes in the society. According to Wancho myths Assamese, Nocte, Wanchos were from one common ancestor, in due course of time, started separate settlement. They started speaking slightly different dialects. There, thus, developed a distance amidst each other. Otherwise culturally and traditionally they were almost same. Natural calamities like flood and earthquake occurs frequently in those days. Due to which few people from plain too come up.

Another legend narrates that when a great flood occurred all living creatures were drowning except a man named “AJU” and a women “AJONG”. Flood could not reach them as they took shelter on top of hill. Therefore, Wanchos believes that all the Wanchos is descended of Aju and Ajong. There is also a lore reported to be same in China Chronicle about a women who conceived by the wind.

However, there is no written record or any account to say when the Wanchos first lived in their present habitat or whether they are the autochthons of the area or when they have first migrated. From the information available in different Buranjis, it may however, be said that, when the Ahom King Sukafa first came and established his kingdom in Assam sometime in the first half of the 13th century A.D. (1228) the Wanchos were there in occupation of the area. From this it may be presumed that the Wanchos migrated many hundred years ago. The exact period of migration is however difficult to conjecture. About the history of migration also we have no other alternative then to depend upon the various legends current among the people. There legends are handed down traditionally by word of mouth and no written documented is available.

Through the above source of myths and legends, we came to know about the migration of Wanchos up to some extent. According to legends the Wanchos came to their present habitat from a place called “Maiphan Mihjan” means during the period of human scattered from one place to another (Their memory does not go beyond maifan mihjan and ophannu. And “Ophannu or Ophan-tinu” is the ancestor of Wanchos (perhaps the Nyannu Ophann is situated towards the southwest beyond the Patkai hills). Then the Wanchos migrated via-Burma and part of Tuensang district of Nagaland (befroe independent of India in 1947, the Tuensang area was under NFAE) which is locally called as “Longphoh Sangnua”. In due course of time, the Wanchos were divided into two sub groups i.e. “Tangjen and Sangjen” (now sang and Tang are two big villaegs in Mon district) “OPHAN TINU of NYANU OFAN” and migrated into different routs. According to some mythology, Nyanuu and Ophan/Ofan are two different places while other thinks it to be one. From Nynnu Ophan came to tinao, a place an unidentified river. From Tinao they split in two groups, each taking a different route, via Tangnu and Sangun till both finally came to and settle in the present habitat. These two groups came to be known at Tangjen and Sangjen respectively.

These two original groups [called JAN (dʒǝn) in Wancho] later broke up into smaller groups, each one of which also has its own legend of migration. The Tangjen or Tangkainu sa into southern parts of Wanchos. The group of Wanchos migrated through Tang areas are called as Tangjen and the group of people came from Sang areas are called as Sangjen. Again these two groups are splitted into many sub-groups like Tingpong sejen and Ngoipa Sejen etc.

According to Wanchos myth, it is said that, the Tangjen took locally called “Wann to” meaning ember (fire) from Tangnu and separated to present place. While Sangkaisa Nu or Sang meaning crossing the land of Sang or son of Sang were migrated from North Western and South Western parts of Wanchos. Thus the Sang or Tsangkainu sa groups are called as Sanjen (Lower Wanchos). It also said that, the Tsangjen or Sang Wanchos were migrated from Sangnu by taking the feather of bird and tooth of animal and has crossed the land of Sang. Hence, the Upper Wanchos and Lower Wanchos were from one ancestor (Ophanu) and descendent of maiphan mihjan (North china).


The whole Wancho tribe may be broadly classified into two groups Tangjen and Sangjen on the basis of migration and dialectical variation. They are follows:

Tangjen groups (major villages):

Tangjen groups (major villages) Sangjen groups (major vilages)
1. Pongchau 1. Niaunu
2. Bonia 2. Nyiau sa
3. Jagan 3. Chatong
4. Kamhua 4. Chating
5. Konnu 5. Long hua
6. Kampong 6. Long phong
7. Khanu 7. Mintong
8. Konsa 8. Pumao
9. Votnu 9. Rusa (Tohuh, Hobso Rusa (Osim and Kumkuh, Rang lua), Tanglun)
10. Chaongkhaw 10. Zedua
11. Chop 11. Longding
12. Kaimoi 12. Ranu(Banfera)
13. Khoak la 13. Mopakhat
14. Long kai 14. Dasatong
15. Nyinu 15. Luaksim
16. Nyisa 16. Wõnu
17. Kampong 17. Chopsa(Loanu)
18. Wakkah 18. Chopnu
19. Chopkho, Langui etc, in the Burma 19. Chãnu
20. Longwa, Longo, Pukha etc. in the Tuensang Konyak area of Nagaland 20. Longsom
  21. Nokfan
  22. Ozakho
  23. Otongkhua
  24. Longkhojan
  25. Olingtong
  26. Senua
  27. Longkaw
  28. Pumao
  29. Tezit, Namsa, Longting, Sangting, Jansa, Nokrang, Nokphan, etc.

The Tangjens groups occupies the area from South and South east part of the Wancho area while rest by the Sangjan groups. However, Senua Village is reported to be none of this group rather it is an accumulated or collectively form by the migrated people of different areas.

Classification of dialectical variations groups of Wancho

There is dialectical variation among these groups; it varies from group to group. The dialectical variation may be categorized as follows: 
1. Chopjan (čop dʒǝn) group, consisting of Rusa, Chopnu, Chopsa, Longkhojan, Nokphan, Naitong, etc. of Eastern part of the Wancho area.
2. Rujan (ru dʒǝn) group consisting of Wanu, Ru (the then Banfara/Banpara), Longkhua, Kanubari, Mopakhat, etc. of North Western part.
3. Maujan (mǝudʒǝn) group, consisting of Pumao, Longding, Chating, Maihua etc. of Eastern part.
4. Tangjan (taŋdʒǝn) group, consisting of Potau (Pongchau), Bonyiah (Boʔɲiaʔ), Nyinu (ɲinu), Kaimoi, Kon, Mintong, Longphong, Wakkah, Longkai,
Khuakla, Chongkhaw, Kamhua, Chop, Longbo (now in the Tuensang district of Nagaland), Lapnan, Luhthong, Kheti, Kaimai, Lamlo, Moktua, Dadam, (in the
Nocte area of Tirap District), Kandan, Chopkhaw (Burma).
5. Nyaujan (ɲio dʒǝn) group, consisting of Nyiusa, Nyianu, Zadua etc.
6. Khãjan (kʰãdʒǝn) group, consisting of Khãsa, Jãngan (Jãgan), Gotɲu (Votnu), Khãnu, Khãmlao and čudʒa (Chuja) etc. of Wancho
7. Chãjan (čã dʒon) group consisting of Chãnu, Orãkho, Cʰãtong and Longsom.
For example: At present there are two major dialectical groups in Wancho i.e. - Extreme south / Upper Wancho and north or lower Wancho. The dialectical
and syllable differences or variation among the Wanchos can be summarized as follows.
Lower Wancho
(Chopjan and Rujan)
Middle Wancho
(Chajan, Maujan and Nyaujan)
Upper Wancho
(Tangjan, Khãjan)
English meaning
raŋ (Rang) dʒaŋ/dʒəŋ(Jang/zang) gaŋ (Gang) ‘Supernatural being’
dʒan (Jān) dʒan (Jān) dʒən (Jān) ‘iron’
ro dʒo/dʒə do(do) ‘wake up’
rəi dʒai/dʒəi dəi(dai) ‘dance’
waŋhəm(Wangham) waŋhəm(Wangham) gaŋhəm(Gangham) ‘King/Prince’
həm(ham) həm(ham) həm/kəm ‘house’
lik lik lik/jik ‘beads garland’
diʔ(dih) diʔ dʒiʔ(dih) ‘human excreta’
ɲa(nya) ɲa(nya) ɲa(nya) /ɲa(nga) ‘mithun’
čaŋ(chang) čaŋ(chang) tsaŋ(tsang) or ɸaŋ ‘Iron sword with long handle’
ča (cha) ča (cha) chhok or ɸa ‘leg’
wak wak wak/gak ‘pig’
mahu maihu maihu/Maidu ‘cow’
kon kon ŋao gum / Bõkhup ‘radio’
tsai tsai bõ / tai ‘song’
ŋao ‘sing’
shon shon shon ‘dance with singing’
shon phət shon phət shon phət ‘hop with singing’
phət phət phət ‘Jump’
čak wan čak wan sakwan ‘bangles’
atā atā ča ‘one’
ali ali bədʒi ‘four’
aga aga aɲa ‘five’
tsa tsa ta ‘twenty’
tsəbən tsəbən tabən ‘thirty’ etc.

However, it is important to note the language of lower Wancho is popularly spoken in the area.

2. Script/Scripts used to document the language:

Wancho do not have their indigenous script. Like other tribes of North East Wancho people were taught in Assamese script first. From 1940s to 1960s the medium instruction in School was Assamese then in 1970s the Government of Arunachal Pradesh has introduced English as medium of instruction and Hindi as second language and continue till date. Generally, people use both Roman script and Devanāgarī näù´ÉxÉÉMÉ®úÒ script to document the language. But the Roman Script is used as the main script for Wancho as it is main medium of instruction in the formal institution. However, the mythologies of Wancho said, “Wancho had script gifted by the Paiyu or Aju (God of Education)”. Therefore the script of Wancho is still a case of mysterious. The mythology of Wancho script said that at first there were no different clans or tribes, for all were one. Then at that time a great flood poured over the hills of Assam and leveled some of them, and the land became flat. Since there was not enough water in hills, some of the children of Wanchos went to the plains and became.

Once upon a time the God of education called Paiyu wrote all wisdom on two skins and gave one to the Wanchos and one to the Assamese. The Wanchos roasted and ate their skin, but the plains people kept theirs in a bamboo tube or container. Paiyu came and asked the Wanchos where the skin was. They said, ‘We have eaten it’. He turned to the Assamese and asked where theirs was and they brought it out of the bamboo tube and showed it to him. Then Paiyu said, ‘you (Assamese) will know how to read and write and will have wisdoms, but these Wanchos will always be ignorant’. This has probably proved that Wancho has lost his original script but not the language.

3. Stages of Development

a) Earliest reference in different sources:

In the history of Wancho writings, there is not much developed as found in other communities of India. However, a historically speaking documented work of the Wancho language may be divided into following years as evident from different few sources.

i. Formative year: In 1967 G.E. Marrison in his thesis on has initiated the work of Wancho language under the Naga, the Hillman language.
ii. In the midst of 1980s one primer was reported to develop by lake Nokram Wangham and his party at Shillong. It would be first ever manuscript printed in 
book form which would be the prime important for the study of the origin of the language. iii. It is followed by the publication of Christian hymns in 1991-92 by the Baptist Association of Wancho. iv. Then the worked of Robbins Burling and Mankai Wangsu in “Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area Volume 21.2 - fall 1998” on “Wancho Phonology and
Word list”. v. Presently, many books of primers, hymns, Bible Translation are being publishing by different Non Governmental Organizations such as the Baptist
Association of Wancho, Roman Catholic Association of Wancho.

(b) Significant level/points of Planning

Wanchoo is the only language among the communities situated in between 26° 30’ North and 27° 16’ North latitude and 95° 16’ East to 95° 20’ East longitude. It locates in the North East Nagaland. Extreme Northern part of Myanmar (then Burma), Western side of Nocte tribe of Arunachal Pradesh and Eastern part of Upper Asom (then Assam). It is the Tibeto-Burman Language family in the patkai range of Himalayan regions of India, which has developed as a potent and effectual instrument for the promulgation and nourishing of rich Indian Cultural heritage among the Tibeto-Burman People dwelling in the North Eastern frontier regions of India. Wanchoo is spoken by approximately 58304 people in more than 78 Villages, of which 51014 are Wancho of Arunachal Pradesh Population (Source: 2001 Census of India).

