8. Modern period:

The development of modern Sindhi literature is divided into two periods: British era (1843 –1947) and post partition era (1947- onwards).

8.1. Development of Sindhi literature during the British era:

After the establishment of British rule in Sindh in 1943, the rulers decided to run the local administration and education in Sindhi. The Arabic Sindhi writings system was recognized and standardized for the language.

Due to the encouragement from governmental and non-governmental agencies and due to the availability of printing presses and contact with English and other Indian languages, the journalism and literature grew remarkably. The Sindhi papers and literary magazines like Sindh Sudhar (1866), Saraswati (1890), D J Sind College Misecellary (1901), Jot (1892) Hindu (1917), Hindwasi (1917), Bharatwasi(1922), Sindhu(1932) Bharat Jeevan (1936), Gulstan(1944), Mehran (1946) Agite Qadam (1947) and Nai Duniya (1947) etc; the publications like Ratan, Asha and Kahani etc and literary oraganizations like Sindh Sabha (1889), D.J. SInd College Amatem Dramatic society (1894), Chandrika Amateur Dramatic society, Sindhi Sahit Society (1914), Rabindranath literary and Drama club, Balkan-ji Bari(1926), Muslim Adabi Society (1931) etc, played a major role for the development of Sindhi language and literature during the British era

On the basis of literary trends, the British era is divided into two phases - 1843 to 1907 and 1907 to 1947.

8.1.1. Development of Sindhi literature during 1843 to 1907 A.D:

Along with the poetry, the prose also grew rapidly.

1. Sindhi Poetry (1843 - 1907):

During the first phase (1843 – 1907) of British era, the Sindhi poetry was stereotypical and was highly influenced by Persian poetry in the content as well as form. The Persian prosodic forms used by some poets in the medieval period continued during this period. A number of Deewans (collections) were compiled by many poets like Gul Mohammed ‘Gul’ (1807-55), Mohammed Kasim (1806-81), Hasan Ali Hasan (1829-1909), Abdul Husain Sangi (1851- 1924), Fazil (1857-1919) and Shamsudin Bulbul (1857- 1919). Ghazal became the most popular form of this period. The poetry was also composed in Rubai, Masnavi and other forms.

2. Sindhi Prose (1843 - 1907):

The First phase of Sindhi prose was the period of grammar, dictionaries , textbooks and translations. Many dictionaries and grammar books were published by European and Indian scholars during this period. Main works published in this field were Vocabulary of Sindhi language by East wick (1843), Vocabulary of seven languages spoken in countries west of Indus (1843) by Leach, A grammar of the Sindhi language (1845), English -Sindhi Dictionary (1849) and Sindhi -English Dictionary (1855) by Capt Stack, English Sindhi Dictionary (1868) by L.V. Paranjpe; Jawahar-al-Lughat - a Sindhi Persian Directory (1871) by Abdur -Rahim Abbasi, Grammar of Sindhi language (1872) by Capt. Trummp, Sindhi English Dictionary (1879) by Shirt Udharam Thanvardas and Mirza Sadiq Ali, Viyutpati Kosh (1886) and Sindhi Vyakaran ( 1872) by Jhamatmal Narumal Vasnani; Sindhi proverbs with English equivalents (1895) by Rochirans Gajumal, Gul Shankar - a collection of Proverbs (1905) by Kevalram Salamatrai Advani and Garib-al-Lughat (1907) by Bherumal Mahirchand etc.

A number of major writings of English, Persian, Hindi, Urdu and Gujarati etc were translated in Sindhi which encouraged the Sindhi readership. Along with these translations original prose was also written in Sindhi. Essays on different topics and textual and literary criticism enriched the Sindhi prose. Some prose in other forms ie, drama, novel, short story, biography and travelogues were written in Sindhi.

The early masters of Sindhi prose were Kauromal Chandanmal Khilnani, Mirzaqalish Beg, Dayaram Gidumal and Paramanand Mevaram. Kauromal Chandanmal (1844-1916) is known as the ‘Father of Sindhi prose’. He has written many essays on various topics in a simple and effective style. His 44 essays written up to 1907 were compiled by his son Manohar Das Khilnani and published by Sahitya Akademi, Delhi in 1960. The author’s other original works are Pako Pahu (1862) in which he strongly pleaded for woman education. He was the first scholar who compiled Samia ja Salok in three volumes (Vol. I &II 1885; Vol III 1892). He translated Hersh dev’s Sanskrit drama Ratnavali (1888) and Arya nari Charitra – biographies of Indian women (1905) from English.

