A.(Telugu Speech and Language Technology)

Introduction to Speech and Language Technology

Speech Technology, with reference to Telugu language is still in its infancy and a lot of research from diverse directions needs to be done to facilitate speech synthesis and speech recognition in Telugu. Technology presupposes quantification of qualitative data. As a small contribution to this endeavour, Sakuntala Sharma and Nagamma Reddy (2000) exploded the statistical patterns of Phonemes, possible Phoneme permutations, Phoneme categories and their transitional probabilities for Telugu.

Lexical recourses in electronic form are extremely valuable, as they are needed to develop applications such as machine translation and others. Telugu and other languages of India are being translated into Hindi by Akshar Bharati team of Hyderabad.

Corpus Linguistics in Indian language (Telugu, in particular) is a new venture. Corpus based approach is a paradigm within computational linguistics. Preparation of both spoken and written corpora is an outgoing process taken up by CIIL, Mysore.

Neural Network Theories are being used for the recognition of Indian languages in general and Telugu language in particular, in the field of AI research. In this area, sarat chandra babu develops a method of using a hybrid neural network, to recognize isolated Telugu words from sample speech signals.

Relevance of Duration for Speech System in Telugu

Building computational models of suprasegmentals is crucial to both basic research and to the development of spoken language systems. It requires durationally – transcribed speech rather than segmentally transcribed speech in order to develop a meaningful and practical design of Automatic Speech recognition (ASR) system. Nagamma Reddy’s (2000) study on ‘Duration of segments in Telugu’ demonstrates that there are differences in duration consonants and a vowel has an implication for naturalness of computa speech.

Telugu Word Processors

Since 1987 computer technology has been introduced into printing for typesetting. From 1995 onwards owing to the extensive use of windows software, Telugu people involved in computer software design, developed various Telugu Word Processors. But unfortunately there is no uniformity or any attempt at standardization. Even the Telugu Newspapers and Telugu Magazines follow a variety of conventions and individualized softwares. However, C-Doc developed a Telugu Word Processor called iLEAP according to the norms spelled out by BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) and based on ISFOC (Indian Script Font Coding). Even this word processor for Telugu is reset with problems and limitations, nevertheless as it is compatible with all PC’s using Windows, computer training centers give coaching in iLEAP, Andhra Pradesh Stage Government, bought the software from C-Doc and made the free download of it possible.

Text-to-Speech Synthesis System for Indian Languages Within Festival Framework

This addresses a few issues involved in Text-to-Speech conversion for Indian languages. The Focus of the work is on linguistic/prosodic processing modules for Telugu (and Hindi). Even a common multilingual diphone database is prepared.

E-Governance in Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh has been in the forefront in promoting e-governance, using Information Technology for quick and efficient administration. Soon it will be possible to access administrative information on-line in Telugu and efforts are being made towards this end. Society for Computer-Applications in Indian Languages (SCIL) works to achieve continual development of Indian languages in general and Telugu in particular and it also works towards the application of scripts in all computer hardware and software platforms as well as in knowledge management.

Computer Literacy center sponsored by the Literary house of Andhra Mahila Sabha, Hyderabad, organizes importing computer skills using Indian language software, particularly Office Administration Telugu (OAT).

Under the sponsorship of Center for Applied Linguistics and Translation Studies (CALTS), Technology Resource Center for Telugu (TRCT) has been initiated. This center developed the (Telugu and Other Indian Languages) software called Akshara Which is a multilingual Text Editor. This software incorporates Multilingual Dictionaries Thesauri, Morphological Analyser, spell-checker with many other features such as sorting, word frequency, counting etc. It also provides e-mail facility in Telugu.


(Under each head, the various approaches/models used, applications, current state of technology, software tools available, future directions, etc. will be given along with relevant references to organizations/institutions/companies, products, experts in the field.

	•	Corpus and Corpus Management Tools 
	•	(Plain, POS tagged, parsed, parallel, aligned corpora) 
		-   Corpus creation  & updating tools 
		-   Corpus Indexing tools 
		    (Concordance, KWIC index etc.) 

		-   Corpus compression and encryption tools 
		-   Text processing tools 
		-   Statistical analysis tools  

(basic statistics, n-grams, Markov Chains, Hidden Markov Models, etc. at sentence, word, morpheme, syllable, character, phoneme levels).

	•	Text Editors and Word Processors 
	-	Text editing tools 
	-	Word Processing tools 
	-	DTP tools 
	-	Fonts 

	•	Dictionary Tools 
		(monolingual / billingual /multilingual) 
	-	Word lists/vocabulary
	-	Electronic/Online dictionaries 
	-	Electronic/Online thesaurus 
	-	Morphological analysers/generators. 

	•	Spell Checkers / Grammar Checkers / Style Checkers 
	-	linguistic / statistical / hybrid systems. 

	•	Parsing Systems 
	-	Phonological
	-	morphological
	-	syntactic 

	•	Machine Translation and Translation Tools 
	-	Translation memories 
	-	Technology data books 
	-	Post – editing tools 
	-	Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) tools.

	•	Optical Character Recognition (OCR) 
	-	single font.multifont/omnifont OCR systems
	-	printed/typed/handwritten/shorthand 
	-	online / offline  		


Though Indian computer scientists, especially scientists from Andhra Pradesh are among the top ranking in the world, Indian languages and Telugu do not appear to have found their place in the computer world. From quite some time many languages like German, Russian etc. have both Windows as well as Linux operating systems but it is not the same with Indian languages.

In the last few years there has been some improvement in this situation. A brief over view of the present status of Indian languages, particularly the status of Telugu in the computer world is attempted below.

For better understanding the review is made under these main sub-heading. 
	1)  Operating systems 
	2)  Software & Tools 
	3)  Other information 

1) Operating systems (OS): Even till today P.Cs with Indian language operating systems, which are readily usable by the common user are not available. However it will not be completely correct to say that nothing like that is available at all.

As far as the present day most widely used operating system “Windows” is concerned, though it is available for many other languages as mentioned above, we can’t buy a computer + operating system which when started will show the desk top , menus etc. in any Indian language. However Windows XP gives the facility to choose any Indian language. (Even each character can be of a different language, Indian or other wise. Also it is possible to use one to more languages in one or more fields of each Cell/record, of spread sheet/data base, without compromising on any of the facilities available for English, like font size selection formatting, sorting etc.). The limitation as of now is that, for each of the languages only one font which is given with the OS can be used (for Example, Gautami True Type Font for Telugu). The use of others like these (on screen it will appear as gibberish) free or commercial, is beyond the capability of a normal computer user. However what is available is no small facility for a large number of common computer users, as a large percentage uses mostly the office tools, though this many be serious constraint of DTP users, writers, publishers & Linguistics. In future this may be overcome if many fonts which follow one standard become available.

‘The Microsoft Visual Open Type Layout Tool “VOLT” provides an easy-to-use graphical user interface to add Open Type layout tables to fonts which True Type outlines. It is licensed free and can be downloaded from the online community set up for it. The community hosts on active discussion forum, version history information, a wish-list and VOLT treated downloads. Links to VOLT’s release notes as well as tips and tutorials are also posted below.

VOLT supports a wide range of substitution and positioning types. It also contains a proofing tool that helps see the result of applying layout table lookups. It allows import and export of glyph names, lookups, glyph groups and a full project. The tool has been used by community members to add Open Type layout tables to various fonts supporting scripts including Arabic (Nasakh and Latin, Sinhala, Syriac, Telugu and Thaana.

Getting VOLT: Visit the VOLT community Web site and apply to join.  A VOLT version. 
1.1. download as well as notes and VOLT related discussions are hosted on the site”. 

	The situation in Linux is more encouraging, though it is still not the casual or common computer users choice OS. 

Knoppix (a minor variant of Linux) OS, which comes on a CD, can be directly put to use from the CD, without installing it on the HDD of the P.C. An OS, Knoppix Hindi, is now available for down-load. A list of some Internet sites, with brief description is given in Annexure-1 for Hindi and Annexure-2 for Telugu. Information on how to customize it for different languages is also available.

Indlinux group (Indian Linux, by an apex team given in the table in Anncxure-3 has taken up the task of realizing the dream of all Indians. The Indian Linux project is open source and completely free. It is licensed under the GNU General Public License. The Indlinux Home page is given in Annexure-4 and the Hindi home page in Annexure-5 and the status of Telugu in Annexure-6.

INDIX by NCST (CDAC) has also taken up the task of developing Indian language support for Linux OS and it is claimed that as of now it is available for 6 Indian languages for down-load either from http://www.ncxt.ernet.in/projects/indix or http://tdil.mit.gov.in and may be some more sites. In the words of the IndiX group “The aim of the IndiX project is to design a localized “user friendly” interface at the system level in Linux, which will look more natural to the vernacular computer user. Suitable components within Linux OS (desktop environment etc.) are also being localized to enable existing applications to create, edit and print contents in Indian languages. The first version was demonstrated during a number of exhibitions like ELETEX 2002 and IndiaSoft 2002. Now it has been released to the general public. The indiX information in English is given in Annexure-7 and in Hindi in Annexure-8. Annexure-9 gives the related links and the other work going on in this regard. Both the above i.e. Indlinux and IndiX will have all the utilities of a normal Linux system like net browsing, multimedia and complete office suit like open office.

2) Software and Tools: Word processors and eMail facilities for Indian languages are available for quite some time from many sources, both commercial as well as free. Some examples are – Modular – (Shree Lipi, Ankur, Patrika etc.); CDAC- (iLeap, Leap Office etc.); rediffmail, mailjol, mithi and many more.

Office suits like Openoffice, Staroffice etc. are also available free, for quite some time, for different platforms as well as Operating Systems. Now Openoffice is available for “Hindi” in which the Menus etc. appear in Hindi script and Hindi language. Work is on hand for Tamil and other Indian languages.

“OpenOffice.org is Free The complete productivity suite for Mac OS X, Windows, Linux Solaris on the web-site www.openoffice.org" The Openoffice Hindi home page is given in Annexure-10 for information.

Staroffice is also available for download from various sites. Some of them are given in Annexure-11.

Many tools and software are available for free down load from the Government site http://tdil.mig.govt.in. There are dictionaries, Indian language resources, Language processing tools, glossaries and many more.

One very useful tool that is available here is “Rupantar”. The common user has been facing the problem of reading Telugu/Indian language text files, as most of the time the same software that has been used to create the file had to be used for reading the file. For example a file created in Shree Lipi can’t be read/edited using iLeap or some other software. “Rupantar” is a tool for converting Indian language text files (one at a time or a set of them as a batch), created in one software to other software to make them readable/editable in the desired target software. Some of the tools & software available on this site are given in Annexure-12.