As an important note, this language has the following significant levels of planning; 

•  Wanchoo is a lingua franca amongst the people of hills and plains in its dominated area in their own way.
•  Wanchoo has been the backbone of culture and identity from the time immemorial in the area. People used this language as the medium of 

• The Wanchoo has been used as a customary court language in the area. Judgment of customary law courts are delivered and summons to the partial serve in Wancho area especially amongst the Wanchoo speakers along with English, as English language is not known to all and it is insufficient language to write certain term of Wancho like aho chong (eldest maternal uncle and uncle from marriageable clan), pã (a male youth’s sacred institution or dormitory where female are restricted to get in), Wangham (a traditional hereditary supreme leader of royal family exist in every main villages of Wancho. It plays the role like King and prince with full authority), jeepham (Girl’s dormitory used for romance in night), etc.

• The Government of India, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting recognize Wancho language as a regional language of the state. The News and other programs of AIR & TV, Itanagar of Wancho are devoted to the popularly spoken of lower Wancho as a medium of their communication.

• The popularly spoken language of lower Wancho is used as a medium of instruction in religious institution in the area. And the formal institution in both secondary and higher level is yet to recognize the Wancho language as the medium of instruction in particular domain.

c) Others

Not only the information mentioning above, some of the religious organizations has developed also published a monthly local religious new paper i.e. Nyarong means high wave length sound in popularly spoken language of Wancho. The Baptist Association of Wancho does it. The non-tribal and other tribe those who live or serve in Wancho are also speak Wancho. Even some of them are well verse and fluent in Wanchoo than their own native tongue.

4. Change of status

There is dialectical variation among the Wancho speakers therefore their common language is yet to decide. As stated earlier that Wancho has not much developed their language. However, the popularly spoken languages of Wancho i.e. lower and Middle Wancho would be accepted as common language based on majority as Wancho do not much dialectical or tone variation other then syllable and few vowels. However, it does not mean that other part of Wancho is ignored rather their word also would be included to develop the integrated common language. Now, linguistics research is going on to develop the same. The handy work of Wancho Baptist Association (WBA) by translating the religion hymns in the year 1992 would be considered as the turning point to rise to the individualistic attitude of the different areas of Wancho. At present, many Christian religious books have been publishing in respective dialects.

B. Linguistic Classification

1. Genetic

Genetically Wancho is a member of New Tibeto-Burman language that has evolved from Proto-Tibeto Burman language and part of Naga language. It comes under the Eastern Naga (Hillman or frontier language (Grierson, 1903).

Historically, Like Phom, Wancho is one of the so-called “Northern Naga” languages. It is spoken in the extreme tip Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh. They are separated geographically by Konyak, the best known of the Northern Naga languages and one with the largest numbers of speakers. (Burling Robbins, Wangsu Mankai, 1998).

The author of this book agreed with the Burling and Wangsu note.

2. Typological

Typologically, Wancho language is an agglutinative analytic language.

	•  Wanchoo sentence pattern is SOV. 
	•  Wancho language is a flexible language as long as verb ends the sentence.  In most of the phrases, the heads and qualifying words are 
interchangeable at various occurrences. • Typical order of a VP is NP+V. • Typical order of a NP is Adj./V+NP ~ NP+ Adj/V • Wanchoo is a tone language. It has two-tone levels with allotones. They are level tone and falling tone. Wancho language tone is register tone
system. • Wancho language has monomorphemic to polymorphemic structures. • Wancho language is an agglutinating language.

3. Areal

Mainly Tibeto-Burman language is spoken in East Asia (EA) and South East Asian countries (SEACs). In India, maximum numbers of Tibeto-Burman language speakers are settling down in the North Eastern fringes of India (more than 80 lgs). Wanchoo is one of them. Infact, Wanchoo is one of the Northeastern Indian languages is South East Asia surviving with a number of Tibeto-Burman languages and sub-branch Naga language like Aos, Angamis, Chang, Konyak, Lotha, Sema, Nocte, Meluri, Phom, Sangtam, Tangkhul, Tangsas, Yacham- Tengsa, Yimchungru, Chokri, Kezhama, Khoirao, Liang mai, Mao, Maram, Maring, Mzieme, Nruanghmei, Puiron, Rengma, Zeme etc. It is also bordering with other Non-Tibeto Burman language like, Burmese in the southeast, Assamese in the North and other Tibeto-Burman languages like Naga languages Noctes in east, Konyak in the South-West.


A. Linguistic expression of culture.

1. Classifier Systems:

Wancho have patriarchal and matrilineal society where father is the head of the family. In Wancho Kinship is called kokohamzan. Wancho reckoned relationship both through affine and consanguine relationship. Wancho word for kin is kakoʒən and relative ʒulo.

Semantically, there are two type of kinship. 

	1.  Kako ham ʒan (affinal relation) 
	2.  Zulo Kako / Hamnu-hamsa (Consanguineal relation) 

Wancho kinship is classified as per the clan system (dʒan Jat) then lineage (ʒanta) and then to the family level (hamʒan) 

	i.e.  dʒan		‘clan’
	       dʒanta	‘lineage’
	       kako		‘family’ 

The bulk of Wancho is divided into many clans

i. Descendant clan: viz: Tang jan and Sangjan
ii. Class clan: Wangjan / Kholojan (Royal clan with long hair) and Panjan / Khomòh (Commoner clan with short hair). Marriage can take place between two main clans and also between the certain clans of Panjan.
iii. Community clan: Rujan, Chopjan, Nyaojan, Ngojan, Maojan, Khãjan etc. Unmarriageable Clan between the two affine and consanguine relation: e.g. of Rusa, Runu, Pongchau.

• Royal and Commoners clan: Wangjan (Royal clan) verse Hojanhamjan or Ralonghamjan (intermediate clan between the royal and commoners), Atrah hamjan, Bihmajan, Wangsu and Dokam etc.
• Between the commoners’ clan: Jamikhamjan and Aranghamjan, Aranghamjan and Bohamian. Ponglaham with Bohamian and Aranghamian. Wangnowham with Bihamjan and Boham, Yu hamjan and Yusa hamjan, Naam and Dokam, etc.
Unmarriageable clan with real maternal uncles in some villages of Wancho like Rusa, Chopsa, Runu, Wanu etc.
However, the prohibited marriage clan varies from village to village rather.

2. Kinship Organization and terminology:

Wancho kinship is a uni-lineal descent group. They are patrilineal and patrilocate. Wancho kinship terms are classificatory with an exception of some few descriptive terms. The kinship terms denoting all other relations are classificatory in nature. One important feature to be noted in Wancho Kinship is the term of reference as well as the term of address is strictly adheres to different in accordance with the nature of relationship. Wancho have two major class clans Royal and commoner.

3. Body parts

SL.NO. Wancho Gloss
1. khang 'head'
2. kho 'hair'
3. khang pong 'Frontal side of the head'
4. khang tong 'top of the head'
5. ngamdõ 'occipital'
6. ngam tsing 'joint place between head and'
7. ding 'neck'
8. ding kuh 'root of neck'
9. tok khẽ rã 'occipital bone'
10. na tsing 'place behind the ear'
11 na mé 'left or right side of the face'
12. khang rã 'temple'
13. khang han 'forehead'
14. khang han pong 'central point of forehead'
15. khang san 'joint of skull above fore head'
16. nakõ tsing 'root of the nose'
17. mik ren 'eye brow'
18. mik khop 'eyelid'
19. mik mun 'eyelash'
20. mik phang 'just below the eye'
21. bom/bom rong 'cheek'
22. mik 'eye'
23. na kõ 'nose'
24. nakõ kha 'nostril'
25. tun kah / chun pan 'lips'
26. kahʔ 'chin'
27. jaw 'kah rã'
28. nyan 'gum'
29. wa 'teeth'
30. le 'tongue'
31. wikha kah nat 'palate'
32. ding dõ 'uvula'
33. thən 'face'
34. na 'ear'
35. na tsing 'root side of ear'
36. ding kuhʔ 'neck'
37. ding ro 'trachea'
38. suak kango kho 'shoulder'
39. čak 'hand'
40. čak ding/səding 'arm'
41. čak dõ 'wrist'
42. čak pha 'palm'
43. čak khi 'finger'
44. khinu 'humb'
45. khiwang 'index finger'
46. khitān 'middle finger'
khisa roi 'ring finger'
48. khisa 'little finger'
49. či khin 'nail'
50. čak khin 'Finger nail'
51. čekhin 'foot nail'
52. thən khuhʔ 'chest'
53. khahʔ 'hear'
54. tsam/nuh 'breast'
55. wok 'stomach'
56. wok sa 'belly'
57. sung 'naval'
58. khẽ dahʔ 'waist'
59. kõ tui 'buttock'
60. wẽ hõ 'thigh'
61. čak khi 'finger'
62. čakhi /chhokpi 'finger of foot'
63. čə kuhʔ / səkuh 'knee'
64. ča wã 'shank/shin'
65. či phum 'calf'
66. čə tok 'foot'
67. čak tok 'opposite side of palm'
68. čak to 'part of hand below wrist'
69. čak mik rã 'protruding bone of wrist'
70. čak phum 'muscle between elbow and palm'
71. čak khok 'knuckle'
72. čak rong 'elbow'
73. ča / chhok 'leg'
74. čə pha / sə pha 'sole'
75. čə ding 'ankle'
76. wẽ tsən 'joint between belly and thigh'
77. wẽtsan / wey lāp 'an area between the thighs, anus, scrotum'
78. čəkāp 'back side of knee'
79. phá khən 'central part of sole'
80. khang rong 'edge of head'
81. khang pong 'central top of head'
82. tun 'mouth'
83. tun ren 'just above the lip'
84. tun nah 'edge of lip'
85. tun kah 'just below the lip'
86. tun het 'horizontal corner of mouth'
87. na kha 'hole of ear'
88. na khaʔ 'edge of ear'
89. na ʃin 'inside edge of ear'
90. mik lõ 'visible inside portion of eye'
91. mik khop 'eye lid'
92. mik tok 'upper portion of eye'
93. mik tsank 'eye ball'
94. tsang tho 'white part of eye ball'
95. tsabg nak 'dark part of eye ball'
96. tok jo/tokjo 'vertical attached like of back bone'
97. tok ʃo 'narrow vertical line of back bone'
98. tok ri 'back bone'
99. khahʔ tõ/ khahʔ ling 'main point of chest'
100. sam / sam lap 'rib'
101. 'bone'


Wancho word of color is rong. Wancho got a taste of colours. Wancho women basically are weavers and likhuk mih (making of bead ornament) crazy for different designs and new charming colours. Women would identified many colours, while male’s colour terms are not as varied as that of the woman. Following is a list of colour terms:

Local term		Gloss

1. Khi			‘red’
2. Hing			‘green’
3. tho			‘white’
4. higok			‘blue’ 
5. kām sa			‘sky blue’
6. nak / nakmei		‘black’
7. mon			‘brown’
8. hi			‘pink’
9.			‘Maroon’
10.			‘Violet’
11. pha le khi		‘bright red’
12. 			‘Orange colour’
13. khi sum		‘deep red’
14. hi hu			‘deep pink’
15. wan khi		‘flame color’
16. sehaile hing		‘light green’
17. 			‘See green’
18. hing bət		‘bottle green’
19. thoh khahʔ		‘deep green’
20. hing			‘parrot green’
21. 			‘Olive green’
22. 			‘Palest green/light green’
23. sə tho sənak		‘bright violet’
24. sə tho			‘violet (deep)’
25. sə hai le nan		‘light yellow (slightly yellow)’
26. sə nan			‘light yellow’ 
27. phã le nan		‘bright yellow’
28. nan mei		‘deep yellow’ 
29. pak ke rong		‘light colour’
30.			‘Deep blue’
31.			‘Mustard colour’
32. sə hai mon		‘light brown’
33. mon			‘brown’
34. sənak lehai		‘deep pink’
35.			‘pale brown’ 
36. Khui			‘ash grey’
37. khui hu		‘deep grey’
38. 			‘light orange’ 
39. 			‘light violet’
40. səhai			‘light pink’
41. mon			‘brown colour’
42. rãrã nauithʔ		‘mixed colour’
43. nān 			‘yellow’
44. men roŋ		‘deep yellow’
45. tsera			‘deep while’
46. hiŋbət			‘dark green’ 

The term of left over shall be filling up later.		