Mirza Qalick Beg (1853 – 1929) is known as ‘Aftab-e-Adab’ (the Sun of literature). It is said that he compiled more than three hundred works, which are mainly educational books and translations. He was a pioneer of literary criticism in Sindhi. His Life of shah Abdul Latif ’ (1885) was the first piece of literary biography and criticism. He also compiled Lughate-Latifi - a dictionary of Shah Latif (1913) and Lughat-e-Qadimi- (1923) in which lexicons used by Shah Latif and other poets are given.

His novel, Zeenat (1890) is considered the first original novel in Sindhi. He also translated many essays and dramas in Sindhi.

Dayaram Gidumal (1857 – 1927) is known as the first critic of Sindhi literature. His commentary on samia Je salokani Jo Tatparju’- gist of Sami’s Salokas (1885), comments on ‘Jap Sahib’ (1891), Essence of Bhagvad Gita (1893) and Interpretation of Pantanjali’s Yoga Darshan (1903) are considered the classics of Sindhi prose. Chahbuk Manalai Ain Rihan (in five volumes 1825-29)’ is the beautiful example of poetic prose in Sindhi which deals with the philosophical topics.

Paramand Mewaram (1865-1938) is known as ‘The Addison of Sind’. He was a well known journalist, essayist and lexicographer. In 1900, he became editor of Jot- a very popular Sindhi paper which was started in 1896 and played a major role for the development of Sindh language and literature.

Parmamand’s some writings were compiled and published in four volumes of Dil Bahar (1912). His selected articles on different topics published in Jot were compiled in Gulphul ( vol II, 1925 and vol II 1936). He combined morality and wit in his writings. He also compiled Sindhi-English Dictionary (1910) and English Sindhi Dictionary (1933) which are still considered the standard works of reference in Sindhi.

8.1.2. Development of Sindhi literature during 1907 to 1947 A.D.:

The Russian revolution, freedom movement and cultural awareness, changed the taste of the readers and it was reflected in the Sindhi literature. It became more realistic, patriotic and secular. It grew from the point of view of content as well as style. Apart from the translations from different languages, original writings also become very popular during this period.

1. Sindhi Poetry (1907 - 1947):

Kishinchand ‘Bewas’ ( 1885-1047) – a school teacher, gave new direction to the Sindhi poetry by introducing new topics, new style, rhythmic freshness and sweet and simple language which was admired by common people. His main collections are Shirin- Shair(1929), Samundi Sipoon (1929), Mauji Geet(1935) and Shair-Bewas (1951). All his writings were compiled and published in a volume entitled Sadu Parado Sagiyo ( 1984).

His realistic idealism, devotion and humanitarian approach established a new trend in the Sindhi poetry . He says " Make your heart bigger in this world, you can live and I too can live". Lok Kavi Hundraj Dukhayal (1910-2003), Hari Dilgir (b.1916), Ram Panjwani(1911-1987), Prabhu ‘wafa’ ( b.1915) and his other followers carried his task ahead.

The tradition of Persian model poetry also continued by Lekhraj Aziz (1897- 1971), Haru Sadaranjani(1913- 1992), Niyaz, Agha, Rahimbax, Khiyaldas Fani(1914-1995) and Parasram Zia (1911-1958) etc.

Many poetic translations were also published during this period. Umar Khayam joon Rubaiyoon by Mirza Qalich Beg, Poorab Sandesh, an adaptation of Edwin Arnold’s Light of Asia (1937) by Devan Azad, Preet ja geet Tajore’s Gardernerr (1940), His Geetanjali (1943) by M.U. Malkani, Kalida’s Meghadoot (1947 ) by Nanikram Dharm das and poetic translations by many translations are worth to mention.

2. Sindhi Prose (1907 - 1947):

Four masters of Sindhi prose of this period were Hotchand Gurbaxani, Bherumal Mehar Chand Advani. Jethmal Parasram Gulrajani and Lalchand Amardinomal Jagtyani.

Dr Hotchand Gurbaxani (1883-1947) was the most eminent scholar of this period. Shah jo Ri Salo (1923, 1930) compiled in three volumes has been considered the best work in the field of Sindhi textual and literary criticism. He adopted modern methods while discussing about the Shah Latif’s life and poetry. He also wrote a novel entitled Noorjahan (1915) which was based on Sardar Jogender Singh’s novel written in English .
On the basis of Dr Gurbaxani’s report in 1921, Sindhi was introduced by the University of Bombay .