AKSHARA – Multi-Lingual Language Processor, developed by UOH Language Engineering Research Centre is available at www.languagetechnologies.ac.in/lerc/akshara/akshara.htm - 18k. The AKSHARA Software is also available for download at www.HamaraShehar.com/hcu.

Anusaaraka is a computer software that renders text from one Indian language into another. In spite of sounding odd it produces output which is comprehensible to the reader. For example, a Telugu to Hindi Anusaaraka can take a Telugu text and produce output in Hindi which can be understood by a Hindi reader. However, the reader will require some amount of training for reading the output. This and some more tools and software are available at http://www.iiit.net/ltrc/Anusaaraka/anu_home.html

“Language Technologies Research Centre (LTRC), http://www.iiit.net/ltrc, is a part of the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad which is a centre of excellence in information technology education, research and training.

The centre conducts basic and applied research on various aspects of natural language technology. The focus is on developing technologies in three major areas:

	1.  Language access and machine translation among English and Indian languages
	2.  Speech processing for Indian languages
	3.  Search, information extraction and retrieval for English and Indian languages.

http://www.baraha.com/, site gives very useful software and it is free. 

“Baraha is a word processing application for creating documents in Indian languages. Baraha is developed with an intention to provide free software to enable Indians use their native languages on the computers. Baraha can be effectively used for creating documents, sending emails and publishing web pages. Baraha 6.0 supports Kannada, Devanagari, Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam scripts. The following table shows the languages supported.

Kannada, Konkani, Tulu

Baraha works on microsoft WIndows operating systems only. An earlier version Baraha 1.1. is still available for working on Windows 3.1. systems. The latest version Baraha supports saving the documents in UNICODE format, which means one can transfer documents to other operating systems that support UNICODE, such as Linux.

Baraha uses the standards proposed by the Karnataka Government for the ANSI Kannada fonts and the keyborad. It uses the TSCII 1.7 standard for the Tamil True Type fonts.

Baraha can be used as an independent editor that provides basic options for editing documents. Baraha Direct allows users to type Indian languages directly into Microsoft Office products such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Powerpoint for creating professionally looking documents.

Baraha Software Development Kit (SDK) is available for developers to create databases in Indian languages, using Microsoft Access, SQL Server, Oracle and build custom applications using Visual Basic and Visual C++ development tools.

3) Other information: There are many sites on the net with a large variety and quantity of resources in Indian languages including Telugu. To list all of them would be an impossible as well as futile task. The sites contain information like, fonts, font related software, variety of texts and information (ancient and contemporary literature like Vedic texts, epics, novels, poetry history, history and evolution of language learning tools and many more.

A few pages from some of these sites are given as example and URLs of some other interesting site are given below.

http://jeff.cs.mcgill.ca/~luc/telugu.html. This site gives a large number of links (more than 25 pages) to many font related programs and only some of these are given in Annexure-13.

http://sahiti.org is an interesting site with Brown’s and Dr.Vemuri’s English to Telugu Dictionaries.

http://theory.tifr.res.in/bombay/historyo/people/language/telugu.html. This site is from TIFR, Mumbai and gives links to good set of resources. The home page is given in Annexure-14 for information.

	The following sites have some interesting informations  
http://www.engr.mun.ca/~adluri/telugu/index.html,  http://www.telugupeople.com/ 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telugu,  http://www.cs.sunysb.edu/~kiranv/telugu.htm 
http://members,tripod.com/~RKSanka/telugu/links.html - given below. 	
Telugu related links
LiteratureProf. Adluri Seshu Madhava Rao has embarked on a great project:
“An encyclopaedic site of Telugu Language and Literature”
• The Telugu Literary home page
“telusA” gurinci meeku telusA??!!
Culture• Bandi Srikanth maintains a cool database of Telugu films. Check out his Telugu Film Server
Telugu Vani, a telugu magazine on the internet
SoftwarePrasad Chodavarapu has a good list of links to telugu software/fonts, some of them authored by him, such as Rangavalli, sa.ra.dA lO rangavalli etc.
Rice Inverse Transliterator (RIT) is a program to convert text is RTS transliteration scheme, to telugu script through LaTeX and dvips. It is a front end to TeluguTex developed by Lakshmi V.S.Mukkavilli.
• A web interface to RIT 2.0 is available. (The web interface to RIT 3.0 doesn’t seem to be working!)
• ITRANS is another software for indian languages –for telugu it uses Mukkavilli’s TeluguTex fonts. A web interface for ITRANS is also available.
• I personally like the ease of use of Telugu Lipi by Srinivas Sirigina and Anuradha Koneru.
CDAC of India also produces a whole family of Indian language software.
http://www.teluguworld.org :  has good information related to Telugu literature and culture.  The home page is given in Annexure-15
http://www.linguistsoftware.com/ltel.htm#Windows (Laser Telugu Fonts, Linguist’s software)  

These following sites give some font related resources. Fonto-graph, Font Lab, Font Creator, BabelMap, Janko’s keyboard generator are some of the utilities used for font creation and modification etc.

This is another very interesting site with lot of information and many links to resources. 
http://www.engr.mun.ca/~adluri/telugu/links.html : One of the main pages of this site. I Home I Personalities Index I Literary Works Index I Subject Index I

Telugu Literature Links

This is a compilation of Literature related links for Telugu language. It does not contain many useful links as Telugu movie music, general business enterprises, movie stars, etc.

Literature Links

Telugu Language and Literature Home of the present site. Contains samples of literature with relevant introductions where ever possible. Several hundred poems, etc. Long term vision: To provide full e-texts to Telugu literature. Volunteer based.
Telugu Literary home page. From Dr. K.V.Rao’s India Network foundation. Pioneering site packets of useful material. However, quite slow in progress. Volunteer based.
IEKha Lekha –an excellent site. Many big names in the Internet Telugu scent are associated with it. Volunteer based. This site has the potential to become the finest Telugu site on the net. Many useful pages are being created. Check out the following:
Ramakrishna Sanka Sri Ramakrishna Sanaka’s personal page- Fine compilation of many Telugu poems and related material. Both in RIT and Telugu Lipi. Over the years, he collected many Telugu poems posted by various natters on SCIT and TELUSA and put them on his page. The present site and Sri Sanka’s page have prepared portions of kanyaaSUIkaM e-text in conjunctions.
telugu diksUci Sri Anantha Sudhaker Uppala –Good collection of links. Author’s personal works too. Additional material of interest. Notes on Telugu meters, etc.
Telugu Literary Corner Sri Sudesh Pillutla from Texas. Put up poetry and other material. Does not seem to have updated it for quite sometime.
Learn Telugu from Telugu University Well compiled material on basic Telugu alphabets, etc. Telugu University. Web site hosted by Andhra Today.
Pedda Bala Siksha (parts), etc. Some portions of the pedda baala Siksha as well as useful lessons on Telugu Alphabet, etc. Sri Sreenivas and Smt. Anuradha Sirigina developers of Telugu Lipi. Used to present Telusa mails also in Telugu Lipi.
Ari Sitaramayya Dr. Ari’s translation of Volga’s Sweccha (1987) Must read.
Akkiraju & Swarna They seem to promise to post quite a large amount of material nothing yet!

Links Literature in Personal Pages

Jagadish Bisa Sri Jagadish Bisa –Samples of works by the author. The author is well known on the discussion circles in the Internet.
Madhava Kumar Turumella Personal works by the very well-read author! Well known on the TELUSA circles.
P.V.R.Narasimha Rao Several works by the very well versed author in various techniques. He has an astrology pages and a discussion list too!
Prasad Chodavarapu A few works by the author. The author is well known on the discussion circles in the Internet. Looks like the site will move to IEkha site.
Prathima Chilukuri Smt. Prathima Chilukuri’s personal page with Telugu poems and other stuff-very cute page design from embroidery shop!
Kiran Prabha Short poems of the author with Photographic/picture interpretations.

Discussion Groups

telusA Discussion group for Telugu literature since 1995. The best that Telugu has to offer on the net. Although dull at times, fabulous discussions do take place in short bursts. Many of the top Telugu literature enthusiasts and experts are tuned in. Archival sites: telusA-ratnakari, telusA-ratnakar2.
telusA in Telugu fonts Lekha project. telusA discussions are re-posted using Telugu tikkana fonts developed by Prasad Chodavarapu. Suresh Kolichala and friends are leading the work.
SCIT Short form of soc.culture.Indian.telugu. Since early 1990s. Discussion group for Telugu people in general. Although TELUSA emptied most of the Telugu literary talent from SCIT, it may still be worthwhile to browse though occasionally. Beware of the sporadic vulgarity and cross-posting. It can be suffocating at times. Discussions can be read through the newsgroups section of your internet service provider. Prior to this, there were other lists, including a couple on the Bitnet (does any one remember the Bitnet or its alter ego Netnorth at all!) SCIT used to be reasonably interesting till mid 90s (or so I am told!)
Telugu Vani On going discussion about pre-organized discussion topics. A unique format maintained by Kumar Ampaniand Madhusudan Voruganti. Active during 1997 and part of 1998. Does not contain much since then.
SASIALIT Mailing list: Literature of South Asia and the Indian diasporas. Some relevance to Telugu literature once in a long while.
SARADA A more or less exclusive group. saradA stands for samaacaara rahadaari –an acronym for Internet. Set up in 1998 after the Atlanta meeting. Not a very active list since the group seems to be discussing things via private e-mail list recently instead of through the public forum.
Chat Lines Com Star seems to have started a Telugu chat line. Did not last. Unaware of any other popular chat lines for Telugu literature (or any other Telugu subject, for that matter).

Links to Institutions – Literature

Telugu University Potti Sri Ramulu Telugu University Hyderabad. Web site hosted by Andhra Today. Miles to go before clearly entering the cyber age.
Institute of Asian Studies Institute of Asian studies, Chennai. Govt. organization. Hoping to take up and complete some useful projects. No where near the Tamil studies in scope, breath or depth.
  The writer is not even aware of Telugu departments in other established Universities carrying out any Internet activity. Osmania and Kakatiya Universities put up material about many of their departments on the web. Nothing useful yet on Telugu literature. It is time that they stared doing it. Computer based Tamil studies including those on the net are ahead by at least a couple of decades!