5. Pronouns

Wancho word of pronouns is kah ngao. 

ku	‘I’ (singular term for first person)
naŋ	‘you’ (singular term for second person)
kem	‘we’ (plural term for first person)
kom	‘our’ (possessive plural form for person (kem ‘we’) 
hom	‘they’ (plural)
čihʔ	‘he/she ‘(common singular term for second person) 
hanrəm  	‘you all ‘(Plural for second /third person) 

Singular Plural 1st person Ku ‘I’ Kem ‘we’ or Kom ‘our’ 2nd person nang ‘you’ hanram ‘you all’ 3rd person Chih ‘he/she’ Hom (they)
Wanchoo reflexive pronouns are formed by the addition of - e alei to the basic personal pronoun as - Ku e alei ‘myself’ Nang e alei ‘yourself’ Chi e lei ‘himself’ Chi e lei ‘himself’ Alei le ‘ownself’
Wanchoo singular personal pronouns, ku to ‘to me’ Ku či kʰaŋe ‘from me’ naŋ to ‘to you’ naŋ či kʰaŋe ‘from you’ čihʔ to ‘to him/her’ čihʔ chi kʰaŋe ‘from her/him’


In the Wanchoo speech community, the social set up or more of family in well organized. It has essentially patriarchal and paralegal or patrilineal system where the father is head of the family. In the family, the father is accorded respected by the all its members. Reciprocally he looks after the comfort and welfare for them. There are many clans in every villages some of them are marriageable clans and some are non-marriageable clans. It varies from village to village.

The property is kept in the name of father till it is divided among the brothers of family. In distribution of property like land, garden etc. first preference is given to eldest of the family followed by the next. The youngest brother gets less share of property. The title which recognized the family is inherited from the paternal side. Traditionally, the daughter has no provision to share or claim the property of family. The owner of the property is kept in name of father or eldest son of the family. In Wangham family (royal family) the eldest son of king or queen is the owner of their property after the father is expired. In this way, the authority of ownership of property is descended to son(s). Generally, Wanghams have not much personal property like commoners, because he lived with tributes presented by the villagers, which is enough to feed his family. The newly married couple usually lives along with the parents of the boy till they establish their minimum life supporting resource. This usually results into extended family and joint family system where the grandfather used to be the head of the family. The other members of the family, that is, the ego’s wife, son(s), daughters(s), daughter-in-law(s) and their children (i.e, the next generation) used to obey the decision taken by the head of the head family. In the absence of the head, the eldest son of the family used to take up the responsibilities of the family. But now-a-days, there is nucleus family system where the parent stay with their children only especially in town and advance village. In some cases, the newly married couple stays along with parents till another new bride arrives to the family. Generally, there two form of kitchen inside the house, the main kitchen called phong nu / phong sa is women folk and food is prepared only in this kitchen, other kitchen is Tapsa, it is smaller than the phong nu. The latter is for male folk only and extra food may be prepared here. There are separate room for every members of the family and a guest room. All members co-operate in all the possible domains.

When a girl married she gets only movable property viz: bamboo basket, sword, cloth, ornaments etc. in the name of sam hingho ‘literally gifts given at the time of marriage’ but not the land. Divorces (women) are allowed to have a piece of land from her parental home to construct a house to stay and widow can keep the land of her expired husband if she continues with her child or children. Later this property also registered or kept in the name of her son. Avoidance relationship is maintained only between the elder brother-in-law and the bride, and the bride and her father-in-law. In Wancho society, elder sister-in-law is allowed to establish a jacking relationship with among husband’s younger brother. Such relationship also exits among wife’s sisters between wife’s elder brother and wife’s younger brother.

Wancho have well organized stratification, structure since time immemorial. Wancho is classified into three major classes viz: Royan clan (Wanghamjan), Intermediate clan (Wanghija pan ba) and commoner clan (Panjan / Wangpan).

1.  The Waŋjan		-  Royal clan

a) Poŋwən Waŋhəm		-  King or Raja
b) Waŋham		-  Prince
c) Waŋchanu		-  Queen or Rani
d) Waŋsa			-  Son of King / prince and wife of commoner 
e) Waŋsu			-  Son of Waŋsa
f) Waŋdʒən		-  Son of Wangsu
g) Waŋcha			-  princes
h) Waŋsa ca		-  daughter of Waŋnu (king’s wife from commoner clan) 
i) Waŋsu cha		-  daughter of Waŋsa
j) Waŋdʒən cha		-  daughter of Waŋsu  

2. The Waŋʰi dʒa panga	-  intermediate class 

3. The Waŋpan		-  Commoner class 		

In Wancho society, the royal class is honored as highest rank clan than intermediate and commoner. The Wangsa are the direct male descendant of the, Wangham ‘king’ and Wangsas are female decedent of the king marring to commoners. However, all people of Wangsa, Wangsu, Wangjen, Wanghija pana and Wangpan ‘the subjugated ones or the one who pays tribute or tax to the king/conquered people’. The power of king is transfer through hereditarily. Wancho practice polygamy system by king and commoner in exceptional cases. The princess cannot marry with commoner clan, but Wangsacha and Wangsucha can marry with marriageable clan of commoner and same title of other marriageable village. However, the point to be noted here is, this hereditary group membership system got eroded in the present day Wancho society leading into generalized form with a limited use of high ordered works due to many reasons.


Wancho have well organized term for addressing and all. Address other by wrong term is considered as offence and penalty is imposing on the offender as per the community customary law. Their way of term and address to their kinship and other are as follows differ from one another. Following is the list of kinship terms in Wanchos.

Sl.No. Term of reference by different class to their respective kinship Term of address by different class to their respective kinship Relationship
  Royal clan Commoner clan Royal clan Commoner clan
1 Tatei Anu Tatei Nunu, Aju Mother
2 Teitah Apa Teitah Papa, Apa Father
3 Apu teitah Apu Aputei Papu Grandfather
4 Api Tatei Api Tatei Grandmother
5   Putai   Putei Great grandfather
6   Pulai   Pulai Great Great Grandfather
7   Putai Pulai   Putai Pulai Great Great Great Grandfather
8 Api Tatei Api Api Tatei Api Great Grandmother. The commoner clan also addressed to person which have relation of both the great grandmother cum great great grandmother.
9 Api Tatei Api tatei Aho tatei Api tatai Great great grandmother
10 Api Tatei Pitai   Pitei Great great great grandmother
11   Pitai Pilai   Pitai pilai Great great great great grandmother
12 Aho Aho Aho Aho Father-in-law
13 Aho Ahochong Aho Ahochong Eldest brother of father-in-law and maternal uncle. The commoner clans address the uncle of royal family as ahochong chahnu to the king/prince.
14 Aho Aholi Aho Aholi Second to second last brothers of father-in-law and maternal uncles.
15 Aho Aholishuk Aho Ahli shuk Youngest brother of father-in-law and maternal uncle.
16 Anye Anye Aho Anye Mother-in-law
17 Anye Anyechong Anye Anyechong Eldest sister of mother-in-law
18 Anye Anyehi Anye Anyehi Second to second last elder sisters of mother-in-law
19 Anye Anyeshuk Anye Anyeshuk Youngest sister of mother-in-law
20 Anu Anu Anu Anu Aunty
21 Anuchong Anuchong Anuchong Anuchong Eldest elder aunty
22   Anu khò Anu khò Anu khò Wife of father’s eldest brother
23   Anu tān Anu tān Anu tān Wife of father’s middle elder brother.
24 Anu shuk Anu shuk Anu shuk Anu shuk Wife of father’s youngest brother.
25 Apu Apu Apu Apu Generally to old man.
26 Atai Atai Atai Atai Elder brother-in-law(s). The members of the royal family also address the elder brother(s) of general commoners’ clan by this term.
27 Ataili Ataili Ataili Ataili Middle elder brothers-in-law, but the members of the royal family also address the middle brother(s) of general commoner’s clan by this term.
28 Ataili shuk Ataili shuk Ataili shuk Ataili shuk Youngest elder borther-in-law, but the members of the royal family also address the middle brother(s) of general commoners’ clan by this term.
29 Achong Chahnu Achong Chahnu Achong Chahnu Achong, Chailong, Chaiɸoŋ Eldest elder brother. But the royal members addressed the eldest elder brother of general common clan as Atai.
30 Abowang Alibo Abowang Alibo, Chaihi, Chaiki Second elder brother.
31 Aliwang Alitān Aliwang Alitān Middle elder brother
32   Alishuk   Ashuk Youngest elder brother
33   Miʔnai   Bonai, Miʔnai Addressed to a youngest brother who is born after long gape.
34 Atei čaicho/atei Atei Atei/čaicho General common term for elder brother.
35 Akã/Achong tatai Achong Akã Akã Akã, Achong, Achongkã, ɲaɸoŋ, Zalong Eldest elder sister
36 Ali Alitān Ali Alitān Middle elder sister
37 Ali Ali Ali Ali, Zahi Second to second last elder sister
38 Ali shuk Ali shuk Ali shuk Ali shuk Youngest elder sister
39 Ana/nyacho Ana/nyacho Ana/nyacho Nyacho General common term for elder sister
40 Sa Sa Sa Sa Child
41 Lakã Lakã Lakãsa Lakãsa Son/boy
42 Taičoŋ pa Taičoŋ pa Apong Apong Eldest son
43 Nowli pa Nowli pa Abo Abo Second son
44 Nowtan pa Nowtān pa Abosa Abosa Middle son
45 Nowʃuk pa Nowʃuk pa Ashuk Ashuk General youngest son, Addressed to a youngest, who is born after long gape.
46 Mih naipa Mih naipa Mihpa Mih nai Daughter or female or girl.
47 ʃθko ʃθko ʃθkoa ʃθkosa Eldest daughter
48 Nučoŋ nu Wangcha Nuchong nu Akã Akã Second daughter
49 /Wangsá cha /Wangsú cha Nowli nu Abo Abo Middle daughter Jongpen
50 Nowli nu Wangcha Nowtān nu Abo Abo Normal youngest daughter
51 Nowtān nu Nowtān nu     Youngest daughter who is born after long gape.
52 Wangcha       Grand child
53 Nowʃuk nu Nowʃuk nu Nowʃuk Nowʃuk/ Ashuk Grand child
54 Mih naicha Mih naicha Mihnai Mihnai Maternal cousin brother and sister
55 Su Su Susa Susa Other people
56 Sutai Sutai Kusu Kusu Non-relative
57 Jongpen Jongpen Jongpen Jongpen Stranger
58 Mih Mih Mih Mih Enemy
59 Mih mõ Mih mõ Mih mõ Mih mõ Own man
60 Mih hing Mih hing Mih hing Mih hing Marriageable clan
61 Raan Raan Raan Raan Daughter-in-law, Son-in-law.
62 Ma mih Ma mih Ma mih Ma mih Elder Sister-in-law
63 čoŋ ɲiŋ čoŋ ɲiŋ čoŋ ɲiŋ čoŋ ɲiŋ Elder Sister-in-law
64 Nam cha Nam cha Nam cha Nam cha Eldest elder Sister-in-law
65 Ana Ana Ana Ana Second to last second elder sister-in-law or cousin elder sister.
66 Ana chong Ana chong Ana chong Ana chong Youngest elder Sister-in-law.
67 Ana kho Ana kho Ana kho Ana kho Younger sister-in-law
68 Anali Anali Anali Anali Second younger sister-in-law.
69 Ana shuk Ana shuk Ana shuk Ana shuk Third sister-in-law
70 Apheʔ Apheʔ Apheʔ Apheʔ Fourth sister-in-law
71 Apheʔ ahi Apheʔ Apheʔ ahi ke Apheʔ ahi ke Youngest sister-in-law
72 apheʔ tuita aheʔ tuta aheʔ ata aheʔ ata Eldest younger brother-in-law
73 Apheʔ sa Apheʔ sa Apheʔ sa Apheʔ sa Younger brother-in-law
74 apeʔ shuk apeʔ shuk apeʔ shuk apeʔ shuk Middle younger brother-in-law
75 Apoŋ Apoŋ Apoŋ Apoŋ Fourth younger brother-in-law
76 Nowli Nowli Nowli Nowli Second last younger brother-in-law
77 Nowli tān Nowli tān Nowli tan Nowli tan Youngest younger brother-in-law
78 Nowli tuta Nowli tuta Nowli ahi ke Nowli ahi ke Forefather
79 Nowli ata Nowli ata Nowli ata Nowli ata Ancestor
80 Nowli shuk Nowli shuk Nowli shuk Nowli shuk A person who have carried the baby on his/her back first.
81 Apu apa Apu apa Apu apa Apu apa A girl Baby sitter
82 Aju ajoŋ Aju ajoŋ Aju ajoŋ Aju ajoŋ A boy baby sitter
83 Nyibei hin mih, Nyibei hin mih Nyibei hin mih Nyibei hin mih A boy of same age
84 Puh nyu chatei Puh nyu Puh nyu, Nowkəp mihnu, Puh nyu, Nowkəp mihnu A girl of same age
85 Puhpa Puh pa Nowput mihnu Puhpa Puh pa A girl special friend from other long distant place/area
86 chatei   chatei, Nowkəp mihpa, Nowput mihpa Nowkəp mihpa, Nowput mihpa A boy special friend from other long distant place/area.
87 tsempa tsempa Eipa, Teinaw Eipa, Teinaw, Ajo A gent friend from other village/area
88 tsemnu tsemnu Einu Einu A lady friend from other village/area.
89 Māi nyu Māi nyu Māi nyu Māi nyu Friend
90 Māi pa Māi pa Māi pa Māi pa Eldest brother of father
91 Wanpa Wanpa Wanpa Wanpa Middle brother of father
92 Wannu Wannu Wannu Wannu Third of second last brother of father
93 Roikhoi Roikhoi Roikhoi, Shampa Roikhoi, Shampa Youngest brother of father
94 Apa chong Apa chong Apa chong Apa chong Adopted father
95 Apatān Apatān Apataan Apataan Eldest brother of father in a clan
96 Apa li Apa li Apa li Apa li Eldest and elder-brother-in-law
97 Apa shuk Apa shuk Apa shuk Apa shuk Younger
98   Pa mõ Pa mõ Pa mõ  
99   Apa khò Apa khò Apa khò  
100 Tei chong Tei chong Atei / atei chong Atei / atei chong  
101 Now li Now li Atei li Atei li  