Bherumal Meharchand(1875-1950) was a successful translator and original prose writer. His essays on different topics are compiled in Gulzar- Nasur (1929). Two books, one on Sindhi grammar and second on history of Sindhi language , Vado Sindhi Vyakaran (1925) and Sindhi Bolia ji Tarikh’- history of Sindhi language (1941) are still considered the standard works in Sindhi

Jethmal Parasaram (1886-1948) was a versatile essayist and profound critic. His main books on Shah and Sachal are Shah joon Akhaniyoon in three volumes (Vol I 1922, Vol II and III 1923) and sachal sarmast (1922). He also wrote on mystics and sufism in English. H.T. Sorely was inspired by his writings on Shah and Sufism, who wrote Shah Abdul Latif of Bhit (1940) the first book in English in which along with the translation of selected poetry of Shah, details about shah’s life and history of Sindh was given.

Lalchand Amardinomal (1885-1954) was a great prose writer who wrote essays on various topics. His selected essays compiled in Phulam Muthi (1927), Shahano Shah (1914) and Soonharo Sachal (1916) are his scholarly works of literary criticism. His prose style is too individualistic and his language is simple, with full of native idioms and phrases .

By his sincere efforts, Sindhi was introduced at the post graduate level by the Women’s University, Mumbai.

Other scholars of this period were U.M. Daudpoto (1896-1956) and Md. Sidiq Memon. Daudpoto was an eminent scholar of Arabic, Persian and Sindhi who translated and edited Tarikh-e-Chachnama (1932) and Tarikh-e-Mausumi (1938) and wrote a book on the poetry and life of shah Abdul Karim entitled shah karim Buliriavare jo Kalam (1937) and assisted Hotchand Gurbaxani in compiling Shah jo Risalo, Sidiq Memon wrote many articles and Sindhi Adab ji Tarikh- history of Sindhi literature(1937).

The other works in the field of essay and literary criticism worth to mention are Chinig (1940) by Tirth Basant, Adabi Aino (1941) by Lekhraj Aziz, Anardans(1942) by N.R. Malkani, Shah Joon Soormiyoon (1944) by Naraindas Bhambhani, Adabi Ghun Cho (1945) by Naraindas Bhambhani and Ram Panjwani and Tarikhi Mazmoon (1946) by Chetan Mariwala.

During the period (1907-1947) K.S. Darya and M.U. Malkani and some other writers popularized Sindhi dramas . Among them M.U. Malkani is considered the founder of one act plays in Sindhi.

In the field of fiction, Hur Makhia Ja (14) by Lalchand Amardinomal was the first original story in Sindhi. He also wrote Krishnia Jo Kashtu, Jethmal Parasram wrote a story entitled Chamra Posh (1923). But Ado Abdur Rahman (1930) by Amarlal Hingorani was the first short story in which the realistic approach was adopted by the author. Mirza Nadir Beg (1891-1940) wrote some short stories and Miss Rustamji Achhut and Ghar ji Chhik are popular stories written by him. Asanand Mamtora (1903-93) published two collections of his short stories Javat Prem aim Paap Joon Kahanyoon (1939) and Arsi ain Biyoon Akhanyoon (1943). Most of his stories deal with psycho analysis of characters. kiki - a story of sensitive young woman is considered the first story, which presents the sex problem artistically. Sard Ahoon (1941),a collection by Gobin panjabi and Rajastani Phool (1944) edited by Gobin Malhi represents the selected short stories of the pre-partition period.

As it is mentioned, entire Zeenet by Mirza Qalich Beg was the first original novel in Sindhi. After that Lalchand Amandinomal wrote Chothi jo Chandu (1904) . Shewak Bhojraj (1906- 1988) was the first novelist who wrote a novel on the back ground of freedom movement and Gandhiyan philosophy entitled Ashirwad (1930). His second novel, Dada Shyam (1934) portrays the child psychology. Shair (1934) by Asnand Mamtora and Ithad (1941) by Guli Sadarangani encouraged the inter-caste and inter religion - marriage respectively for the cause of national integration. Famous novels of this period were Malhin (1942) and Vidhva (1943) by Naraindas Bhambhani and Qaidi (1943), Sharmili (1944) and Latifa (1945) by Ram Panjwani.