Literature Webzines, Magazines and Periodicals

eemaaTa at IEKha Telugu literary webzine –from Lekha. Promises to become very good.
misimi Literary webzine (magazine) –nice work.
TANA Patrika TANA Patrika –parts of some old issues placed on the web. Interesting articles occasionally.
e-TELUGU PATRIKA Webzine by Dr. Bhaskara Rao from Australia! Just beginning –has a lot of promise.
maabhoomi New weekly. Good presentation. Difficult to comment on until after some more issues are released.
Telugu Vani A general site with useful material –difficult to label as a webzine.
Andhra Bhoomi Andhra Bhoomi daily and allied stuff. Covers literature from time to time.
Andhra Jyothi Andhra jyOti daily and weekly, Covers literature from time to time especially the weekly and the Sunday edition of the daily.
Andhra Prabha Andhra prabha daily and weekly. Recently started. Hopefully covers literature from the time to time.
eenADu eenADu daily, Although “.com” address exists, they have not posted anything on the net yet. Perhaps, it is not good business sense yet!
Vartha Vaarta: news webzine. Covers literature also.
Velugu Velugu: webzine. Covers literature also.
Telugu TV Telugu TV: Webzine. Going to cover some literature stuff, hopefully
Pramukhandra pramukhaandra: webzine. Some literature essays among other things
telugu.net Telugu.net. under development

Telugu Fonts and Software Links

POtana Dr.K.Desikachary’s pioneering effort. Very good. Free down load of read only fonts is available. Small price tag for full true type fonts.
Rangavalli, sa.ra.dA IO rangavalli Prasad Chodavarapu did pioneering work. Freeware. e-mail Communication in Telugu might soon be popular because of his efforts.
Telugu Lipi Very good. User friendly. Comes with a fairly good editor and fonts. Converts RTS text to Telugu chars easily. Developed by Srinivas Sirigina and Anuradha Koneru. HTML conversion is very easy and built-in. Small price tag (voluntary)
IEKha “tikkana” fonts. Freeware. Several earlier versions were in circulation under various names. Built using pOtana fonts. A multi purpose editor does not seem to be available yet.
RIT 2.0 Freeware. Alternate site at Dr.K.V.Rao’s page. (The web interface to RIT 3.0 doesn’t seem to be working!) Free. RIT/RTS became the defacto standard for Telugu transliteration on the net. Sri Rama Rao Kanneganti, Sri Ananda Kishore, Sri Ramana Juvvadi, etc.
Rice Inverse Transliterator (RIT) A program to convert text in RTS transliteration scheme to TElugu fonts through LaTeX and dvips. It is a front end to TeluguTex developed by Lakshmi V.S. Mukkavilli.
LinguiPad Freeware. Vangapalli Rammohan Rao. Uses different fonts available on the net. Multi lingual. Very good.
ITRANS Freeware, Follows ITRANS scheme to transliteration. Many Indian languages are covered. For Telugu Mukkavilli’s TeluguTex fonts are used. web interface for ITRANS is available.
Telugu Tex Shareware. A UK based universal fonts company.
Saral Soft Commercial. Telugu tutor from SaralSoft
World Languages – Telugu Commercial. World languages –Telugu, Lists products such as software, etc.
Unitypes Commercial, Looks like the best-integrated system yet. full office suite capabilities, fonts of over 100 languages. Not too exorbitant a price.
Vijay Font Commercial, Phonetic keyboard mapping. Does not seem very great. Price reasonable.
Laser Telugu Commercial, Macintosh fonts and editor.
Inpros Commercial. Not a very serious Telugu page.
CDAC – iLeap Commercial, Multilingual. Word processing. Excellent software and fonts. Perhaps the best yet. Official organization in India. Massive research and development concerning Indian language fonts and editors. Phonetics keyboard –very different from that used by Indians in North America. Demo version free.
ComStar Commercial. Ambitious multilingual software site. Not a lot of useful information
Indology list List of early Telugu and other language software projects (1994).
Usenet list Another list similar to the above (1994).
Gopher list Yet another list of the above kind (1998).
Telugu Unicode Telugu Unicode project. No software available yet.

Links to Relevant Commercial Links

Saral Soft Telugu tutor from Saral Soft-Commercial site.
World languages – Telugu World languages – Telugu. Commercial site. Lists products such as software, etc.
Telugu website Unknown developer. Has put up some Telugu stuff-perhaps with commercial motive.
Amazon.com Major commercial bookseller, Lists Telugu Dictionaries and other interesting titles.
Barnes and Noble Major commercial bookseller. Lists Telugu Dictionaries and other interesting titles.
telugu.net telugu.net. Under development
  There are several other “Indian” booksellers and publishers on the net who also sell a few Telugu related books.

Links to Other Literature Links!

telugu diksUci Anantha Sudhaker Uppala – Very good collection of links.
Varigonda Subbarao Some useful links. He does not seem to have updated it for quite some time.
Telugu Language Resources on the Web. From TIFR, Mumbai. Looks like a simple compilation from a search engine.
Annexure-16 gives a list of many other interesting sites related to Telugu and Telugu people. 

	The following sites give Microsoft typography and font related tools. 
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=fb7b3dcd-d4cl-4943-9c74-d8df57ef19d7&displaylang=en  - Microsoft Keyboard Layout Creator 
(MSKLC) Version 1.3.4073. 

The Microsoft Keyboard Layout Creator allows users to create or modify keyboard layouts: Ever wanted to quickly and easily define your own keyboard layout for a language, which Microsoft doesn’t support? Or define your own keyboard layout so you can quickly and easily enter your favorite symbols with a simple keystroke? Well, want no more: the Microsoft Keyboard Layout Creator is here!

The Microsoft Keyboard Layout Creator extends the international functionality of Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 systems by allowing users to:

	•   Create new keyboard layouts from scratch. 
	•   Base a new layout on an existing one.
	•   Modify an existing keyboard layout (KLC) file and build a new layout from it.
	•   Package the resulting keyboard layouts for subsequent deployment and installation. 	

This minor update to MSKLC fixes several customer-reported bugs in diverse areas such as support for the Tibetan Tsek character on the spacebar and support for ligatures in the AltGr shift state.

The other state of the art facilities one wish to have is OCR, Speech to text & Text to speech, Natural Language processing and others. For Sanskrit and Hindi, OCR of sorts is available and can be downloaded from some of the sites mentioned above. Work on Telugu OCR is at a final stage in UOH and the status can be seen in their site mentioned above. CDAC also is working on these. Some information about speech & text is available in IIT, Hyderabad site and in the “tdil”, “mit” and other IIT sites. As of now these facilities, either commercial or other wise, are not available for the common user, but are expected to be available soon.

Thus it is heartening to note that finally the Telugu/Indian people have risen to make their presence felt in the computer world, as well as make the vast resources and knowledge available to the common people of India in their own languages.

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.... IndLinux Hindi, 532, 532, North-English. GPUL, 534, 534, Education, Non-English, Non-English. Gentoox, 543, 543, Desktop, Xbox. OpenGroupware Knoppix CD, 546, 546...

www.frozentech.com/content/livecd.php?showonly=&sort=image SizeMax- 63k – Cached – regional
Software (fonts linux management regional software telugu...	

.... Transliteration software for Bengali, Hindi, Tamil Assamese, Belarusian, Russian, Bulgarian ... page Interview with Klaus Knopper, Creator of Knoppix by Ladislav ...

www.software-x.com/software/regional.html - 25k - Cached - Similar pages
.... I didn’t stop acquiring lossary i copies of Knoppix and I designed my new distro based on Kernel 2.4.27 and 3.6.... Hindi  na sila magnanakaw. ... 
marc.free.net.ph/message/20041110.102721.b2183ff9.html – 17k – Cached – Similar pages.
Debian Project

... Japaneese speaking people); IndLinux (Morphix based Debian for Hindi speaking people); ... Impi (Knoppix based Debian for South-African speaking people); TrX (Turkish .... debianlinux.net/debian.html – 31k – Cached – Similar pages

Simple Method to Create Your Own Derivatiave Knoppix. | Linux ....

... you can read how to do it in the original article, Remaster Knoppix without Remastering ..... Spanish 7%, Portugese 5%, French 4%, Dutch 5%, German 4%, Hindi 13%....

www.linuxgazettee.com/node/9705 - 12k - 8 Dec 2004 – Cached – Similar pages

(c) 2004 Google

Web Results 1-10 of about 273 for Knoppix Telugu. (0.50 seconds)

regional Software (fonts linux management regional software telugu ....

.... typing, typing, tutor, dynamic fonts, web fonts, dynamic telugu, telugu in web ... title home page Interview with Klaus Knopper, Creator of Knoppix By Ladislav ....

www.software-x.com/software/regional.html - 25k - Cached - Similar pages 
IndLinux – Morphix Log	

.... Much of stuff is done in /etc/init.d/knoppix-autoconfig; Add Language options ... kn), Malayalam (ml), Marathi (mr), Oriya (or), Punjabi (pa), Tamil (ta), Telugu (te ....

indlinux.org/wiki/index.php/MorphixLog – 17k – Cached –Similar pages
IndLinux – Milan Demo Cd Rel Notes	

... we came across Morphix which is a modular distribution based on Knoppix .... Telugu (te), Gujarati (gi), Punjabi (pa), Oriya (or), Marathi (mr) are lossary but ...

indlinux.org/wiki/index.php/MilanDemoCdRelNotes – 15k – Cached – Similar pages
Winzix Knoppix  3.1 Man Pages 	

.... 1 Chinese, 2 Korean, 3 Arabic, 4 Hebrew, 5 Greek, 6 Russian, 7 Roman Symbol, 8 Devanagari, 9 Gurumukhi, 10 Gujarati, 11 Oriya, 12 Bengali, 13 Tamil, 14 Telugu, 15 Kannada 16 ....

winzix.artwerkz.com/linux/knoppix/manpages/ttf2tfm.html – 93k – 
About World Telugu Computerlu from 2004-12-2 	

... telugu lipi # fonts#lOki tarjumA cEsE#graphical editor#; #Tikkana 1.1.Glyph Composition Chart# - tikkana fonts lOni citrAlatO telugu padAlanu elA .... Knoppix Hacks.... www.beauchamp.de/odp/odp.php/browse/World/Telugu/Computerlu/ - 33k – Cached –

SourceForge.net: indlinux-cvx  

....CVS: livecd knoppix –autoconfig, NONE, 1.1. G.Karunakar karunakar@us..., 1, 2004-05-10... keymaps/gkb Hindi.keyprop, 1.1, 1.2. Kannada.Keyprop, 1.1, 1.2. Telugu.keyprop, ..... sourceforge.net/mailarchive/ forum.php?forum=php? forum= indlinux-vcs – rrk – Cached – Similar pages.