Wancho (čòkaʔ or Wanchoo, the language of Wancho) has a elaborated system of expression politeness. Wanchoo speakers are never allowed to speak to one partner without accounting the variables of age, sex and relative socio-economic status of the interlocutors. Polite forms are man folded in the following ways:

1.  phá							‘Kindly’
     For Example:
     Ku mot mok phá						‘Kindly do my works’ 
     Táhʔma án phá						‘Kindly don’t mind’
2.  poihʔ							‘Kindly please!!’ 
     For Example: 
     Ku mot mok phá hai poihʔ					‘Kindly do my work please!
     Naŋ e lai pha ang suak ang cha				‘Will you give me a book please’
3.  Ku thāi dao ah						‘Sorry’	
     For Example: 
     Ku rari thāi dao ah						‘I am very sorry’ 
4.  ɲi! / dʒo! 						‘o.k. /please’
    For Example: 
    Mot kohʔ dʒò / ɲi!						‘Do it o.k. / please 
5.  čiŋ čã lah le dān 						‘for give’
     For Example:
     Ku to čiŋ čã lahʔ le dān pha					‘kindly forgive me and leave me’ 
6.  čing čã 						‘pity’
     For Example: 
     Ku to čiŋ čã hai						‘pity on me 

7.  čiŋ čã dʒa dʒã						‘Sympathetic’ 
     For Example: 
     čiʔ to čiŋ čã dʒa dʒã koh ɲi					‘Have a sympathy on him / her’ 

8.  Nam phui						‘thanks / t’
     For Example: 
     Naŋ to nampʰui						‘Thank you’
9.  Any kind of active sentence expresses politeness when it is transformed to a passive sentence. 

	For example: 

	Ku tata dʒoŋ to ču man pao	-	‘I will not any where’ (Active voice) 
	Ku pao ang man suak ai	-	‘It will not possible to go any where’.    
					(Passive voice)

10. Any kind of affirmative sentence expresses politeness when it is transform into interrogative to a sentence. 

	For example:

	ku aug lai pha hai		-	‘Give me the book’ (affirmative sentence)
	ku ang lai pha ang ča		-	‘Would you give me the book’ (Interrogative) 


The most widely used greeting terms of the Wanchoo speech community are bəle! (Very close to the term hello). It is applied in the time of meeting friends. Generally, Wancho social custom does not have a word equivalent to nəməskar, a pan Indian feature. This word bəle! is addressed especially by the elder, but now-a-days younger and stranger can address it with new term like hi, hello etc. They ask where the person is going whether he has his meal and what about the person. Infact, people start talking straight away after smiling or call by addressing by the respective traditional addressing term.

Wanchoo words used in parting or at departure time are not much in number. The term of departure for the speakers of Wanchoo speech community is either informing or seeking permission. Informing term at the time of departure are - pao ai (I will go/ I am going away), acheh ai (I will move / Iam moving), lai ai (I am leaving / I will leave), informing or seeking telling. Thus, they usually seek acceptance from the inter illocutionary partner at the time of departure. The following are a few of the word forms used at the time of departure.

Word form				Gloss

dʒoʔ, athah pi ku pao ai			‘well then, I will go now’
dʒaŋ čaŋ ma, ku pao ai			‘then I am going’ 
dʒoʔ / dʒoʔ soʔ				‘bye’ 
čat le hai hai				‘come again’
ŋaɲih apoŋ hahʔ				‘lets meet tomorrow’
ku ema ŋo ai, (naŋ pao iah)			‘I stay here (you go)’
ŋaɲih həɲihʔ apoŋ hahʔ			‘Lets meet some other day’
Ku kai le wei pao ai				‘I am going earlier’
Naŋ pao lah				‘you go’ 


In Wancho society males are the dominated and female are subordinate. Male’s domain is public whereas female’s domain is private. Women are identified either through father or through husband. They take the surname of these two. After marriage women take the lineage of her husband. However, one interesting feature noted in Wancho society is a woman may remain identified with her paternal lineage at the same time classified as belonging to her husband’s lineage. As far the term and language there is not much different gender speech in Wancho.

i) Kinship term usage: Wancho kinship terms have different words for describing the same kin in accordance with the sen of the ego. As for example an elder brother of a male is Tai / hona whereas for a female it is Na / hona.

ii) Color terms: Wancho women are very smart in weaving and in skill connected with knitting and embroidery. They need to have different colors to make their designs and pattern perfect. They are capable of handling dyes too. So ultimately women have a wider range of terms describing different colors, which are seen as one or the same by the males who do not take any interest in such a matters. Followings are some of the examples of color in which we find the difference in the usage by them.

The difference terms of gender can be summarized as follows: 

	Male term		Female term	Gloss

	Apong		apheh		younger-in-laws
	Atei		apachong		elder-in-laws
	Aho		anu		uncle-in-laws
	Lakãsa		ʃekosa		child
	Lakã		ʃeko		gender
	Pa		nu		old folk gender
	Khese		Now cha		young folk gender		

(iii) Use of exaggerated form: Wancho forms and empty morphemes are added for this purpose. They are formed to use more reduplicated forms too. Following are the examples.

Male form		Female form		Gloss

Hola		honu			‘gender’
Mihpabu		Mihnubu			‘old folk genders’
Koh		puh			‘Child producing duty’ 		

(iv) Interjections: Wancho female has a domain as compared to their male counterpart. Ultimately, their interjections are more numerous than those of the males are. Some of the examples are male form ah! (with low scale) and Ao! (with high scale) etc.



Wancho naming practice is based on the indigenous ethnonomy system and the exonomy. The former are ancestor origin while the latter is of modern product. Both the system is widely prevalent in today’s Wancho social context. Wancho, because of wider contact with Indian culture Hindi names are popular so is the English names like John, Mike, Mary etc.

For giving ethnological name to the child, a social ritual is performed and observed a day, this ritual is called man dən / man dən ɲih. It is celebrated after two to three day after the birth. There are two names for a person i.e. man nyak (calling name), and man tsing (real name). Generally, the former is a calling name and this name is being registered in birth certificate while only the father and mother call the latter. It is kept secret as this name is supposed to be call when a person dies. Therefore, this name is not known to all and even after the death of a man. However, in some areas or village the real name is also used as calling name in exceptional cases like if the same is more in the area and the calling name is not matching with the a person. In this case, the real name becomes calling name and calling name as real name. However, such incidence is very rare. In Wancho society changing of name is also there, it is done at the age of below two years. Most important thing is that this name is not given to certain awarded name person like Pulei, nalei, nya lei. The source of ethnology names are the name of respective clan’s grandfather grandfather / ancestor and ancestor. In other words, the name of expired elder brother, father / mother, forefather / foremother, ancestor of own family, relative clan and same clan name of other villages or provinces. Some people give certain term to their offshoots, which convey important meaning.

Ethnonomy		English meaning

i.  peat			‘return the life of expired grandfather in the form of his grandson’
ii. pallid			‘return the life of expired father in the form of his son’
iii. Pulpit			‘the boy child named who born just after her grandfather expired’ 
iv. Pomona		‘Child is named remembering his grandfather’ 

v.  Nyi lai			‘return the life of expired relative clan aunty in the form of her 
vi. Na man			‘name of elder sister given to younger after the former got expire’
vii. Piləi			‘the girl child named who born just after her grandmother expired’ 
viii. Nachat		‘return the life of expired elder sister in the form of his daughter’ 
ix. pilat			‘return the life of expired grandmother/ great grandmother in the 
			form of her grand/ great grand daughter’ 
x.  Taichat			‘return the life of expired elder brother in the form of his son’ etc. 	