Some travelogues written during this period were Sindh Jo Sailani (1923) and Latifi Sair (1926) by Bherumal Meharchand, Kashmir jo Sair (1925) by N.R.Malkani, Hind jo Sair (1939) Manohardas Kauromal and Sair Kohistan (1942) by Alah Bachayo, etc.

A single biography worth mentioning was written by Mirza Qalich Beg in 1923 and published in 1965.

Baranr Sair (1870) by Mirza Qalich Beg is condsidered the first collection of children rhymes in Sidhi. Barana Geet (1891) by Kaurnal Chandanmal and Baranyoon Bolyoon (1926) by Naraindas Malkani and Mauji Geet (1943) by Kishinchand Bewas and Hari dilgir are main collections of the children literature. Shewak Bhojraj started Gulstan (1944) – a children magazine to popularize. The children literature. Fatahchand Vaswani his brother Melaram Vaswani wrote and published many children books in Sindhi.

Apart from two standard dictionaries by Paramnand Mevaram, many collections of Sindhi literature were also published during this period i.e Sindhi Bolia ji Soonhan, a collection of Sindhi idioms (1910) by Ghanshyamdas Bhagat , Sindhi pahaka, Sindhi proverbs (1911) by Kauromal Chandanmal, Pahakani ji Hiqmat (1925) by Mirza Qalich Beg, Gulkand - a collection of Sindhi idioms and proverbs(1928) by Bherumal Meharchand and A hand book of Sindhi idioms (1937) by Mohanlal Shahani, etc.

Thus during the British era, like other major modern Indian languages, Sindhi was also used in all the formal domains like administration, education, mass media and literature.

8.2. Development of Sindhi Literature in India after the Partition (1947):

During British era (1843 -1947) Sindhi was used in all the formal and creative domains like education, administration, mass media and literature, under the official patronage. Many non-governmental agencies also contributed remarkably. The state of Sindhi language underwent a drastic change due to the partition (1947). On the one hand, about one million Hindu Sindhis who played a major role in the development of Sindhi language and literature were compelled to leave Sindh on the political ground.
In Sindh, before the partition, a large number of educationists and litterateurs belonged to the Sindhi Hindu community. After the migration, Sindhis scattered in different parts of India. They established many educational institutions and started cultural and literary forms in their pockets to maintain their linguistic and cultural identity. Many non-governmental agencies started publishing newspapers, magazines and books on different topics in Sindhi. They also pressurized the government adopting constructive and constitutional means to give Sindhi its due place. In 1957, Sindhi was recognized by Sahitya Akademi and at the same time some stations of All India Radio started broadcasting programes in Sindhi. In 1967, Sindhi was included in the Eighth Schedule of Indian constitution. National council for promotion of Sindhi language and Sindhi Academies established by different states and some non-governmental organizations are contributing for the development of Sindhi language and literature in India.

In the beginning, for about one and half decade, the progressive trend was dominating the Sindhi literature. But the realities for the classless Sindhi community were quite different from the main theme of class conflict. During this period, Sindhi writers expressed the sense of nostalgia, suffering of refugee camps, courage, enterprising spirit and self respect of the people which helped them to adjust themselves in a totally new environment.

Gradually, the Sindhi writers in India became bi/multilinguals and came in contact with the world literature through Hindi and English. The progressivism was replaced by the individualism and neo-classicism continued for a decade and it dominated the modernism and post-modernism.

The development of different branches of Sindhi literature is briefly discussed below.

8.2.1. Development of Sindhi poetry:

From the beginning of twentieth century, Sindhi poets brought a new wave of realism, idealism, patriotism and socialism in the place of traditional mysticism and romanticism.