SourceForge.net: indlinux-group 	
...from the glossary (anyways taking care that its not repeated in case of other langs, like telugu, marathi, etc. ... 
From: Nirav Mehta nirav@ma...  Hindi Knoppix? .... 	
Rynho Zeros Web – Seguridad Informática en Tu Idioma – [Translate this page]
.... Science: Social Science: Linguistics: Languages: Natural: Dravidian: Telugu (6) . .... 
Maxpages vaari telugu putalu – Telugu vaaru andharu ikkada kalusukuntaaru. ....
www.izw.com.ar/ modules.php?name = BH-ODP&c=World/Telugu/ -35k – 
LWN: Distributions
....Project that deserves a mention is Shabdix, a Knoppix-based live.... of Bengali, Gujarati, Gurmukhi, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, 
Marathi, Oriya, Tamil and Telugu..... 
Iwn.net/Articles/61491/ -38k – Cached – Similar pages
Computers are a steop closer to talking the local lingo – India ....
... M of the Free Software Foundation India demonstrated a lossary  Knoppix in the .... Assamese and Manipuri, Marathi and Konkani, Tamil, Telugu, 
Gujarathi, Malayalam ....
www.expresscomputeronline.com/20030505/indcomp2.shtml - 32k - Cached - Similar pages.


Indlinux Team

Developer Username Role/Position Email Skills
Alok Kumar alok kumar Developer alok kumar at users.sourceforge.net Private
Ambuj Varshney ambuj Translator (I18N/L10N) ambuj at users.sourceforge.net Private
Anand anandsm Developer anandsm at users.sourceforge.net Private
anurag seetha anuragseetha Translator (118N/L10N) anuragseetha at users.sourceforge.net Private
Apu Shah apu Developer apu at users.sourceforge.net View
asmita khobragade asmitak Graphic/Other Designer asmitak at users.sourceforge.net Private
Kiran Kumar Chava chava Developer chava at users.sourceforge.net Private
Dhanjay Joshi dsjoshi Developer dsjoshi at users.sourceforge.net View
Indian Linux indlinux Project Manager indlunux at users.sourceforge.net Private
G.Karunakar karunakar All-Hands Person karunakar at users.sourceforge.net Private
T. Meyarivan meyarivanDeveloper meyarivan at users.sourceforge.net Private
Nirendra Awasthi nirendra Developer nirendra at users.sourceforge.net Private
Prakash Advani padvani Advisor/Mentor/Con- sulatant padvani at users.sourceforge.net Private
Pramod R pamri Doc Writer pamri at users.sourceforge.net Private
Pankaj Kaushal spo0nman Developer spo0nman at users.sourceforge.net Private
Sunil Mohan Adapa sunilmohan Developer sunilmohan at users.sourceforge.net Private
Venkatesh (Venky) Hariharan venkylinux Advisor/Mentor/Con-sultant venkylinux at users.sourceforge.net Private
Vinay Pawar zoyd Web Designer zoyd at users.sourceforge.net Private


Localizing free software, for a free country


Welcome to the homepage of the Indian Linux Project. The goal of this project is to create a Linux distribution that supports Indian Languages at all levels. This Indianisation project will strive to bring the benefits of Information Technology down to the Indian masses. We want to make technology accessible to the majority of India that does not speak English.

The task of localization has several pieces that need domain expertise. Some examples are I/O modules, development of fonts, kernel enablement, word translation etc. The project is looking for experts and volunteers to champion the cause of Indian language computing. One may volunteer and participate here.

The Indian Linux project is open source and completely free. It is licensed under the GNU General Public License. Here are the complete licensing terms and conditions.

Read Localization
Indlinux Hindi 0.9
Voice your
opinion here
Language Teams:
Hindi, Punjabi, Oriya and Telugu
Other Location Teams:
Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil
Internet Relay Chat(IRC) on # indlinux at irc. freenode.net
Project Wiki
* About
more about the project.
* Sourceforge Project
Developer space at sourceforge
* Mailing Lists
Discuss everything about localization of Linux.
* Links
Various other related links
* Contribute
Help us with the localization
Feedback welcome at feedback AT Indlinux.org

About Us

Indlinux.org is a group of people who passionately believe that the benefits of information technology must be widely and freely made available to the Indian masses. They are a group of people who combine skills in written scripts, free/open source technologies and technology journalism to make this happen.


Today, almost all software and operating systems and websites in India are in English language. Since English is a language spoken by less than 10 percent of India’s population, (generally considered to be the language of the affluent) it has become a significant barrier for the other 90 percent of India.

This is creating a new class of people who live in what can be call as “Information Poverty”.

To destroy this barrier we need a national-level, collaborative effort to create a glossary Linux to Indian languages. 	


	1)   Indian linguistic groups have to wake up to the fact that their languages will become outdated if they do not become a part of the digital age. 
	2)   Since culture is embedded in language to a significant degree, the ability to compute in one’s native language can give Indian culture a 
	      significant boost.  We believe that technology, particularly, the Internet can be one of the finest means of recording, archiving and propagating 
	      Indian culture.
	3)   India’s annual per-capita income is $390 (Rs 17,355) while operating systems cost $40 (Rs 3,500). Word processing software etc. cost 
	      even more.  Free/open source software’s are therefore extremely important in the Indian context.	


There are several significant economic and cultural reasons for choosing Linux as a platform.

Free operating systems like Linux have several advantages for developing countries. Most software packages today are developed in the west and then sold in developing countries where the parameters of affordability are completely different. This problem does not arise with Linux because it is free.

There are cultural reasons that make Linux even more attractive. The existing user interface paradigm of files and folders evolved because computers were essentially designed for a western audience familiar with real-life files and folders. There is no reason to assume why the same paradigm should apply to a trader in Tamil Nadu or a farmer in Madhya Pradesh.

The openness of Linux allows local linguistic groups to lossary user interfaces in ways that are far more culturally sensitive than any centrally controlled approach. Linguistic groups that may be considered too small a market by vendors can also take their destiny in their own hands by lossary to the Linux interface to their own needs. We therefore believe that Linux is a very attractive long-term solution to India’s computing needs. We chose Linux over other free/open Oses because of the popularity of the platform with developers.


Localising the user interface of Linux to all the 18 official Indian languages will involve changing the menus and help-text to Indian languages and creating a whole stack of applications and tools (word processors, browsers, spellcheckers etc.) to enable computing in Indian languages. This is a task that involves both technical and linguistic challenges. For example, should “File” simply be called “File”, but written in Indian scripts because it is now a part of popular usage? Or should we find Indian language equivalents? In some cases it makes little sense. For example, how many people know that the Hindi word for computer is “sanghanak”? Or what is the Hindi equivalent for “Internet”? A very sensitive balance has to be struck between practicality and preserving Indian languages. To achieve this goal we are looking for people with either of the two skills (if you have both these skills, that’s fantastic!):

	1)   Technical skills: The project needs a variety of technical skills such as X- Windows/GNOME/KDE, font development, kernel support, locale 
	      support etc. 
	2)   Language skills: You must be fluent with the script of at least one Indian language and be willing to contribute to the task of Indianising the 
	      menus and help text of Linux.  We request linguistic user groups and patriotic individuals to come forward and help us in this task. 	

Annexure –5


Home page

Home Wiki Home  SF Project page Downloads

	•   GnomeHindi Gnome Hindi localization/ MÉxÉÉä¨É +xÉÖ´ÉÉnù ±ÉäJÉÉ

	•   Kde Hindi Localizaing KDE to Hindi / Eäòb÷Ò<Ç Ë½þnùÒ    

	•   :Project mailing lists 

	•   IndLinuxDemoCd IndLinux Demo CD planning 

	•   DevelCorner Developer corner – check out development tasks.

	•   Localization newsletters – latest and back issues.

	•   HowTo Have some query or doubt like ‘How to...?’.  Check if it is answered in included howtos or links to more. Else ask in IndicFaq below. 

	•   Hindi Glossary – It contains translations of Important terms (from English to Hindi) which have not yet been given in the Gnome 
	     Glossary !!  A must read for everyone. 

	•   ArticlesPost Articles & Links to articles related to Indian Language computing, FLOSS, i18n/110n etc. 

		o   Why LinuxMakesSenseForindia – by Venkatesh (Venky) Hariharan Co-founder, Indlinux.org

		o   The Absolute Minimum Every Software Developer Absolutely, Positively Must Know About Unicode and Character Sets 
		     (No Excuses!)  - by Joel Spolsky, joelonsoftare.com

		o   Help Linux Go Indian - by Ravishankar Shrivastava  

hb÷ʱÉxÉCºÉ ʨɱÉxÉ

	•   ? MilanHistory  What is Milan? And How it came about? 
	•   MilanFaq Frequently Asked Questions about Milan 
	•   MilanFeedBack – Your Feedback/opinion on the Milan CD are welcome here 

	•   MilanFeatureRequest Feel free to add ideas, suggestions or feature requests, on what you would like to see in the Demo CD here. 

	•   KnownIssues with Milan Read this before filling a bug report. 

	•   IndLinuxBugs Add here any bugs you find in IndLinux releases. 

	•   TamingThe Dragon yes..its about Mozilla 

	•   GnomelndicBugList Indic related bugs in Gnome bugzilla. Bug ids & links to them 

	•   MozillaBugList Indic related bugs in Mozilla bugzilla 

	•   VolunteerSpeaks Volunteers start your own wiki/info page (pl l edit others pages) 

	•   RandomQuotes Visitors add your   lossa/comments/suggestions here, (or use this section to play around with wiki)

	•   NewsBytes Add any relevant news snippet/links related to lossa languages, Linux, software releases, FLOSS etc. 

	•   IndLinuxlrcChannel Links to Discussion logs of irc channel (#indlinux at irc.gimp.org) will be here 

	•   ScratchPad Posts made to ScratchPad through the IndLinuxlrcChannel. 

IndicFaq Have some query & want expert answers, ask here.  This section will develop into IndicFaq. 

Language Threads Add news items, comments, status info in the language logs below.  Info in this section will be used to compile Linux Localisation 
status document. 