However, the based are naming may be broadly categorized into 5 to 6 having distinctive forms. Names in Wancho society are based on the following criteria.

i. Result of divination: In Wancho society, by custom the divination called nāntak is performed to select the name of a child. The expert priest does the divination with the help of broom leave. At least three to four names are selected first. For the name of eldest child, the name of expired eldest are selected. And for second and other child second to last child expired person name are selected from their own family or relatives. The name of eldest child cannot be given to second or other children. It believes that the wrong named or unmatched named caused an of illness to a child. Thus, strict rules are maintained. Finally, the name of best result of the divination is selected for naming.

ii. Order of the birth:

Name 		English equivalents

Taichoŋ pa	‘the first/ eldest male child’
Nuchoŋ nu		‘the first/ eldest female child’	
Nowli		‘the next to the first child (male)’
Nowli nu		‘the next to the first child (female)’ 
Nowtan pa		‘the middle male child (younger)’ 
Nowtan nu		‘the middle female child’ 
Nowshuk pa	‘the last male child’ 
Nowshuk nu	‘the last female child’ 
Nowshuk		‘the last child’ etc. 

iii. Physical appearance: 

Name 		English equivalents

Nowpi		‘the lean fellow (F)’ 
Nowčo 		‘the fair complexion one (F)’ 
Nowčo		‘the fair complexion one (M)’
ɲiagem		‘A girl child is named if she has 3 to 4 elder sisters etc.’ 

iv. Quality of a person 

Name		English Equivalent

Lõwang		‘Wealthy person’
Now məi		‘brave men’
Man pa		‘expert men’
Mānlem		‘over expert’ etc. 

v. Mental/ caliber of the person 

Name 		English Equivalent 

Manloŋ 		‘wisdom (M)’ 
Riŋ man		‘an expert person (F)’ 

Tiŋ kam		‘supporting pillar of village’
Man pu		‘I know it’ etc. 

vi. The names of flowers: (all are female names)

Name		English Equivalents

Go põ 		creeper’s flower etc.

vii. Area

Name		English Equivalents

Ting kai/ činkar	‘crossing of village’
Ting kon		‘turning of village’ etc.
Nahphõ		‘let popularize’
Nah tho		‘let go forward’
Mən pu		‘name and fame’ etc. 


After the advent of Christianity Wancho accepts names from all the languages, they name their kids whichever the name they prefer. Following are examples:

English name: James, Joseph, David, John Mary, Naomi, Monica, Angel, Robert, Mathew, Robin, Michael, Stalin, James, Maria, Elizabeth, Victoria, Silvia, Rocky etc.

Hindi name: Ajay, Joseph, Vijay, Sumeet, Vinay, Vicky, Aman, Anu, Naomi, Arun, Ravi, Priya, Amesha, Aishwarya, Riya sen, Akash, Sushil, Sashi, Vicky, Mala, Maria, Jitendra, Madhab, Kiran, Sarda etc.


The Wancho count the season or month on the basis of movement of moon, change in animal behaviors especially birds, insect, wild animals etc., physiographic cajnge in plants, soil, agricultural stages, belief and other Socio cultural activities etc. The local month is counted approximately from the mid of English or Western calendar due to spatio-temporal differences. According to Wancho concept ‘the year’ is divided into months in accordance with the progress of agricultural operation from which the months take their names. Following is the list of the months –

1. Tsang	   -	the mid December to mid January
2. Namsa	   -	the mid January to February
3. Namnu	   -	the mid February to March 
4. Hanho	   -	the mid March to mid April
5. Hoha	   -	the mid April to mid May
6. Wat	   -	the mid May to mid June
7. Ran	   -	the mid June to mid July
8. Dahʔ	   -	the mid July to mid August
9. Dik	   -	the mid August to mid September
10. Hey	   -	the mid September to mid October
11. Ru	   -	the October to mid November
12. Tam	   -	the mid November to mid December		

Wancho have a legendary story about the naming of the days of the week. It is connected with the sun’s ascendance to the ground. The days of the weeks are named as –

Local name		English term

1. Hatsət			(Sunday)
2. amahat sət		(Monday)
3. haja phei nyiʔ		(Tuesday)
4. Haja hophei nyiʔ		(Wednesday)
5. hatsətlahle nyiʔ ali  	(Thursday)
6. hatsətlahle nyiʔ aga 	(Friday)
7. hatsəh eitho nyiʔ		(Saturday) 		

Wancho called time as tu. Traditionally, the time is measured and count through the movement of natural things such as direction of sun, seasonal sound of birds, insects, etc. But the most important determinant is the movement of sun. Thus time of the a day is divided into certain round figure time, in accordance with the falling of rays of the sun on specific areas along with some specific moments/incidents. They are as follows.

Wancho term		Gloss

i. wən moŋ tsaŋ		‘midnight’ 
ii. ohat tho			‘first cock crow’
iii. raŋ ɲai lai		‘changes from dark to light’ 
iv. nak-ri ngai-ri		‘early morning’
v. som pui			‘morning’
vi. rān han doŋ		‘sunrise’
vii. tuŋ to			‘mid day/ noon’
viii. han soŋ		‘evening’ 
ix. raŋnak			‘night’
x. awan niŋ tho		‘before midnight’ 
xi. awan niŋphei		‘after midnight’
xii. ɲih			‘day’
xiii. raŋ põ			‘year’
xiv. sedan			‘dawn’
xv.  let			‘month’
xvi. hat daŋ		‘week’
xvii. hadza poŋe		‘in that era/ period’ 
xviii. hadza tue		‘at that time’ 

The concept of space in wancho is indicated by the following terms: 

Local term		Gloss

hodiŋ			‘above’
nām			‘near’
ača			‘away’
ho pʰaŋ			‘beaneath’
nok pʰei			‘at the back’
howaŋ ma			‘at first’
ɲanlam			‘outside’
homoŋ			‘inside’
hotān ma			‘in the middle’
thöma			‘in front’
ikha			‘here’
ikʰama			‘in this area/ place/ site’
čukʰa			‘that area’ 			


Like other tribes of India in particular and the world in general, the Wancho have their own script, tradition, mythology or legends. For example: mythology about the script and origin of name and migration and of universe etc. Infact, mythology is the study of myths and which are traditional tale, beliefs concerning supernatural as well as natural phenomena of begin or harmful influence. Every society builds up their mythology as per the life style, the environment and vegetation around. Some major mythology of Wancho may describe here.

The mythologies of Wancho said Wancho had script gifted by the Paiyu or Aju (God of Education). Therefore, the script of Wancho is still a case of mysterious. The mythology of Wancho script said that at first, there were no different clans or tribes, for all were one. Then at that time, a great flood poured over the hills of Assam and leveled some of them, and land became flat. Since there was no enough water in hills, some of the children of Wanchos went to the plains and became.

Once upon a time, the God of education called Paiyu wrote all wisdom on two skins and gave one to the Wanchos and one to the Assamese. The Wanchos roasted and ate their skin, but the plains people kept their in a bamboo tube or container. Paiyu came and asked the Wanchos where the skin was. They said, ‘We have eaten it’. He turned to the Assamese and asked where theirs was and they brought it out of the bamboo tube and showed it to him. Then Paiyu said, ‘you (Assamese) will know how to read and write and will have wisdoms, but these Wanchos will always be ignorant. This has probably proved that Wancho has lost his original script but not the language.

Meaning of Wancho:

After long interaction with some elderly person of Wanchos, I came to know that there is not consensus among the people regarding the origin of name and meaning of the term Wancho. Rather there are three to four mythologies on it. They are as follows:-

I. Wang-cho: According to this mythology, the word Wancho is derived from local term Wang-cho that means Hillman of Wang follower. The word Wang stand for Wang (King and the Cho means Hillman.

II. Wang-to: Wang-to mythology narrates that the word Wancho means follower of Wang ham (king).

III. Wann-to: The Waan-to mythology said that, the meaning of Wancho means Wann-to (Law-follow) means to live under the law of village formulated by forefather.

IV. Rangwanto: The mythology of rang wan-to narrates that, the meaning of Wancho means tribe of celebrating the festival with the help of rang wan means use of long bamboo with leaves on the occasion of oriah (annual) festival.

Among these mythologies, the Wang-cho mythology is accepted as the meaning of Wancho. Therefore, the meaning of Wancho is hill man of Wang ham follower.

Mythology of origin and migration:

There are many mythologies or legends regarding the origin and migration of Wancho. There are at least three to four mythologies on the origin of Wanchos. According to myths of Wanchos, the lore relates how and when Wancho tribe was originated. It said that, in time immemorial the king of water named “Nawwang” (crocodile). Once came out from the water in the form of buffalo and were wondering in the jungle. A group of hunters killed that buffalo and everybody took the meat at meal. Only women named “Khangtheak” and her beautiful daughter “Toizam” did not prefer to take. Other Namwang were provoked by this news. They let water to flow out of river and thus, the whole earth was submerged in flood, except that women and her daughter who were not with them in feast. The lore continue that Koizam was conceived by the wind and after nine months the gave birth a child and named as “Ophannu” there after this generation was called as “opʰannu”. Therefore, Uphannu is regarded as ancestor of whole Wanchos.

Through the above source of myth and legends, we came to know that migration of Wanchos up to some extent. As told earlier, Wanchos might have come from Mongolia or North China, which is locally known as “Maiphan Mihjan” means during the period of human evolution and “Opʰannu or opʰantinu” is the ancestor of Wanchos. Then the Wanchos were migrated via Burma and part of Tuensang district of Nagaland (before independent of India in 1947, the Tuensand area was under the jurisdiction of NEFA) which is locally called as “loŋpʰoʔ saŋnu”. In due course of time, the Wanchos were divided into two sub-groups i.e., “taŋdʒen and tsaŋdʒen” from sāŋnu and migrated into different directions i.e, The taŋdʒen or taŋkāinu Sa into southern parts of Wanchos. The people of tandʒen groups believed to have been migrated from sangnu by crossing the land of taŋnu thus these groups are called tandʒen (taŋ group). According to Wanchos myth, it is said that, the tandʒen took ember (fire) locally called “Wann tõ” from Tangnu and separated into other place while tsaŋkaisa Nu or tsaŋdʒen group (crossing the land of tsaŋ and son of tsaŋ) believed to have been migrated to North Western part of Wanchos. Thus, the tsaŋ or tsaŋkainu Sa groups are called as tsaŋdʒen (Lower Wanchos). It also said that, the tsaŋdʒen or tsaŋ Wanchos were migrated from tsaŋnu by taking the feather of bird and tooth or animal and has crossed the land of tsaŋ. Hence, the Upper Wanchos and lower Wanchos were come from different places though they were from one ancestor (Opʰannu) and descendent of tsaŋ (Tuensang district).

Another legend narrates that when a great flood occurred all living creatures were drowned except a man named “AJU (adʒu)” and a women “AJONG (adʒo)”. Flood could not reach them as they took shelter on top of hill. Therefore, Wanchos believes that all the Wanchos is descended of adʒu and adʒoŋ. There is also a lore reported to be same in china chronicle about a women who conceived by the wind.