After the partition, Lekhraj Aziz (1897 - 1971), Haroo Sadarangani (1913 - 92) Khiyaldas Fani (1914 -95), and some other poets expressed their new thoughts by adopting Persian prosody. Among the Bewa’s followers, Hundraj Dukhayal (1910 - 2003) composed poetry adopting Gandhian philosophy and joined the Bhudan movement started by Vinoba Bhave. Ram Panjawani (1911 - 87) sang devotional songs and, became the cultural ambassador by popularizing Jhulelal - the water Deity as a symbol of unity among the scattered community. Hari Dilgir (1916 –2004) expressed his optimistic thoughts in different poetic forms: Prabhu Wafa (b. 1915) composed poems on beauty, truth, love and present days realities. Parasram Zia (1911 –58) was a poet of the mass who composed satiric poems on the pity life of refugee camps. Sugan Ahuja (1921 –66 ) also wrote beautiful poems with a great sense of humor adopting the Persian prosody. Arjan Shad (b. 1924), Krisim Rahi (b. 1932), Moti Prakash , (b. 1931) Ishwar Anchand (1928 –98) and Goverdhan Bharti (b. 1929) were the poets of the progressive trend, who also composed many poems. expressing the sense of nostalgia and agony of rootlessness. In one of his poems, Shad says "Let my glance fly over the boundaries and see my native land, don’t cut off the chain that binds my soul with my heritage. How can I live without my culture, which has its roots in Sindh".

Krishin Rahi (b. 1932) used main traditional forms of poetry with the folk rhythms fully flavoured with the native diction. Ishwar Anchal started composing the progressive type poems on different topic adopting pessimistic attitude and reached the height of deep thought of relation between soul and super soul.

Goverdhan Bharati composed many nazms, ghozals and Rubaies but is more known as a lyricist . His sweet lyrics are similar to the folk and classical poems. He also composed many children rhymes. His poem sanitoriam mein pahirein rat is considered the first modern poem in Sindhi.

The passionate expression of grief of the loss of human values is found in Inder Bhojwani’s (1918 – 92) poetry. He has also composed many poems about the home land. He says, "If some body asks me to compose a poem in one word I would immediately write Vatan (Native land)"
v Narain Shyam (1922-89) brought neo classicism in Sindhi poetry. He experimented different forms i.e Persian ghazal, Sindhi bait and wai, Hindi metrical forms, English sonnet, French triplet, Japanese haiku etc. He also wrote a short epic Roop Maya based on the mythological story of Menka and Vishvamitra.

M.Kamal (b. 1925) and Arjan Hasid (b. 1930) are experts in composing ghazals. M Kamal has expressed the complexity of modern urban life. Hasid’s ghazals are having lyrical intensity and variety in topics. He has also written new poetry. Harikant (1935- 1994) has reacted against the corrupt and rotten political system in his such joon suratoon - collection of poems is considered first poetry dealing with political satire in Sindhi.

Due to the influence of contemporary English and Hindi poetry and facing problems of cosmopolitan life, new poetry and ‘anti-poetry’ became popular in Sindhi. Harish Vaswani (b. 1940) Anand Khemani (b. 1933) Vasudev Mohi (b. 1944), Prem Prakash (b.1946) Motilal Jotwani(b. 1936) Namdev (b. 1946) and Shyam Jaisinghani (b.1937) are the main poets of this trend. Most of their poems are the result of serious thoughts which try to make the readers to understand the complexity of modern machine like life.

Other poets who have enriched the Sindhi poetry are Vasudev Nirmal (b. 1936) Pahlaj Musafir (b.1939) Rocho Khwabi (b.1929, Goberdhan Sharma Ghayal (b. 1940), Dholan Rahi (b. 1949), Kheman Mulani (b. 1944), Gope Kamal (b. 1948), Mahesh Nenvani(b.1954) and Shrikant sadaf (b.1959) etc.

Popati Hiranandani (b.1924), Rukmani Chainani (b. 1930), Indra Vaswani (b.1936) Rita Shahani (b.1934), Indra ‘Shabanam’ (b.1952) Veena Shrangi (b.1948), Rashmi Ramani (b.1960) and some other poetess have also contributed in this branch.

During this period, Ghazal remained the most popular form of Sindhi poetry. All traditional poets have composed their poetry using their own diction. Apart from it, Rubais by Haroo Sadarangani, wais by Narain Shyam Krishan Rahi and Goverdhan Bharati. Panjakiras – a poetic form having five lines by Prabhu Wafa, tisita by Hari Dilgir, haiku by Narain Shyam, tanha single line poems by Inder Bojwani, sonnets by Narain Shyam and Hari kant and folk songs like sweet lyrics by Goverdhan Bharts became very popular in Sindhi.

Thus a variety of themes and forms with artistic grace is found in the Sindhi poetry which can be qualitatively compared with any other modern Indian poetry.

8.2.2. Development of Sindhi Prose:

During the post partition era sufficient work in different branches of Sindhi prose has been published in India.