	•   AssameseLog – Status of Assamese localization (http://luit.sourceforge.net)
	•   BanglaLog - Status of Bangla Localisation (http://www.bengalinux.org/)
	•   GujaratiLog - Status of Gujarati 
	•   HindiLog – Status of Hindi (http://www.indlinux.org/hindi/) 
	•   KannadaLog – Status of Kannada (http://kannada.sf.net/)
	•   MalayalamLog – Info on Malayalam (http://smc.sarovar.org) 
	•   MarathiLog – Status of Marathi 
	•   PunjabiLog – Status of Punjabi 
	•   OriyaLog – Status of Oriya 
	•   TamilLog – Status of Tamil  lossary ion (http://www.tamillinux.org/)
	•   TeluguLog – Status of Telugu 
	•   TuluLog – Tulu language info 


Indlinux – Telugu Log

Telugu is the 2nd largest spoken language in India. Though it is decently supported in KDE and GNOME, with keymaps and available fonts, fullscale localization is yet to begin, though some activity has picked up since April 2004.

To volunteer join the Telugu maining list at 

Log of activities on Telugu (as on 15 May 2004) 

Telugu KDE translations started by Praveen Tirumandyam ‹ tirupraveen at yahoo.com ›, with help from Vijay Kiran Kamuju ‹ vijaykamuja at rediffmail.com › have completed about 60% of kdelibs.

Telugu locale (te_IN) is available in glibc

Telugu Opentype font Pothana2000 is now released under GNU GPLas per the threat at sourceforge. It can be downloaded from http://www.kavya-nandanam.com/dload.htm

Font works well in KDE 3.2x, but not in Gnome 2.4 (not tested with latest release of pango). The site doesn’t seem to say that it’s under GNU GPL. It’s only for personal use. And the author requires credit even if one distributes not the font, but any work created using the font. Please check. Also please not that some others have attributed the GPL’d release to indlinux.org - Paccu.

OK, according to the sourceforge link above, it is GPL’d but the font available for download still has values encoded in it that say it cannot be edited without permission from the author. See this Debian bug. May be, someone should inform Desikachry about this. – Paddu.

Using Telugu in yudit, written by Chandra Kanth Chereddi – http://hserus.net/cck/telugu-yudit.html 
Gnome glossary was translated to Telugu by Kiran Kumar Chava, it was then typed in by some students at IIT Hyd. See  
Telugu Test pages – to test rendering of telugu (using Poathana 2000 font) 
utf-8 pages – http://www.indlinux.org/telugu/testpages/ 
PS as generated by Yudit (pdfs converted from ps using ps2pdf) – 
Some Unsolved Terms in the translation of gnome  lossary to telugu. Give some suggestions.  

Last edited on July 3, 2004  1:23 am. 	



Indian Language support for the Linux Operating System

View Page in Indian 
Please click here to download the font for Indian languages. Introduction

Introduction Many people in India are currently excluded from computer use, the Internet, and the World Wide Web by absence of software in the language, which majority of Indians speak.

News & Evens A Number of software systems of wide use have been localized in various international languages like Chinese, Arabic, etc. However there has been virtually no software localization in any of the major language of India.

Technical Details Availability of local language software will play a crucial role in the process of taking the benefits of Information Revolution to the
IndiX Docs local community. In this way we can also prevent the restriction of resource usage.

Screen Shots Developing a local language interface at an operating system level is better than developing it at an application level as the former enables us all the applications running on the top of the operating system to inherit the interface.

Download Linux is a robust and stable operating system and also freely available. So we have taken the step to localize Linux operating system. Our aim is to design a localized “user friendly” interface at the system level, which look more natural to the local user. We
Contact Us have also taken steps to localize suitable components within Linux OS (like GNOME desktop environment) to enable applications to create, edit and display contents in Indian Languages.

Future Activities Complexities involved in providing Indian Language editing support.

Legal Information : Display and editing of text in linearly composed scripts like the Roman script is relatively simple to handle. But Indian language encoding and display requires computational processes that are very different from those required by any of the other languages in the world. The enabling Indian language does not happen by
Useful Links simple font level substitution. Far more sophisticated processing of the encoded text is needed for determining the final I on the display or on hard copy.

Send feedback

Character Input

Indian language text input differs from that in English. The most significant difference of these is that in English, each keystroke maps directly to a letter. Each letter has a unique code. A “Syllable” – the Indian language equivalent unit of writing letter, however is composed of one or more characters entered through the keyboards or any other input mechanism. There are far too many syllables to be encoded separately. The syllable is broken down into vowels, consonants and modifiers. These are then encoded, just as roman alphabets are. The user types them in a sequence of vowels, consonants, and modifiers. The machine then composes syllables at run time based on language dependent rules. Every syllable is thus represented in the machine as a unique sequence of vowels, consonants and modifiers.

Glyph Display

Each syllable has a unique visual representation. However there are too many syllables to design individual glyphs for each. So a font normally contains certain component glyphs from which a syllable is composed at run time. The onscreen representation of a syllable is then a composition of glyphs from the Indian language font.

There is no direct mapping of glyph codes to the consonant, vowel or modifier codes. However, for every syllable (a sequence of consonant, vowels and modifiers) there is a corresponding sequence of glyphs. This constitutes a many to many mapping from keystrokes to glyphs as opposed to the one to one mapping in roman scripts.

Caret positioning

In a roman editor, carets are positioned in between alphabets. In an Indian language editor, carets are positioned in between syllables. Syllables are a sequence of bytes in memory and sequence of glyphs on screen. Moving over a syllable means moving over appropriate number of bytes in memory and over combined advanced width of glyphs on the screen.

Syllable Composition

As the user types in a sequence of vowels, consonants and modifiers, syllables start forming. These syllables are formed progressively. For example a sequence of one consonant and one vowel may constitute a syllable. Adding a modifier to this combination changes it to a different syllable. The states keep changing. A new keystroke that does not form part of the current syllable, marks the beginning of a new syllable.

As the syllables keep changing, their representations on the screen changes. The number of bytes in a syllable is not linearly related to the number of glyphs required to represent it on screen. This is radically different from the simple roman script model. What it means is that even when a character is added to the edit buffer the line extent may decrease, or even when a character is deleted from the edit buffer the line extent may increase. The system/application has to be aware of this.

Since the syllable’s onscreen representation is a composition of different glyphs, there has to be support for such composition at runtime. Ideally this support must come from the operating system. The complete syllable, in its current state, is required for this composition. This means that the system/application has to maintain the syllable break up information amongst the characters in its buffer.

Thus the editor in an Indian language context needs to maintain a count of the number of bytes for each syllable, and if it has to handle display at individual glyph level then the number of glyphs forming a syllable.

Backspace and Delete

Backspacing removes the last appended consonant, vowel or modifier from the syllable, like a stack’s pop operation. When there are no more items to be removed, the syllable is deleted. The syllable and its onscreen representation changes after every backspace. The delete operation however removes the entire syllable.

An editor must provide these required features for enabling Indian language text editing operations.


Indian Language Support for the Linux Operating System

Problem viewing Hindi fonts? Click here for English page


टीडीआईएल कार्यक्रम के अंतर्गत संचार और सूचना प्रौधोगिकी मंत्रालय द्वारा निधिक इंडिक्स परियोजना का मुख्य उद्देश्य है, निःशुल्क साँफ्टवेयर तथा खुले प्लैटफार्म और प्रणालियो के द्वारा भारतीय भाषाओं के कम्प्यूटिंग अनुप्रयोगों का बडे पैमाने पर उपयोग उपलब्द करना। इस परियोजना का विशिष्ट एवं तात्कालिक लक्ष्य है, युनीकोड (UNICODE) तथा इस्की (ISSCII) कूटों का प्रयोग करने हुए लिनक्स आँपरॆटिंग प्रणाली के योग्य अंगभूतों का स्थानीकरण, ताकि 12 मुख्य भारतीय भाषाओं के विषय विस्तु का सृजन, संपादन, अवलोकन तथा मुद्रण किया जा सके। ये 12 भाषाएं है असमिया, बंगला, गुजराती, हिंदी, कन्नड, मलयालम, मराठी, उडिया, पंजाबी, संस्कृत, तमिल और तेलुगु। इंडिक्स परियोजना के पहले चरण में भारतीय लिपियों, विशेषकर हिंदी भापा की विशेषताओं को उपलब्द कराने पर ध्यान केंद्रित किया गया।

लिनक्स प्लैटफार्म:

इस परियोजना के लिए लिनक्स आपरेटिंग प्रणाली को नींव के रूप में इस लिए चुना गया है, क्योंकि यह एक सशक्त स्थिर आपरेटिंग प्रणाली है तथा यह निशुल्क उपलब्द है। सुजनास्मक तथा खुले स्त्रोत साँफ्टवेयर विकास के लिए एक बड़ा समुदाय कार्यरत है, जो उपयोक्त अनुकूल अनुप्रयोगों सहित लिनक्स प्लेटफार्म को बढ़ावा दे रहा है। लिनक्स प्लेटफार्म में इंडिक स्तानीकरण उपलब्द होने से भारतीय उपयोक्त समुदाय के लिए भविष्य में साँफ्टवेयर अनुप्रयोगों का समुचित विकास संभव होगा।

जावा तकनीकी:

स्वतंत्र जावा प्लेटफार्म तकनीकी से विभिन्न क्षेत्र जैसे मल्टीमिडिया, प्रयोक्ता अंतरापृष्ठ तथा डाटा बेस पर एकता का प्रभाव हुआ है। यह परियोजना लिनक्स तथा भारतीय भाषाओं को जावा स्तानीकरण प्रदान करेगी।

इस पाठ्य देने वाली पाईपलाईन में शामिल है अक्षर पहचान, अक्षरो को प्रसंग के अनुसार क्रम परिवर्तन करना, ग्लिफों की मैपिंग तथा स्थिति परिवर्तन करना, और ग्लिफों को स्क्रीन व पेज पर मुद्रित करना, क्योंकि लिनक्स के मूलभूत अंग (X विंडो प्रणाली) में परिवर्तन किये गए है। लिनक्स के कई अन्तरराष्ट्रीय अनुप्रयोगों को बिना संकलन अथवा संशोघिन के भारतीय भाषाओं के साथ कार्य कर सकते है। इस परियोजना में लिपि शेपिंग पाठ्य संचालन लाइब्रेरी तथा इंडिप लिपि संचालन 6 ओपन टाइप फोन्टस के द्वारा किया गया है। इन अंगों को खुले स्त्रोत साँफ्टवेयर लिनक्स तथा XII (Xfree86) में स्तानांतरित करेंगे।