Mythology of sun and moon:

The Wanchos believed that the sun and the moon were equally very hot and it was very difficult for human being and all other living creatures to stand heat. The sufferings were narrated to jangtai (dʒaŋ tāi), who rescues the living creatures. The story collected from ɲinu village of Wancho runs like this. At first the moon was very hot and shone all through the night so that, what with the sun by day and the moon by night, many people died of the heat, the trees, and the grasses dried up. One-day human being and animals held a meeting and told Jangtai how much they were suffering. He threw some mud at the moon and this partly covered his face and made it weak and cool. Even today, you can see the dirt on it.

To celebrate this people killed a pig and divided the meat, some to one, some to another, and they gave a portion to the moon. The moon did not eat all shares but took some to his parents whom he loved greatly. When they got the meat they loved him in return and blessed him saying ‘although dʒaŋ tāi threw dirt at you, you will be seen from ever by the people on earth and all men will love you. Every month for one day they will see your face entire and those born on that day will be lucky. But those who are born when your face is not visible will die young, and will be short and mean in appearance.


The members of the Wancho speech community have some universal beliefs along with some of specifications regarding the life of human beings. Some of such general beliefs are enumerated in the following.

1. Beliefs concerning spiritual life:

i. Belief in the rebirth and transferring of human being. After death, the soul live in another world, some soul come back in the form of younger brother and sister, son and daughter, grandson and granddaughter so on. Those souls remain in another world die again and become ants or insects then beneath the earth by becoming the soil and rock etc.

ii. Belief in exist of another world (lumpu) after death like us. Nevertheless, their feeling and action are always opposite of living world. For example: We give them a good item then they feel it is bad item. So people prefer to give them every item after torn or damage intentionally, rich in the present world would become poor in another world, when they die. Likewise, there are many beliefs on departing soul.

iii. Məimõ: Belief in existence of human spirit in animal, which have been born in same time or day. For example: The spirit of royal family is ferocious animal like lion, tiger, leopard etc. While the spirit of commoner people is other animal like bear, snake, monkey, birds etc. If the spirit animal is got killed then that spirit human being would be died within a weed.

vi. Belief in dream: Some people can predict the future incidence through their dream. For example: The celebration of mega party in a dream with sing and dance and meat eating etc. then it is believed to be farewell to the departing soul and the mean person would be died etc. Like wise snake, army, police are always the seen of devil, fire for good day, tortured as sickness, etc.

v. Belief in nature as God. Still they are not abstaining themselves from the traditional animistic beliefs, they still worship Jowan raŋ (Almighty God) of nature.

vi. Belief in existence of God and Goddess etc. they exist every where. For example rang e ngan ei means God will give the judgment’

vii. Belief in existence of Good and bad Devil or Ghost and their home are natural drain, stream, cliff, mountain, river, big tree etc. It is believed that the soul
of accidental death person become a bad devil or ghost’.

viii. Belief in existence of soul in flora and fauna and their matting and family life. 
ix. Belief in the good and bad effects on how a person behaves to the other. 
x.  Belief in the good and bad effects of honesty and dishonesty. 
xi. Belief in mantras i.e. chanting of hymns for the good and holy activities etc. 
xii. Belief in the postmortem effects (i.e. hell or heaven) of the good and bad activities during one’s life span. 
xiii. Belief in shorten of life if the body of a person is crossed by another person. 
xiv. Akhu: Belief in lost of luck of the male person, if he saw the bathing action of female and if his gun is touched by the female. 
xv. Belief in divination and diviner or shaman. 

2. Beliefs concerning with agriculture related:

i) anak nyih rang to tah ka  ‘people should not go field in the day of abstain from work’ 
ii) Orok: This is an act of performing of divination to select the new field with the ritual called orok’. 	


Wancho are the people belonging to Mongolian stock and having affinity with the people of Far East and Southeast Asia. We follow the social parameters of Southeast Asia like – high social status of women, complex of beliefs like animism, ancestor worship and reverse of high places. Wancho thus proselytized into other religion still are not abandoning their traditional religion, they follow a compromised rituals and ceremonies. However, the worldview of the Wancho speech community is found to be reflected in the proverbs and idioms included as entries in the lexicon. These proverbs and idioms have been discussed in the following section No. 16.


The Wancho speakers extensively use many proverbs, idioms and abuses. It covers a wide range of usage with diverse knowledge regarding the matter concerned. Some instances are given below:


Wancho 				Gloss

i. tʰopa čaŋnoŋ pʰəi pa čaŋ naʔ		‘Some time reply is more powerful than first attack’
ii. roŋ sah roŋ lahʔ			‘Might is right’
iii. kemsu kemsa			‘All are our children’ 
iv. arak poih le, rak to dat		‘Shame cause the lose’ 
v.  rāpa araŋ, ŋəpa maʔ		‘ego cause lost’ 
vi. nowdat pʰθima wãtʰap		‘Precaution is better than cure’ 
vii. pasu kuh awan ke ma ke		‘A little learning dangerous thing’ 
viii. či tʰaŋ ma mən kəp		‘No pain no gain’ 
ix.  hi hi phθi apoŋ			‘Bad men meet other bad men’ etc. 		


Idiom				Literal translation		Gloss

1. kāko roŋ 			Strong family		‘having a good numbers of relatives’
2. mik kʰi tʰən kʰi			Sore eye			‘to see unwanted things’ 
3. mik kʰun			Gaze with big eye		‘to express the angry through eye’ 	
4. nam ngan			Smell of local sesame	‘Suspicious’ 
5. lă kʰut pʰoŋ 			Spreading the dust in the air	‘to run away quickly’ 
6. pʰit cá  kuan ñθ			Thrown after beat		‘to take away something 
							without living a single piece’
7. Diʔ či puk ba man sẽ		No foul smell, if some one	‘doubt’
				has not leak			
8. rikohlah, mahʔkohlah		die or get lost		‘to do or die’
9. mahʔ mih			poor men			‘weak and poor man’
10. rak mahʔ			loss of breath		‘shameless fellow’ 
11. tun chong			big mouth			‘talkative and narrow men’ 


i. ko rik				‘flirt’
ii. wakran/ dʒolin (jonglin)		‘having multiple sexual relation’
iii. sānthu				‘break less men’ 
iv. aɲa				‘mad’
v.  ku ken mun			‘public hair’
vi. ŋat miʔ				‘mad men’
vii. ija hi				‘this dog’
viii. waksa				‘pig’s baby’ 
ix. nəɲia nənau			‘your sister’s and brother’s get married to each other’ 
x. hanna tʰuʔ			‘your sister’s vagina’ 
xi. hanpa kʰoʔ			‘your father’s penis’
xii. kʰoʔ pʰok			‘open forsaken penis’ 
xiii. tʰuʔ-a-kʰoʔ-a			‘vagina and penis’  
xiv. diʔ saʔ laʔ			‘eat the human excreta’ 
xv. ku kθn kʰa po lθˋdau!		‘Go away through my anus’ 		


Wancho people have numerous types of eco-firendly Indegenous Knowledge system (IKS). These are preserved in the both documented and practice from through the folksong, story, taboos, folktales etc. as the basic integradient of life. It covers almost all the sphere of knowledge, as it has been described in a specific name of them. Every science/ art has given a name and there are definitely literatures about the subject matter. Following is the list of area where they acquired skills –

i. Fau hing			- ethno medicine
ii. Dingha e		- astronomy
iii. Mai tsan		- animal trapping 
iv. Fau ham		- an expert forest venture 
v.  Hah/ raŋhah		- agriculture 
vi. raŋwin raŋhan		- atmosphere 
vii. Aran			- war 
viii. Hakha			- area,
ix. Hadʒačiroŋ		- region
x.  raŋtu			- Clearing of fresh forest for next field’ 
xi. Khãsong		- science of cooking’ 
xii. hahloŋ e		- Geography 
xiii. hoɲiamhon dʒelam	- Indigenous Knowledge system 
xiv. tsandʒe		- Life science
xvii. athatdʒθt		- deals about mathematics 
xvii. raŋwin		- Air
xix. hanwan nu		- earth
xx. ti			- water
xxi. wān			- fire
xxii. diŋ			- sky 
xxiii. roŋriŋ			- making of color, etc. 

There are many manuscripts dealing in each area of concern, describing about the phenomenon. Therefore, what can be concluded is wancho has a rich and varied tradition of knowledge system, not only in scientific areas; their knowledge was extended to art and aesthetics too.


There various ceremonies performed and observed by the speakers of the Wancho speech community are related to Birth, Naming, Puberty, Marriage and Death.

(i) Birth ceremony: On the delivery of the child, attending nowngən mihnu ‘the lady attendants are given small feast first followed by called nowsam ngan phongsat/ pangpo means a big birthday party. Only women folks are invited to attend the party. And the most important thing is that male folk do not stay in thehouse at the time of delivery as it believes they would lost the luck and miss their target expecially during war, hunting, fishing etc.

(ii) Naming: Wancho perform a naming ritual called Mandan katjo (Mandan katdʒo). It is performed after the gape of one to two days. On that day an elderly women select the name of the child with the help of divination and the chosen name is kept till the ritual work is finished. After selection of the name, an assigned elderly woman to to the stream called məndən ʃõsa (stream where ritual is performed to give the name to a newly born child) e.g. LAIRANG TSOSA (lairaŋ ʃõsa) in Rusa village. After reaching the stream she performed the ritual and gave the name to the child then come back to the house of newly born baby by informing or telling the people whosoever asked the name of the child. Traditionally, she first calls the name of the child. This ritual work is just like seeking permission from natural God and informed her about it. From that day the child are addressed by his/ her name. It is believed that a newborn child cannot be called by any name before such ritual is performed, otherwise the child will suffer from many problems in future. However, there is no fixed stream for the same rather it is being selected from nearby stream of the home.

After the naming ceremony, it is followed by shaving of baby’s head [kʰaŋ oŋ] and dʒutʰom (first day of feeding rice in/ after the five month).

(iii) Puberty: Wancho celebrate the age of puberty in grand way for male and lightly for female. The celebration of boy is called lakã kʰθ͂tʰəm while ʃθko kʰθ͂tʰəm to girl. Earlier tattoo was done to celebrate the puberty of a girl, which is now not practiced due to many reasons.

(iv) Marriage:

Traditionally, there are many types of marriage systems with certain customary laws prevalent among the Wanchos. Marriage beyond the social norm or in other words violation of such customary marriage laws is taken serious note of and accordingly justice is delivered. No marriage is to be held between a boy and a girl belonging to the same dʒən (clan). Following steps are followed in a marriage. No marriage is to be held between a boy and a girl belonging to the same dʒən (clan). Nowadays there are broadly two types of marriages viz- traditional marriage and modern marriage system that to some extend still hovers around the traditional one. The most common practices of the traditional marriage system could be studied as follows:


There are two type of process in marriage of Wanchos i.e. Royal system (waŋhəm system) and commoner system waŋpən system).

A. Process of royal marriage system

It is called waŋhəm holam toisam in Wanchos. In traditional marriage, by custom the waŋhəm can marry minimum two wives i.e. waŋhəm ča (princess) from other village and Shahton waŋhəm nu a wife from commoner clan of same village), the princess may be of cross marriage. However, there are at least four to five processes exist (especially for arranging a marriage with waŋca) like waŋcha Hu, Oraok, Hamnap waŋ or Ham kam, Cakshet, waŋca Sam, Pan dāp etc. The process of royal family marriage (waŋhəm toisam) goes as follows:

(i) First, waŋcha Hu (selection of a queen): A girl from a king’s family of other village selected for marrying a waŋ waŋhəm. With prior information a team comprising of waŋsu, waŋsa and good orators shall go to a village for seleting a waŋca. If the team is satisfied then she is offered gifts as a mark of proposal for marriage.