1. Essay:

Tirth Basant (1909 – 1994) published five collections of essays on different themes in his individualistic syle ; Vasant Varkha (1959), Sahit Sar (1962), Itihas Darshan (1964), Khushaboo (1978) and Sarang (1979). Jairam Das Daulatram (1891 – 1979) wrote many research oriented articles on history of Sindh language and literature. His selected essays are compiled in a collection entitled Sindh Ji Khoj (1993). Chetandas Mariwala (1916 –1984) published his essays on Historical topics in his collection Itihasik Chitra (1951). Haroo Sadarangani wrote many informative essays on various topics in simple native style. His selected essays are published in Kakhainkana (1966). Dil kar Darkhat je Dastoor (1956) is a collection of essays on moral teaching by Tirth Sabhani (1906 - 90). Lalsingh Ajwani (1899 - 1976) wrote articles on different social aspects on Sindh. Uchhal (1960) by him is a collection of scholarly prefaces of different literary books. Sipoon (1976) - collection by Ram Panjwani deals with different social themes. Hiku Pushpu Pandrahan Pankhuryoon (1962) by Popati Hiranandani and Adabi Gul (1957) by Moti Prakash are important collections A.J. Uttam (b. 1923), Gobind Malhi (b. 1921) Kirat Babani (b.1922) and other writers also wrote essays on different topics.

2. Criticism:

Due to contact with other languages Sindhi literary criticism became mature gradually and flourished remarkably. Many scholarly articles and books are published on different aspects of practical as well as theoretical criticism during this period. Kalyan Advani(1911 –1994) wrote critical books entitled Shah (1951) Sami (1953) and Sachal (1954) and he also compiled Shahjo Risalo Mujamal (1966) - an annotated abridged collection of poetry of Shah Latif which became very popular among the students and common readers. Bhojraj Nagrani (1903 – 1984) compiled Samia ja Salok in three volumes (1955, 1958 and 1967). Lekhraj Aziz wrote sami (1965). Haroo Sadrangam presented a comparative study of shah Latif and other Hindi, Punjabi and Persian poets in his book Kanwar Paroon Patal (1984). Shah jo Risalo Hiku Abhyas (1992) by M.K Jetley and Shah Abdul Latif - his life and works (1975) by Motilal Jotwani are scholarly works on Shah Latif. Hiro Thakur (b.1943), Jhamatmal Bhavanani (1905 – 1984) and Jhamu Chhugani (b. 1940) contributed in the field of textual criticism on three major poets of the medieval period namely Qazi Qadan jo Kalam (1978), Dadu Dayal (1980) and Swami Mahamati Prannath ji Sindhi Vani (Vol I, 1991, Vol II 1986) respectively. Bewas ain Naon Daur (1970) by Arjan Shad, Sindhi Sahit (1971) and Sindhi Natak , Kahani ain tanqeed (1981), A.J Uttam (b 1923),Adab mein Qadurani jo Suwal (1974), Okh Dokh (1981) and Sindhi Kahani Virhange bad (1984) by Kirat Babani, Sindhi Adabji Rooprekha (1966) by Jagadish Lachhani (b. 1939) Fankar ain Felsoof Sugan Ahuja (1973) by Mohan Kalpna (1930- 1992), Aziz hiku shakhsu ain Alim (1978) by Papati Hiranandani and many other works were written adopting the traditional principles of literary criticism.

Kahani Kala jo Vikas (1972) was written by Lal Pushp (b.1935) on the modern principles of literary criticism, which was followed by other scholarly book Jiddat jo Mafhoom ain Sindhi Kahani (1975) by Hiro Shevkani (b. 1935)

Vishnu Bhatia (b.1941), Harish Vaswani (b. 1940), Param Abichandani (b. 1926) Anand Khemani (b.1933), Prem Prakash (b. 1946), Shyam Jaisinghani (b. 1937), Namadev Tarachandani (b.1946) and some other critics adopted modern approach of literary criticism and discussed about different aspects of Sindhi poetry, fiction and drama in detail. Satish Rohra (b.1929) and Lakhmi Khilani (b.1935) also enriched practical criticism in Sindhi by writing reviews on the current works.

Many books on theoretical criticism are also written during this period, i.e Adabi Usool (1950) by M.U. Malkani, Chhand Sugandh (1953) Itr-e-Arooz (1954) and Panj Ganj (1984) by Jhamatmal Bhavani; Fan-e- shairi (1984) by Inder Bhojwani and Satu Saru (Vol I 1980, Vol II and III 1992) by Param Abichandeni etc.