Indian Language support for the Linux Operating System

Useful Links

Related project at NCST

Vartalaap – A Multilingual Communication SystemBharateeyaOO – OpenOffice.org Localization for Indian Languages MaTra – Machine Aided Translation from English to Hindi		

Other Parties efforts in Localization of Linux for Indic scripts

IndLinux at IIT MadrasRXVT – Indian DevanagariPango HomepageIndLinux.orgITRANS: Transliteration Software,	


The official Unicode website The Unicode-HOWTOUTF-8 and Unicode FAQ	

Open Type font

Open Type specification at MicrosoftMicrosoft TypographyMicrosoft VOLT users community	

Other i18n stuff

Internationalization patchesIntroduction to i18n ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG20- InternationalizationThe i18n in GTK+ The linux-utf8 mail ArchivesThe gtk-i18n-list mail ArchivesIBM JDK for Linux Internationalization Components for Unicode  	


OpenOffice.org: Home Page

.... Sun, Sun Microsystem’s the Sun Logo, Solaris, Java, StarOffice, StarOffice 7 and Starsuite 7 are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc... www.openoffice.org/ - 17k – 9 Dec. 2004 – CachedSimilar pages

Projects > hi Project tools project home memberships Announcements Mailing lists Documents & files Version control Issue tracker hi.Openoffice.on हिंदी प्रस्तावना उत्पाद विवरण डाउनलोड
Search This project Go ओपन CD-ROM अक्षर की चाँच स्क्रीनशाँट
Advanced search Google search Help Sitemap FAQ Get help? OpenOffice.org:हिंदी भाषा (hi) परियोजना मे आपका स्वागत है। परियोजना/प्रोजेक्ट पृष्ठभाग FAQ सहायता
  OpenOffice.orgएक ओपन सोर्स प्रोजेक्ट है, एक उद्देश्य के साथः 'उभरना, एक संस्था के रूप मे, सबसे आगे अन्तराष्ट्रीय ऑफिस-सूट्र के साथ जो कि सभी बड़े ऑपरेटिंग् सिस्टम्स पर चलेगा और सभी विशेषताऑ और सूचनाऑ को ऑपन-काम्पोनेन्ट एवं XML (एक कम्पूटर भाषा) आधारित APIs में प्रदर्शित करना' मेलिंग लिस्ट लेखपत्र योगदान कैसे?
  OpenOffice.orgएक उत्पाद भी है, जो कि इसके अपने संदर्भ में भी विकसित हो रहा है। यह एक ऑफिस-सूट्र है जो कि हर व्यक्ति के लिए वितरण के अधिकार देता है, फ्री है, और इसमे लिखने, प्रस्तुति, ग्राफिक्स एवं गणना के विभिन्न वर्ग है। अगर इसके कार्य प्रणाली एवं विशेषताओं पर तुलनात्मक दृष्टि डाले, तो यह सभी लोकप्रिय एवं जाने पहचाने ऑफिस-सूट्र (जो फ्री भी नही हैं) के तुलनीय है। इसे निश्चित रूप से उन सभी के समक्ष समज्ञा जाना चाहिए। यह फ्री भी है और इसे आपके किसी विशेष कार्य के लिए चाचाँ और मापा जा सकता है। इसके सभी आवर्तन ने सभी कार्य में अपने आपको बहुत उपयोगी साबित किया है। त्रुटि/बग्स का खबर करना संपर्क मेलिंग लिस्ट हमारे बारे में पता
  हिंदी (hi) OpenOffice.org प्रोजेक्ट का एक हिस्सा है। यह Open Office. org प्रोजेक्ट एवं इसके उत्पाद को हिंदी बोलने बाले लोगों मे अधिक एवं आसानी से उपलब्द कराने के लिए भी है। धन्यवाद नियमानुकूल
 : hi.openoffice.org प्रोजेक्ट में हिंदी बोलने वाले लोगों के लिए एक विशेष ध्यान गया है, जो कि का अभिन्न अंग है। जैसे किः * हिंदी में सूचनाऐं (´Éä¤É पेज और लेखपत्र ºÉÆOɽ) * हिंदी में विभिन्न उत्पाद के बारे मे जानकारि * हमारे दर्पण साइट्स के बारे मे जानकारी, वहाँ से भी आप उन्हें डाउनलोड कर सकते है। * हिंदी भाषा में सुधार। * भाषा के विभिन्न औजारों (जैसे शब्दकोश) को जोड़ना। * OpenOffice.org की हिंदी भाषा में लोकप्रियता  
  hi, OpenOffice.org प्रोजेक्ट का एक हिस्सा होगा, ना कि उसे बदलने का। इसलिए आपको अंग्रेजी वेबपेज के भी लिक्स मिलेगें। देखिए दाहिने तरफ आपको हिदी (hi) वेबपेज के भी लिक्स मिलेगें हिदी पेज, OpenOffice.org वेब साइट के अंदर एवं बाहिने तरफ इसके अंग्रजी वेबपेज के भी लिक्स है। भारतीय OO.o टीम  


StarOffice 7 Office Suite

StarOffice 7 Office Suite ... office suite on Windows.  StarOffice software is affordable, easy to use, and based on open standards ..... 
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Sun Microsystems

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StarOffice Users Group Portal

.... Ericom + Xandros Linux + StarOfficeTM 7 Legacy Host Access with the Xandros Desktop OS PowerTerm Edition StarOfficeTM Books and Tutorials Click here to order ... staroffice.com – 34k – CachedSimilar pages

Tools Ver Size(MB) Platform
Desika (Natural Language Understanding System) 1.0 0.67 Win 95
Gita Reader (Reader of Gita) 1.0 3.29 Win 95
Shabdika (Collection of glossaries) 1.0 22.9 Win 95/98/NT/2000
ALP-Personal (Language Processing System) 1.0 3.5 DOS 3.0 or Higher
Grammatical Tagged Corpora 1.0 176 Win 95/98
Shabdabodha (Sentences Analyzer) - 3.29 DOS 6.0 with GIST shell
Image Browsing Tool 1.0 0.67 Win 98/NT/2000
Slide Show 1.0 0.67 Win 98/NT/2000
Show All Images 1.0 0.67 Win 98/NT/2000
Zoom Image Tool 1.0 0.67 Win 98/NT/2000
E-Greetings Tool 1.0 0.67 Win 98/NT/2000
Cognitive Map Tool 1.0 0.67 Win 98/NT/2000
Hot Spot Viewer Tool 1.0 0.67 Win 98/NT/2000
INDIX (Indian Language Interface) 1.0 31 Linux 7.1
Bhartiya Bhasha Kosh 1.0 24.3 Win 98/2000/XP
Rupantar 1.0 7.4 MS Windows 95/98/NT/ Win XP
Webix Dictionary 1.0 11.6 Windows/2000/XP/NT (Pro/Srv)
Word Processor
Word Processor Ver Size(MB) Platform
iLeap Multilingual Word Processo (Multilingual Word Processor) 2.4 4 WIN 95/98/NT
Akshar for Windows (Bilingual Word processor) 2.0 3.5 WIN 95/98
Hword (Hindi Word Processor) 1.0 12.8 Win 95/98/NT/2000
Punjabi Spelichecker (Language Processing System)>/u> - 0.4 DOS
Plug-in Ver Size(MB) Platform
Shree Lip Board Devanagari Keyboard driver & forms - -
Unicode Complaint Open Type Fonts
Unicode Complaint Ver Size(KB) Platform
Raghu.ttf - 132 WIN 95/98/2000
Gargi-1.3.ttf 1.3 73 WIN 2000, Linux9.0
GISTYogeshN 2.0 733 WIN 2000, XP
GISTSurekhN 2.0 209 WIN 2000, XP
JanaHindi 1.0 63.3 WIN 2000, Linux9.0
JanaKannada 1.0 95.3 WIN 2000, Linux9.0
JanaMalayalam 1.0 58.7 WIN 2000, Linux9.0
JanaMarathi 1.0 83 WIN 2000, Linux9.0
JanaSanskrit 1.0 157 WIN 2000, Linux9.0
JanaTamil 1.0 45.8 WIN 2000, Linux9.0
Email Ver Size(MB) Platform
Multilingual Email Client (Beta)(Email Client) 1.0 2.12 WIN 95/98


Annexure –13

Font Software Last update:Web Sep 10 08:29:19 EDT 2003 Luc Devroye (Copyright), School of Computer Science, McGill University Montreal, Canada H3A 2K6 luc@cs.mcgill.ca, http://jeff.cs.mcgill.ca/~luc/index.html http://jeff.cs.mcgill.ca/~luc/fonts.html 3D Eureka Generate 3D fonts. 4 MB shareware package. By Photon Computer. Check for download instructions at download.com (link). 3d Font Creator CD-Rom description. Software on the CD-ROM produced by EXPERT SOFTWARE INC. (US$ 15.67). Apparently, a 2d-font to 3d-font conversion tool. Mailto:pim@cdromshop.com A Font Primer Overview of the font formats. ABF Adobe Binary Screen Font, binary version of .BDF. Specs.

AccentKernMaker 2.1 AccentKernMaker (akm 2.1) is a useful script which works existing Fontgrapher (tm) metrics files (.met) Based on the available kerning information, akm 2.1 creates a complete kerning table for accented characters for Macintosh Standard, Macintosh Central European, and Windows East European character set. It also offers a possibility to create kerning table for custom encoding. It’s a free on-line web service.

Anshare   Links to font software of French origin. 
Anti-aliasing  By PC Webopaedia.

Apple: font page      Basic font page at Apple.

Ares Software Corporation From Nicolas Fabian’s description of this wonderful but shot-lived company, “Ares Software Corporation was founded in August, 1990. The Company’s goal was to create value added software which enhanced existing font libraries and simplified the daily work of graphic designers, typographers and micro computer users in general. Ernie Brock, Harold Grey and their team of dedicated programmers produced some of the most creative typographic software in the history of computers, including the legendary FontStudio, FontMonger, FontHopper, FontMinder, FontFiddler, and the most unique software of them all, FontChameleon. But, when Adobe Systems purchased Ares, all competing Ares products were discontinued on June 6, 1997. A most unfortunate even in the history of creative typography”.