(ii) Secondly, Orok (Traditional foturne study) is a ritual for selection and foreseeing the fortune of proposed marriage. The priests do it from both sides with the help of egg(s). The ceremony is conducted by breaking of local egg or nan-nu cak (a kind of broom leaf) by rampa, the authorized priest. Here, in the presence of king and council of minister. (ŋowaŋ), rampa break the egg. Yellow represent good and red plus dark mark bad omen. If the result is positive then the marriage is celebrated otherwise it is generally cancelled.

(iii) Thirdly, hamnap waŋ/ Hamnap (First day of the bride to bridegroom’s house) is also known as toisam during which a team of the bride shall come and stay in the bridegroom’s village for month(s). However, a ritual is performed at the entrance of waŋhəm’s house by sacrificing a dog by priest. Adopting of family by the bride from bridegroom’s village by offering traditional gifts will follow this.

(iv) Fourthly, caksel (Traditional reception of the waŋca): is the celebration on the final arrival day of the waŋca. The entire villagers would see her off at the border of her village. And there the bridegroom’s villagers would join the guests.

(v) Fifthly, waŋca sam (marriage): The marriage as it is called is conducted and festivities and community feast organized by the husband-to-be Wangham. There will be sharing and teasing through folksongs between the villagers.

(vi) Sixthly, pãn dãp (inauguration of village main gates): This is the second last stage of marriage during which a party headed by the Wangcha visits or tours the main gate or entrance of the village.

(vii) Last, həmkãm (a formality to adopt the parent for princess from husband’s village), the new parent is adopted to look after the queen as her real parents leave far distant from her. It has ensured that whenver the problems arise like misunderstanding between the couple. The adopted parents would be invited to solve or settle the problem.

In case of marriage of a waŋnu (wife from commoner clans), a girl is engaged with the waŋhəm when whe is still a child. When she attains puberty, the waŋhəm spends time with her. A waŋnu leaves for her waŋhəm husband’s place to bear a child (waŋsa-boy child of a waŋhəm and a waŋpən mother or waŋsaca-girl child), and she starts living there.


Traditionally, there is both love and arranged marriage prevalent among the commoners. It is almost same as that of the waŋhəm except for few rituals. The process goes as follows –

(i) First, nowca Hu (selection of girl): It is the first step towards marriage. A team of boys visits the girls looking for probable partner. They meet at the husking place in girl’s house (tʰamtʰut tsainot nui in lower Wanchos or jeepham or jeep chham (maiden or girls sleeping house) in upper Wanchos. After a daylong hard work, boys gather at the respective youths (Paa) or bachelor dormitories (Paa Pamsa) and girls at Jeep ham or Jeep chham. The young boys from marriageable clan comes in Jeep chham and they exchange their gesture through romantic folk songs and sayings called maibõ in upper Wanchos and tsai-not-tsai in lower Wanchos. Boy expresses his feelings towards a girl through this song and the later give answer in the same manner. As a final informal marriage proposal, the boy present gifts like Sali, Pankhen (tapioca), ornaments, etc. This has helped them to select the partner.

(ii) Secondly, hiŋho sa (first formal proposal from parent representative, usually mother or aunty play a vital role here). There starts the courtship. hiŋho sa is the first formal presentation of gifts to the girl. Offer of traditional gifts is first proposal from a boy.

(iii) Thirdly, hiŋho nu (a final proposal and reservation presentation, here the presentation is a bit bigger than first proposal): This is final presentation of gift by the boy’s parent signifying reservation of he girl follows this.

(iv) Fourthly, pã tʰam nap : This is the visit by the members of the male youth’s dormitory of which the would-be bride is also a member. The dormitory members will visit the houses of the relatives of girl with gifts. The visit becomes necessary in order to get confirmation and comepete approval from girl’s family since in the event of any eventuality the Paa members will stand witness.

(v) Fifthly, hambõ : This is a feast arranged during the annual festival (oriah) in the bride house of boy’s male youths dormitory especially in lower Wanchos. During the annual Oriah festival the boy’s friends and members of the same Paa sing and dance the whole night as an extension of the oriah celebration in the would-be bride’s house. This celebration is known as hambõ.

(vi) Sixthly, noi riŋ : The Noiring refers to construction of the bedroom of the couples. In Rusa village, such rooms were constructed inside the girl’s house with the help of same Paa friends and members. The boy visits the girl and sleeps with her in this room of the would-be girl’s house until she is conceived.

(vii) Last, toisam : The toisam refers to marriage. Finally, the day of marriage comes when the bride who is already conceived leaves for the bridegroom’s house to deliver child. In addition, this is the formal marriage.

Today’s marriage as practiced by the Wanchos especially commoner, the moŋkan toi-sam or the love marriage is more popular. However, it is just the modification of traditional marriage system arranged system. However, selection of partner completely depends on the would be husband or wife. The traditional gifts comprising of tea, Sali, necklace etc. has given way to cloths, articles, garland, etc. though it is not performed if the bride is form other village. However, if the girl is from other village or tribe then, a parent is adopted from husband’s marriageable clan to look after her problem.


The marriage system of Wanchos may classify into two broad types of system based on practices and modification i.e. – Traditional marriage system and modern marriage system.

Traditional marriage system

1. nowsam toiriŋ (Child engagement marriage system): Although today this system no longer exists, it was in vogue until 1990s in some parts of the Wancho belt. It is mostly practices by the royal families and especially for reserving a waŋnu (wife of king from commoner clans). A girl child is engaged to her would-be husband especially from the royal family at the tender age of say 5 to 10 years by offering gifts through relaties or waŋnuca, the wife of the waŋhəm or the king. Once the reservation is over, she becomes wife of the waŋhəm or the chilf. This prohibits her from any other extra-marital affairs, otherwise death sentence is pronounced to the offenders. There were instances where the couple had to leave the village forever and seek asylum in another village, which has no alliance with their native village.

2. pao toisam (Elopement marriage): Due to many reasons like forceful engagement much against the wishes of the boy and girl, violation of marriage code and regulations especially the violation of the restricted intraclan marriages in village, etc. that may result in elopement. Elopement therefore, was not uncommon. However, such cases are socially considered only if the couple is from marriageable clan but heavy penalty was imposed. The fines may comprise of pig, land, presious property and traditional articles etc. If the penalty is not acceptable then the offender(s) have to leave the village forever. Nevertheless, delivery of justice in such cases differs from village to village. Marriage within the same clan or family and even with whom marriage is restricted is a serious crime that may invite extreme form of punichments that may include death sentence.

3. miʔnu catsam (Widow re-marriage): Widow re-marriage is socially accepted especially with her married/unmarried brother-in-law. Usually the brother-in-law is proposed to a widow as her husband. If a widow does not get married with the brothers or relatives of her deceased husband then the could walk out of the family and live with another person as per her with However, these all depend upon the widow.

4. kako wan tòisam (Arranged marriage): The arranged marriage system is popular next to the love marriages and common as the most acceptable form of traditional marriage of the Wanchos. There are two types of arranged marriage system i.e. Royal marriages (waŋhəm - waŋca toisam) and marriage of commoners (waŋpans). Any parents of boy and girl can initiate informal proposal, but by custom formal proposal must be from boy’s parent. In proposing the girl, the women play a vital role.

5. cinoktsuak hamdʒen toisam (Endogamy marriage system): The tribe itself is endogamous and marriages are mostly confined to the same village except in the king or princess. However, there are many unmarriageable clans within the village or between the two villages. The prohibited clans are not allowed to narry in thesociety. If it violated then the couple is outcast or banished from their village forever. Beside this intra-village, marriage is preferred than any type other marriage.

6. kakonu aɲiram anok toisam (Polygamy system): Traditionally, there is provision to practice polygamy marriages system by male in Wancho society. There are three types of polygamy marriages system based on traditional norms and capacity viz- (a). Royal system (waŋhəm Kako), (b). Re-marriages of widow (Mih nu Chatt nok) and capacity system (Chauk pa). In waŋhəm system, practicing of polygamy system is almost compulsory in nature. As per social norms, the kings have provision to marry with atleast two to three wives. Because three wives i.e. waŋca (queen), waŋnu saʔtonnu (wife from commoner clans for performing the ritual of waŋhəm), and Mongkan waŋnu (love marriages wife) is necessary by custom. The three wives have to perform their duties of the king in different ways without violating the traditional rule and regulation in the family or society. i.e. – there must be waŋcha (queen) to guard cum accompany the waŋhəm. The waŋnu(s) (wife from commoner clans own village) is compulsory to performed many rituals of the society in general and waŋhəm in particular. She is called saʔton n (whe has only rights to performed the rituals of the waŋhəm family in particular and society as a whole and the Mongkan waŋnu meaning love marriage wife of waŋhəm (she usually used to select by king himself from commoner clans of the his own village) she used to take the responsibility of rest of the work thus if we look from the angle of society, the waŋhəm is compulsory to marry atleast two to three wives to maintain the traditional culture of the society. Now its need to change.

The re-marriages system (mihnu čat sam or toisam) is also traditionally practice in Wancho society. There may be two types of re-marriage system in Wanchos i.e. without polygamy system and polygamy system. The one without polygamy system is called when there is single wife after re-marriage of widow with widower or bachelor. And the polygamy system of widow re-marriage is called when there are two wives with single husband. This is happened when the widow is re-marriage or resettled with either elder or younger brother-in-law of her, which has become two wives in total with a single husband. Though she remarriage with new husband it is name sake in nature. It is done just for the sake of their children.

On the other hand, if any person has capacity to feed the family members then he can also marry amny wives. However, it is look in the Wancho society. In this way, polygamy marriage system also exists in Wancho society.

7. anok həmdʒen (Inter-clan marriage): There are many clans living in the village, but there are exogamy laws in Wancho society for marriages. There are marriageable clans and non-marriageable clans. All people must maintain these norms otherwise; the offender is punished or banished from the village that is why the only marriageable clans are usually married. The marriageable clan is called coŋ ɲiŋ kako.

8. kām kia toisam (Reservation/engagement/ arrange marriage system): This is practice in Wancho society since time immemorial. The father or mother used to reserved or engaged partner for their children. Some time this system used to get fail due to unwillingness of their child after attains adulthood that result into elopement marriage with their choice life partner.

9. kako hamdʒen toisām (cross-cousin marriages): Traditionally, it is permitted only to king or chief. Nevertheless, it is not compulsory to waŋhəm rather preferred. In some village of Wanchos, especially the royal family where the princess gets married to the king of other village by custom usually missed her original village thus she is optimist to return her spirit by arranging the marriage of her daughter with the cousin king of her original village except her immediate brothers. As she is aware that, the waŋhəm can mary their marriageable cousin villages. The marriageable village is called Chong-nying (čoŋ ɲiŋ nok) in Wanchos. Therefore, there is no restriction to royal family for cross-cousin marriage. Here the princess can marry with her mother’s brother’s sons. However, it is not permitted to waŋhəm pən (commoners). The king is permitted only because by custom waŋhəm must marry queen from other village, otherwise it is not necessary and compulsory to go for cross-cousin marriage. He can marry with other princess of other village, which is not cross-marriageable village. Thus it is only practice by waŋhəm family and may be because of this practice there is a saying in Rusa Village on waŋhəm family i.e. - waŋhəm dʒa ron tam wei (waŋhəm and goat is having same attitude with shameless attitude (of waŋhəm especially with girl). There is also sayingi.e. waŋhəm hom angphongtho man Tai meaning waŋhəm (royal family) is shameless in nature.