Some books on history of Sindhi literature are written in Sindhi and English. M.U. Malkani wrote a comprehensive history of various forms of Sindhi prose in his book Sindhi Nasur ji Tarikh (1968). Bharat meni Sindhi Adab jo jaizo (1980) is also an important contribution by him. Lalsingh Ajwani wrote History of Sindhi Literature (1970) in English which has been translated in Hindi and Sindhi. M.K Jetley Wrote Sindhi Sahit Jo Itihas in 1972. Papati Hiranandani wrote History of Sindhi Literature (1947- 1976) in English in 1984. Azadia Bad Sindhi Sahit jo Itihas - history of Sindhi literature after the Freedom (1994), has been written by Lilaram Ruchandani(1924- ). Dayal Asha (b.1936) has given the History of Sindhi poetry in detail in his book ‘Sindhi Shair ji Tarikh’ (1984). Sindhi Natya Darshan (1984) by Jetho Lalwani (b.1945) and Sindhi Natak ji Osar (1993) by Prem Prakash are scholarly works on the development of Sindhi dramas.

3. Drama:

After the Partition (1947) many dramatic societies were established in Mumbai, Delhi, Jaipur, Ahmadabad, Kolkata, Gandhidham, Nagpur and Bhopal etc who encouraged Sindhi drama by presenting many adaptation from other languages and organizing the drama festivals in different parts of the country.

M.U. Malkani, Ram Panjwani, Gobind Malhi, Goverdhan Bharti, Moti Prakash, Krishin Khatwani (b. 1927), Kirat Babani Hari Kant, Jetho Lalwani, Lachhman Komal (b 1936) Sunder Agnani (b. 1936) Madan Jumami (b. 1934) Lakhmi Khilani, M.Kamal, Prem Prakash, Shyam Jaisinghani, Bhagwan Atlani, Meghraj Gurnani and other play wrights contributed in the field of Drama.

M.U Malkani - the most famous one act play writer, and artists to popularize Sindhi drama; Jeevan Chachita (1957), Papukin Punju (1962) and Khurkhabita, the Timikani (1967) are the collections of his one act plays. Ram Panjwani wrote Sat Natak (1952) - Seven one act plays based on seven famous Sindhi folk tales. He also wrote Ayo Naon Zamano (1978) - a full length social drama dealing with the complexity of joint family in the urban life. Gobind Malhi exposed the out dated values and social evils, through his plays. Bigiriyal Ghar (1960) – a social play by Goverdhan Bharti is considered the first full length drama in Sindhi. Moti Prakash wrote two full length dramas Parde Agyaan Parde Puthyaan (1975) and Rat hik Toofan ji (1963). Ashiyano (1976) a full length drama by Krishn Khatwani (b. 1927) deals with the eastern and western values in the modern life. Soorja Sadu Kayo (1972) by Kirat Babani presents martyrdom of young patrist Hemu Kalani. Harikant’s plays Munkhe Kunwar Khape (1964) – a satire on the dowry system and Makaan Khali Ahe (1977) became very popular among common people. Jetho Lalawani wrote Gham Munhinja Ahini (1980). Mumal Rano and Suhini Mehar are the beautiful operas based on famous folktales written by Lachhman Komal. Pachha (1987) is a collection of Radio and shadow plays by Suder Agnani. Kako Kalumal (1990) by Modan Jumani is the first ever ‘one actor play’ in Sindhi. The one act plays by M. Kamal are satire on modern urban life. Lakhmi Khilani wrote full length dramas ; Panhijo Dushman (1993) dealing with nexus between money and power and Varja Sando Kot (1987), Portrays the nostalgia of home land and the suffering of refugee camps.

Prem Prakash popularized experimental drama in Sindhi. He was the founder of Sindhi Drama workshop, where a number of artists were trained and many experimental dramas were presented Picnic (1994), a full length drama by Prem Prakash is a brilliant satire on the institution of marriage. It also underlines the meaninglessness and boredom of the modern life. Merchabandi (1979) his another full length play is a satire on the present day politics. His many experimental one-act plays, ie. Parda Kathau and Bahi etc, also depict satire on the social and political systems. He also edited Atha Taturbati Natak (eight experimental one-act plays) in 1977. Zalzalo (1992) by Shyam Jaisingham is a representative of ‘new drama’ in Sindhi.