Ariel Shamir (LiveType) Developer (with Ari Rappoport) of Live Type at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. LiveType is font creation software that uses a parametric model for the fonts and allows the user to specify any number of constraints. It is useful for creating multiple master fonts. One may also find some fun font applets at his site. ParamTT is a complementary font design tool to create and manipulate LiveType characters. Mailto:arik@cs.huji.ac.il

ASE Technologies 	Soft font to truetype or type 1 converters. Commercial. 

ATM Lite   Free copy of ATM Lite. 	

ATR (Adobe Type Reunion) Adobe product, which “lets you take control of your font menu for easier access to all of your fonts. ATR Deluxe automatically sorts your fonts according to family name, listing style, and weight variations in a submenu under each name.” Comes with ATM Deluxe 4.5.

b2p Rolling Rock Software’s free program for converting big fonts to. shp files. Mailto:JFoster@cadshack.com

BDF Specs for the Bitmap Distribution Format Version 2.1. Other specs here, including AFM, CFF, CPI, FNT, ACORN, ABF, GF, HBF, DRS, PK, SWECOIN, TFM, TTF.

BDF to FON The programs bdftofon.exe, pcftofon.exe, bdftopcf.exe, mkfontdir.exe allow conversions from .bdf to. fon format (used by emacs and vim in UNIX environments). Starnet went commercial, and placed those programs elsewhere. So, one will only find them in some archives. biglet James Ryan’s routine for creating big letters with polylines. Free. Mailto:JFoster@cadshack.com

Bitmap Font    	Free program that permits the editing of (colored) bitmap fonts in 8-bit 
Builder TGA, 24-bit TGA, 32-bit TGA, RAW or BMP format. By Thom Wetzel. Bitmap Fontier V2.0 Free bitmap font cutter for MS/DOS.

Bitstream WebFont Maker Add dynamic fonts to your web pages. Commercial product. It looks like the Bitstream product requires so-called .pfr binary files, which are probably directly derived from truetype files. I guess you can get these from Bitstream’s 200-font Webfont Maker CD. Also, the users need the Bitstream web browser add-ons. See also here.

ChinaSea Chinese Fonts Extension Tom Chiu’s software to view Chinese characters. “Extended font glyphs for traditional Chinese Windows 95/98 installation.” Mailto:MimosaPudica@xoommail.com

ClearType Nov 15 1998: Microsoft is claiming a major breakthrough in font technology with what they are calling “ClearType”. Although technical details are not available, from a description it sounds like antialiasing. Henry Norr’s report.

Cool 3D   3D application to create 3D effects with fonts. 

COOL 3D (Ulead)  Shareware for 3d-ing and animating characters. 

CoolType  Commercial site specializing in Photoshop tips and links for web page design and fancy font enhancements.  Go here to view fancy tricks 
	with fonts. 	

Corel Corporation  Includes hundreds of fonts with their graphics packages. 

Creating graphics  Tutorial by Wide Area Communications. 

for the Web: Anti-aliasing
Crystal 3D Impact  3D application to create 3D effects with fonts. 

DOS CPI Fonts  Specs of CPI format invented by Erik Bachmann. 

Drawperfect 1.0  SPecs. 

Dynamic fonts Dynamic fonts are fonts formatted in such a way that they can be either automatically grabbed from the author’s site or embedded in an html page. This insures that the html page reader sees the page in the intended font, which is especially useful for non-standard scripts. Two competing formats exist today, PFR (Portable Font Resource) and EOT (Embedded Open Type). Tools exist to create PFR or EOT files from TTF files. PFR is supported in Netscape 4.0 and above. EOT is supported in Internet Explorer 4.0 and above. It is Bitstream/Truedoc (PFR) versus Microsoft (EOT). The reason for not using the original TTF files for this purpose, is still unknown. Tools to create these dynamic fonts are:
For PFR, see Truedoc.
For EOT, Microsoft offers WEFT.

FBM: FastFont to Bitmap Font Generator “The FastFont to Bitmap Font Generator (FBM.EXE) is provided for those developers who just want a quick way to generate HP PCLsoft fonts for distribution with their applications. FBM generates HP PCL bitmap fonts (.SFP/.SPL) from PageTech’s proprietary FastFont scalable typeface format (.FF1). The Type Importer is included with FBM to convert TrueType and PostScript Type I and Type III fonts into our FastFont format. AIIType can also convert scalable fonts into FastFont format. The price for FBM with Type Importer is US$249.” Mailto:info@pcltools.com

Fntcvtr   FNT or BMP to C Data Table converter by Francisco Ares.
	Email to francisco.a at altec.com.br@	

FONmaker 1.0 FON maker is FontLab’s newest program capable of automatically generating FON, FNT, SPF and BDF bitmap fonts from any TrueType or Type 1 font installed in Windows. FONmaker use the Windows (or ATM) rasteriser to build bitmaps, so results are completely compatible with the outline originals. From Pyrus: “Use FONmaker to generate bitmap fonts from outline fonts in TrueType or Type 1 format. FONmaker can produce bitmap fonts in FON, FNT, SPF/SFL and BDF formats using standard Windows rasterizers, so resulting bitmpa fonts are completely compatible with their outline originals. Other important FONmaker features include: support for multiple codepages, selectable destination resolution, batch-mode processing of many fonts at once and possibility to rename fonts”. For PC. Mailto:yar@legion.ru

Font Fusion  Bitstream’s latyest rasterizing technology launched in October 1999.  
                     Alternate URL. 

Font Fusion  Font engine (font renderer) for most font formats, marketed by Type Solutions, a subsidiary of Bitstream.  

Font Magic Archive maintained by Manish Sharma. Many font categories, including Western, Script, Party, Typewriter, Asian, Brush, Balloon. Over 4000 fonts! Has a nice link page for font utilities. Mailto: msharma@satyam.net.in

Font Magic “Font Magic for Windows 95/98 and NT is a free easy-to-use tool for creating 3D text.” From TrueType fonts. Free.

35USD utility for Windows that makes all characters of a truetypes font to individual “bmp” files. Free partially functional demo (numbers 0-9 only. By Webcatering in Stillwater, OK.

Font2BMP v1.3 	     Mailto:webmaster@webcatering.com 

Font3D  Free open source code program for PC and Unix that can create 3-d text in day true type font. 

FontEdit 1.0   DOS Windows font editor (bitmaps) by Ziff Communications/Michael J. Mefford. 	

FontExpert 2.0 (alternate site) Automatic font identification program by The Quick Brown Fox GmbH foundary run by Willi Welsch out of Koln, Germany. Costs 250DM.
Useful French archive offering 12 TrueType fonts each week. Offers also a bunch of font utilities.

Fontograph 	Mailto:Fontograph@Chez.com 

Fontutils    Gnu fontutils package patched up by Oliver Corff in 1998 so that it compiles on Linux. 

Free font tools   Free font tools listed at ZDNet. 
FreeBiez   Free font software links. 	

Freehand Graphics Studio 7 Available for 200 dollars for students, it allows one to create fonts by by freehand drawing. It is a Macromedia product for the Mac.

Freetype in Java “This is the (current) home of the (non-official) FreeType Java Port. FreeType is an excellent and highly competitively priced TrueType font library. FreeType is implemented in C.” By rolandpj.

Graphics Font Free software by Ralf S. Engelschall: “The gFONT program creates a GIF image for a given ASCII string by the use of an arbitrary TeX-available font (Postscript or METAFONT). The used font is converted from TeX’s PK format to gFONT’s own GdF fromat (Gd Font) and rendered into the resulting GIF image by the use of its own enhanced Gd library. The result is intended to be included into HTML pages with an IMG tag.” Current version 1.0.3.

Indian Institute of Technology, Madras The Institute’s software takes text strings in various languages, and returns a bitmap graphic for use on Web pages and computer interfaces.

Installing fonts in Windows Installation help.

Izosoft 3D Type Software by Alexandr Shurenkov for 3D typefaces. Typer Tools: utility from this Moscow-based company for making fonts look like 3D fonts. Free trials. Also, six free 3D fonts.

Japanese font technology     Great article by Ross Evans, president of Fontworks International Limited on Japanese font technology.   

javafont.htm        Page on font in Java. 

John W. Durham	John Durham gives a solid introduction on computer font technology, well done. 

Karow Verlag         Peter Karow’s Hamburg-based type software company.  Peter Karow has written extensively on the technical aspects of type design. 

Kerning pairs      Jared Benson’s basic kerning paris. 

LED Sign Fonts Simile utility and explanation for making LED sign font consisting of ascii symbols on terminal screens. By Darrick Brown. Default font.
Alternate site. Yet another site.

Linux Wordperfect Fonts	Rod Smith’s informative page on the use of fonts in Linux word 
perfect by Corel. 

List of font Software   Kept by Jacci Howard Bear at Desktop Publishing. 

MacintoshOS.com	Mac font FAQ.
	Microsoft’s free Windows 95 font smoother

NC-Font 2.5X    	Font manipulation tool for etching and effects.  

New Hua        	Many font utilities at this Chinese site. 	

NFNT to BDF Converter Free Mac program for converting from Mac NFNT format to BDF (Adobe Bitmap Distribution Format). Written by George Williams. Now also a BDF 2 NFNT converter. Mailto:www@silcom.com

OS X and Fonts       Learn about Mac OS X and fonts. 

Painter 5         This commercial program can make 3-d bevelled text with drop-shadow, 
		mirror-text, slime-text, and more. 

PaintShop pro	      Paint Shop pro is popular shareware. Can make 3d text. 		

PFR PFR stands for Portable Font Resource. It is a dynamic font format supported in Netscape 4.0 and above. It permits an author’s font to be used in an html page without explicit downloading. Developed and marketed by Bitstream/Netscape/Truedoc, the format can be obtained from a truetype file by using tools provided by truedoc.

Photofonts A new type format to be described by Theodore E. Harrison, the founder of Fontlab US, at the ATypI in Rome in 2002. It allegedly allows complete typographic control of web pages yet retains all the benefits of standard HTML text.

PixFont 3.0      Commercial Russian software for making pixel fonts from truetype fonts.

Poly Fonts        Polygon-shaped outline font format. 

ppmbuttton and roxenfont   GNU license open code to render Truetype or X11 fonts to pixmaps.
		      By Peer J. Holzer. 

Quark, Inc.   	Publishers of Quark XPress.