10. kako dantoh pa/ nu toi-samm (Marriage of widower with widow): With the approval from the society after fulfillment of requirement category widow can marry with widower provided less children with them or none. Thus, it is liberal in Wancho society.

11. arut toisam (Negotiated marriages): In Wancho society, it is call arƱt tøiʃaɱ or arƱt lɛy riŋ lɛy anøk. Marriage by negotiation between the parents of both the boys and the girls is the recognized in the society, but the consent of the parents is soughted in such marriages. This rule is particularly strict in Wancho, where if the parents of girl do not approve the love marriage, sometime the boys have to fine heavily. It leads to elopement in extreme cases, when the couples run away to other village. Such case is settled by the parents of both the family with fine in the forn of pig, rice beer, etc. Especially the father of the girl fines heavy compensation. If the boy is unable to pay the fine then the couple leaves the village forever by elopement marriage.

12. Mongkan Toisam (love marriage): Traditionally, the Wancho also practice love marriage with marriageable clans. Usually love marriage is more successful and popular among the marriage system. The girl and a boy are introduce informally in working place like field called Tham thut tsai-not noi (girls’ group rice or millet pounding place of the house and Nowcha-hu pow or tsai nomang pau in lower Wanchos and jeep ham or jeep chham (maiden house) in upper Wanchos for the selection of partner. The couple exchange gifts like serving of local beer specially Jusa (a pure local beer) Shali sham (small leaf packed of jungle root or creeper presented with betel nut, pan leaf (phulu), lime, tobacco), etc. as well as between the parents of both boy and girl. In Rusa village of lower wanchos, the girl and boy also frequently communicate through symbolic letter called Kah-tek or kah-hai (sharp). The local symbol letter comprise of ginger means challenge, charcoal (backbiting), tsak sa leaf (jealousy and hatred) onion (deeply missing you), arum (following the line)…etc. Here the sommth designed of item show the smooth relationship. Preliminary initiative is usually taken by the boys’ side by presenting informal proposal gifts called hiŋʰo honu it has comprises of Sali, (biscuit, tea, (in modern), etc. It is follow by final proposal cum reservation called hiŋʰo honu it comprises of cloth, earring, shoe, beads, box, etc. The acceptance of proposal is known by presentation of fine flat firewood called haʔkhao by would-be bride to the house of would-be groom and occasional presentation of Sali Jot means bag for keeping betel nut, lime, tobacco etc. made of special kind of leaves called lai. The final proposal is followed by Patham nap (formal visit to bride house by dormitory or club member of groom party to approve the relation), hambõ (during oria festival (annual festival) a feast is offered in the house of bride some time such feast is jointly arranged by both the parents. The groom dormitory members’ dance for one night and some of the special invitees attain the party. During this feast and dancing night the bride or girl served Sali ʃam or lojing (chocolate or sweet) and local beer is also served by youngest members of male youths dormitory to all members assembled in the house. Marriage festival feast is thus solemniz. After that the couple may work in the field together as eitho (participate in group rotation work of youths). Noiring (construction of separate room inside the house of bride for couple). The bride, however, stays with her parents till she conceive, visiting her husband’s house only casually to help him in the fields and household work. In the eight and half month of pregnancy, she comes to her husband’s house with her personal belongings, articles seeds, utensils, etc. especially presented by the commoners to the girl as gifts to take with her to her future home. When whe delivers a child that day is regard as final solemnized day called Nou puhlah toi-sam. But with the advent of education and Christianity certain modification has been made like a day is fixed for the marriage celebration if the relation become successful and girl can stay in her husband house without pregnant or with pregnant, but atleast doesn’t wait for delivering a child. Thus, certain irrelevant traditional marriage process has been change.

13. čoŋ Nying Nok toisamm (exogamy marriage system): The Wancho, practice exogamy marriage system. Earlier it was confined to King (Wangham) or royal family who by custom marry atleast one princess from other village. Now it has been liberalize in the society and commoners too can marry from other village. Thus Wancho enjoy inter village or intertribe marriage.

14. kakota toisam (monogamy marriage system): The is monogamy marriage system in Wanchos. This system is common to all except king, which is almost compulsory to bractice polygamy by custom.

15. nou wok anok or toisam (marriage of illicit pregnant girl): This is an emergency arrange marriage to an illicitly pregnant girl. The girl is asked to identify the man to whom she has made affairs and sexual intercourse. If it is rightly identified and boy is agreed then the girl is taken to boys house otherwise the girl is arranged with other man may be widower or aged bachelor. Parents of the girl and village council take such responsible.


With the advent of Christianity, the Christian marriage system is follow. The modern marriage system is combination of Christian and traditional system with certain changed. It is important to know that, being bound to change many things due to Christianity still exogamy and Waŋhəm system is maintain. However, the traditional version is still practice with slight changes. However, the most striking change is the end of pre-marital sex which otherwise was accepted in olden days especially through Jeep chham or Jeep ham. The major exercises of the marriage as of today include selection of girl through relatives and friends; presentation of gifts as marriage proposal; khaptat laŋ or ring ceremony or engagement and finally marriage. There is also exchange of gifts from both sides besides feast during the marriage usually solemnized in a church.

1. Christian marriage system: In Wancho, it is interesting to know that, although they have adopted Christian as their religion, they have not left the traditional system of marriage system. The Christian system of marriage is practice simultaneously with traditional system. Ofcourse, there is title modification in modern marriage system like the one ring ceremony, baptism; prohibition of pre-martial sex etc. rest is same with traditional marriage system except prayer offering done in church.

2. Marriage with outsider: In olden days, the marriage system was confine within to village or inter-village due to many reasons like security, less chance of interaction with outsider etc. However, in modern days, the marriage with outside like non-tribal or other tribal of village is practice. This marriage system mainly based on material property like cars, money, bed, almery, tables, etc. from girl’s side, which is not possible to afford by all people. The most important thing is that she has to lose her status and tribal rights for the sake of her love forever.

(v). Death: The ceremony that is hold after the death of human being in the community known as maŋrut. At the very near moment of death, the person is shifted to near the wall of the verandah), after death he/she is shifted to maŋ thəm nui (on the southern side of the courtyard). Then the body is wash and cloth from right to left, and then it is move to grave yard ground in afternoon in the same day and kept hand until the dead body is decayed completely. However, it done if the all the members of decease family are present otherwise it may keep until next day depending upon the decision of bereaved head of the family. After one nearlyl a month, a feast is given to the public called rãpʰot ‘the last rite’ on that the skull used to wash then put inside the old earthen pot and kept in other place, a few distant away. During this day, domestic animals such as cow, buffalo, pig etc. are killed to feed the condolence party as the last sharing feast in the name of death person. Nevertheless, after the advent of Christianity such tradition has been abolished new technique has been introduced i.e. bury of dead body. Thus, now-a-days people buried the dead body.


Wancho is agriculturists by nature. Their food system is quite elaborative and eco-friendly for health, as they preferred to take only boiled item. Rice (tsah) and millet (hiŋkʰã) are the staple food of the Wancho. It is supplement by maize (sõwām), arum (tõ), tapioca (pənkʰən), yam (kʰən), poi (a type of yam species), sweet potato etc. Rok (a type of palm species) taken during famine and starvation. They eat plain boiled rice with vegetable curry (suiti). Generally they take the meal thrice a day especially by the children.

	- Som pui pʰoŋ		‘morning meal’ 
	- aɲiʔ niŋ pʰoŋ		‘noon meal’ 
	- adʒa niŋ pʰoŋ		‘evening/ night’ 		

Now-a-days tea as a beverage is very common. Wancho drink dʒu ‘local beer’ made of rice, millet, tapioca, arum banana etc. before the advent of Christianity in 1980s. However, as an outcome of protestant Christian, Wancho abstain dʒu now a days, but the followers of Roman Catholic Christianity do practice until date. Wancho people are non-vegetarian. They preferable vegetable are Pumpkin (wum), white Pumpkin (wao), gourd (wum quak), soyabean, bean, fermented bamboo shoot (fermented, dry, non dry and fermented) and many wild leafy vegetables and tuber vegetable from surrounding forest etc. The unique culture of Wancho is that the guest or visitor is entertained with local beer and meal. However, after the advent of Christianity these have been change to only beverage especially tea. The meal and local beer has become costly item.


Dress (rãpõ):

Wancho is rich in variety of traditional dresses. Traditional dress of female are ɲisa (small piece of cloth weared in the waist), thoɲi (long skirt), ɲikʰ ak (shawl), kʰəsən (hat band made of bamboo), naməi põe (ear dree) etc. Males wear kʰe hit (long cloth looks like tail in both front and back side), dakhao (festival basket dress made of cane or bamboo), Khomthuk (hat), čadam Khomthuk (crown hat made of cane), maisa Khomthuk (sun hat made of mongkey skin), meikhon Khomthuk (sun hat made of skin), loak wa (shoulder ring of elephant tusk), maila wa (boar tusk), namai põ (ear dress made with small feather of hornbill), okui (feather), re-rəpak (belt made of cane) etc. Now modern dress like shirt, pant, trousers, coats etc. are weared and the traditional dress has become occasional festive dress as a special dress.


Wancho has varieties of ornaments used by females. Male’s ornaments are limited to small beads’ garland, bead chains, bracelet (made of beads, long leaves of a grass species). Women use bead rings, finger ring, necklace, armlet, chain, baskets, different types of necklaces and earnings. These are made of either beads or dry outer skin of a stem of a variety of grass species. Types of Wancho bangles are čak wan/ Sakwan, Khəpsān, natu/ u/ čo bingban, namai põ etc. that are made of metal like brass and aluminum.


Culture is dynamic thus; chang of culture is inevitable in modern life. However, Wancho preserved relevant and aesthetic cultures and giving up irrelevant practices. As far as language and culture is concerned. Language is the DNA and backbone of culture and like other world, Wancho too have borrowed certain word to cope with the modern advancing words. Many a words needed to be borrowing to describe the changes in the culture due to modernization. The modernizations processes do not contribute to the loss of culture vocabulary rather make an access to the competitive world. Nevertheless, it has both negative and positive effects. The negative is effect is that people feel that if they speak English and other language then they get high status in the society. Therefore, people give more important to English, Hindi and any other language than their own language, which causes attracting towards other custom and culture unconsciously, and avoid speaking their own language. People are doing this bland mistake ever. The good thing is that the borrowed words make peple to communicate easily to other community. Some of the wancho words, which from with borrowed term, are as follows:

1. Hota means one hundred. The word ho derived from Assamese word écho means one hundred. 
2. Jat ta/ dʒat ta means one thousand. The word dʒat derived from Devanāgarī word ek hadʒar the word lakh.
3. Lak ta means one lakh. The word lak derived from the word the Devanāgarī word lakh. Etc. 		


1. Marrison Edward Geoffrey (1967), PhD thesis: The classification of the Naga languages of North-East-state India, Volume –I (Text), Department of Phonetics and Linguistics School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, pp. 13, 20-21, 76-77.

2. Burling, Robbins & Wangsu (1998), An article: Linguisitcs of the Tibeto-Burma Area Volume 21.2, University of Michigan Pp. 43.71.

3. Mibang, Tomo (1991), Preceding of North East India History Association: A seminar paper on Origin and Migration of the tribes of Tirap, Shillong, p. 196-201. etc.


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