R.K.Joshi Typography professor R.K. Joshi’s pages. Vinyas is a digital type font design environment providing a comprehensive set of interactive tools for the generation of calligraphic fonts (callifonts) using a skeletal approach. R.K. Joshi is a type designer in India, whose fonts include Vishakha (Devanagari), Vibhusha (Bengali), Vidhan (Oriya), and Viloma (Tamil.) His students at the Industrial Design Centre included Deborani Dattagupa (Bengali calligraphic typefaces), P.M. Hashim (headline type for a Malayalam daily), Anand Bhandarkar (drop caps), Rajeev Prakash (text face), G.V. Sreekumar (text face for Malayalam), and Apurva Joshi (titling faces). An example of a random font, based his Vinyas software (1991). He won an award at Bukvaraz 2001 for Raghu (or Raghindi, which can be downloaded here: developed with the help of Vinay Sayanekar). He also made the first OpenType font for Hindi (Mangal) and Tamil (Latha, with Vikram Gaikwad).

sbit32.exe Microsoft program for bitmap font conversions.

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology The Peripheral Systems Laboratory develops new software and hardware technology for advanced displays, printing devices, phototypesetters and information servers. They have several pages relating to smooth font technology.

TEX font utilities TEX font utilities, including accfonts, adjkerns, afmtopl, ega2mf, fontinst, fontload, freetype, gsftopk, macfont, makefonts, mathinst, mathkit, mf2ps, mf2pt3, mff-29, mkpkfontdir, mm,mmtools, pbmtogf, pf2afm, pfm2afm, pkbbox, ps2afm, ps2mf, ps2pk, ps4mf, psposter, qdtexvpl, t1install, t1tooks, t1utils, tfmpk, tfmpktest, ttf2pfb, ttf2pk, ttf2pt1, unadobe, vfinst, vplutils.

TFM TeX font metrics file format specs.

Theodore E. Harrison Founder of Fontlab US. At ATypI in Rome in 2002 he spoke about Fontlab 4, but more importantly, about a new font format, called photofonts that allows complete typographic control of web pages yet retains all the benefits of standard HTML text.

Truetype Fonts Collection	Lots of true type fonts: mass downloads.  Also, some free font converters and font utilities. 

TrueTypeUG	Commercial software (free demo): “Creates text as geometry (curves/splines, solids in engraved of embossed from) on any surface 
		along any guide-curve.” 

Type Generation Systems	Wonderful essay by  Nicolas Fabian about the  history of font editors and font creation systems. 

UFST4.0        Agfa’s  announcement  of  “Universal Font  Scaling Technology  4.0 and a PostScript TM3 Compatible Font Solution.”

Web Fonts      Links and introduction regarding fonts on web sites. 

WebScript       Text banner generation software.

Windows3.1Bitmap Font Format	Specs. Format owned by Microsoft. 

Windows 95/98    Font utilities: great links page. 

Font Management

Windows Font

Windows Online	  Font utility archive. In Polish. 

Winsite Windows font software links 	Links to Windows font software.  Many fonts are archived as well.

Word Perfect and Fonts	Rod Smith’s pages on fonts in Word Perfect.

Wotsit’s Format Search	Info on most font formats, including metafont, truetype, opentype bitmap formats, AFM, BDF.

X with Japanese Scalable fonts	Info (in Japanese) on using scalable fonts with X Windows. with 
		lots of links to GIMP and Japanese GIMP. 

Xara 3D   	3D application to create 3D effects with TrueType fonts.  Three free 3d fonts, Balthazar, Dayton and GeoType (by Gary David Bouton). 


XML Font Description Standard A working group consisting of people from Apple, Microsoft and Adobe will try to set an XML standard for describing fonts. Some of these people created the truetype and opentype monsters, so one should not expect anything “simple” – simple is not in their vocabulary.

Yummy    Font software expert, genuinely nice person, helpful, thoughtful, and very informed. 
Yri Yarmola 	FontLab co-developer, and font software guru. 

Annexure – 14

Telugu Language Resources on the Web

http://theory.tifr.res.in/bombay/history/people/langauge/telugu.html   This site is from TIFR, Mumbai.   

Thanks to many people, mostly anonymous, who continue to send in links, updates and bug reports to help keep these pages going. [N =New link] [B = Broken link] Report any errors. changes or additions.

Basic Information
Information card in the Ethnologue database
Altavista search.
Fonts and Software.
C-DAC, Pune: Unix, DOS, Windows, Mac; a range of word-processing and related software. 

LaserTelugu: Mac system 6.0.7 or later; TrueType or Type 1 plain, bold italic or bold-italic styles in various sizes; InduScript keyboard mapping; consistent with other languages.

Unitype:  Windows 95/98 or NT 4.0; multi-language software including translations between supported languages. 
Vijay:  Mac and IBM PC; fonts with phonetic keyboard mapping. 

ITRANS: rather widespread package for transliteration of Indian languages. The home page has links to further information. This reference supercedes the older reference for ITRANS.

Telugu TeX:  is available either from CTAN (UK), or from any of the CTAN mirror sites. Check also the mirror site at the University of Beyreuth.

TeluguLipi:  Windows 95 or NT; fonts and transliteration package. 
Language Tutorials and Teaching Aids 
History and Relationship to other languages. 
History of the Telugu language.
Telugu Software Page.
The Language, Literature and Songs
Telugu Literary (sic) Home Page (includes information on movies, software, translations). 
Telugu songs (index of audio) [1]
Telugu on the Internet
Telugu movies search
Greetings to the universe in Telugu (from the Voyager spacecraft). 
Other pages of Telugu Links
Multilingual PC directory: Extensive set of links to Telugu software. 
Telugu software digest: Index of software from ComStar.
Four-P Telugu page:  Short on software, but inclines more to music, cinema, newspapers and so on. 
South Asian language fonts: Posted on Dec 7, 1994 on the indology mailing list, this is an useful introduction to the available font families in 
Indian languages. 

Usenet post (dated Aug 24, 1994) collecting and summarizing data on Indian fonts. 
Inventory of Language Material: Gopher library resource for fonts, including a short description and pricing information. 
Yamada guide to Telugu: short in Jan 99, but may undergo expansion in future. 	


A Contribution of the India Network Foundation, Inc.
Founded by Prof. K.V.Rao


India Network Welcomes you from Hyderabad, India!	

Welcome to Telugu Literary Home Page! In this age of information revolution, it is not the books in the libraries, but the electronic pages that are browsed for information. These pages are a humble effort to match the desperate need for authentic and comprehensive information about Telugu language and literature on cyberspace. We hope that in time this evolves as an encyclopedia of Telugu language. These pages are still in heir infancy. Please join us in paying a loving tribute to Telugu language. We heartily welcome your contributions and any suggestions and comments regarding these pages.

Please use the On-Line Form to send your comments.  2002 Telugu Calendar 2003      All India Network Radio – Telugu. 
Jan 2003 Vizag City Won UNDP Award for bringing City government online. 	
History of Telugu Language On Bammera Potana Mahaprasthanam by Sri Sri Famous Telugu Writers
Biographies Of Telugu Litteraeurs Nuggets From Telugu Literature Random TElugu Quote Wcriptual Sanskrit Sthothrams (Prayers/Hymns)
Nuggets From Telugu Literature in Telugu ++ + ++ ++ English Translations of Telugu Literature Telugu(!) Writers in Cyberspace Image Gallery (we need help here!)
Languages of Andhra Pradesh Chellivo Chellako Stotra Lahari Mahakavi Sri Sri

South Asian Literary Project (Must see)

P.Lalita Kumari (Olga), 1950- C.Narayana Reddy, 1931 – Nagabhairava Koteswara Rao. 1931 –

A free read-only version of Telugu font is now available along with the sthotrams and Manthrams in Telugu script at this Web Site. This post script font can be downloaded and will enable readers to view the archived Sthrotrams and Manthrams in Telugu and print them.

Laetst AP News Learn Telugu –Internet TELUGU learning Resources Info Learn Telugu Reading and Writing
AP Telephone Enquiry Telugu Associations Telugu Web Editor Bhaagavata Gaana Sudha
Telugu Software   Telugu Links Modern Heroes
Telugu Movies Govt of AP Page Color Map of Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Budget 1998-99
Telugu Songs     Telugu senet Group

Annexure – 16

Results 11-20 of about 638,000 for telugu links (0.17 seconds)


Indian/Telugu Links
Indian/Telugu Links. Movie Links. telugu cinema. idlebrain; megacinema; teluguone;
telugubiz; greatanchra; andhravilas; indiavilas; andhravani; .... 
www.case.sc.edu/~kalakota/telugu_junk.html -3k - Cached - Similar pages.

andhraConnections Best Telugu Links ~ Best Telugu Music ~ Best ...
.... Indian and Andhra Recipes - .... and some telugu songs; Indian Dishes; Indian 
Food Recipes – Bachelor Indian Cuisine and Indian Fook links; .. 
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[More results from www.andhraconnections.com] 
My –Telugu.com: Andhra Pradesh’s Premier Portal – Matrimonial .....
.... Has he gone bonkers? .... Telugu links.  Andhra Recipes.  Hi ..... OR Start a New
Message.... Telugu Web Directory. Arts Cultural Organizations, Language .... 
www.my-telugu.com/ - 39k – 9 Dec 2004 – CachedSimilar pages.
Telugu Links
Other Telugu Music Sites. English. .... Aו A§AL, A§C uzlLuzC A§lz’le  
lL  bAlAjee gAri vaaram vaaram oka telugu paaTa ..... 
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Welcome to Nalla.com (Telugu Cine Music) – Your connection to ....
Your one source guide to telugu world. contains telugu songs, video, telugu links, 
and new. Telugu Directory, CineMusic, Matrimonials, E-Greetings. AP Weather....
www.nalla.com/ - 30k – CachedSimilar pages 
Telugu Association of Malaysia 
webmaster development credits. Home, History, Committee, Events, Friendship, Business, Photos, Articles, Festivals, Tsn, Links, Telugu Links,
 Malaysia-Telugu website.....
www.telugu.com.my/links.htm - 33k - Cached - Similar pages 
Learn Telugu – Language Resource Online!
... Language Schools. Telugu Links. Let’s Learn Telugu Oldest Text Book For Learning
Telugu (Oldest Text Books For Learning Telugu).... Learn Telugu Links. Search.... 
www.languageresourceonline.com/language/learn_telugu.html - 31k - Cached - Similar pages. 
Divine Telugu Links – Suprabhatam, Sri Venkatesa Sthotram, Slokas ........
Divine Telugu Leran Telugu in 30 days through English, Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Strotram 
Shuklaam Baradharam Vishnum Shashi varnam Chathur bhujam.......
www.teluguwebsite.com/Telugu_DivineLinks.html - 61k - Cached - Similar pages.


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