It is true that only a limited number of full length original dramas are written in Sindhi. But many successful one act plays covering variety of themes with artistic techniques, are written and presented in Sindhi.

4. Short Story:

In India, Sindhi Short story has gradually developed and has become mature and it can be compared with other modern Indian languages in the content as well as form and technique.

In the beginning, for about a decade the progressive trend was popular. The economic stress, hardship of refugee camps, struggle for livelihood, self-respect, nostalgic feeling for homeland, pessimistic attitude towards the realities of new environment and cultural awareness were the main topics of the short story which were dealt with a simple narrative style. A.J. Uttam Gobind Panjabi (1918), Gobind Malhi, Kirat Babani and Sundari Uttam Chandani (b. 1924) were the main short story writers presenting the progressive ideology in their writings, Kashma kash (1971) by Uttam, Suraj mukhi (1960) and Hua Moti Aei (1980) by Gobind Panjabi, Iha bi ka Akhani Ahe (1984) and Agte Qadani (1986) by Gobind Malhi, Hua (1956), Dard jo Dil mein ‘Samaiji na Saghyo’ (1966) and Avhin sabh Nanga Ahyo (1993) by Babani and Achha Var garha Gul (1065), To Jani ji Tat (1970) Bhoori (1979) and Vichoro (1965) by Sundai Uttam Chandani are the main collections of the writers.

Gamiro written in 1947 by Gobind Panjabi is considered the first nostalgic short story in Sindhi. Iha bi ka Akhani ahe by Malli artistically presents a great personal loss due to the partition. Chunu muni by Babani is a satire on the neorich class. Boori by Sundari Uttam Chandani is a representative story of a bolel women who sells papars. ‘spiced crisp thin cakes made of pulse’ for the livelihood with self respect.

Along with the progressive writers some other writers i.e. Ram Panjwani, Loknath Jetley, Moti Prakash Narain Bharti (b.1932), Anand Golani (b. 1925), Krishin Khatani, Goberdhan Bharti, Popati Hiranandani, Kala Prakash (b. 1934) and Tara Mirchandani (b. 1930), etc kept themselves above from any particular ‘ism’ and wrote short stories on different themes adapting the humanistic approach. Most of the stories by Ram Pajwani are based on his personal experiences which became very popular among the common readers. His three short story collections that are published are Ajeeb Akhanyoon (1958), Anokha Azimreda (1962) and Tunhinja Munhinja Tajurba (1957) by Visarya na Visirani (1957). Loknath Jetly is a representative collection of nostalgic stories. Dastavez – a memorable story by Narain Bharati deals with the human relations, which are above any religious or political boundaries. Zini by Moti Prakash is a beautiful story based on the nostalgic feelings. Anand Golani wrote many social realistic stories on the serious themes with a touch of humor. Sindhu, a story by him deals with the quality of Sindhi community to adjust in the new environment. Krishin Khatwani started writing stories with the influence of progressive trend but afterwards he gradually made his new path by writing stories on the sentimental themes with his own style : Tutan Jaranu, Hik Sindhia jiatamkatha and Insan jo chehir are his representative stories written on different topics. Pilo chand ain Lal Dag (1966) and Pandhi Purano Vaat Naeen are the collections of selected stories by Goverdhan Bharti.

Popati Hiranandani has published three collection of her short stories Kali Gulab ji sagar sharab jo (1967), Moon Tokhe Pyar Kayo (1975) and Khizauni jo Daur Pooro Thyo (1976) which deals with the women revolt against the male dominated world. Brahma ji Bhul is the most popular story by her. Kala Prakash (b. 1934) has written many stories based on the middle class family life. Hik dil Hazar Arman (1957) Shishe ji Dil (1970), Hik supino sukhani jo (1971) and Hayati Hotani Re (1974) are the collections of her selected stories. Her female characters are humble, obedient, affectionate and aware about their rights and duties. The natural sensitive dialogues in native diction is the peculiarity of her style. Khanvahan is considered her best story based on the nostalgic memories of her small village in Sindh. Mamta joon Laharoon (1963) is a beautiful collection of poetic prose based on the tender feelings towards her children. Tara Mirchndari (b. 1930) has written many stories based on different themes in simple and effective style. Aeeno ain Aqsa (1965) Rabarji Gudi (1966), Uljhiyal Tandoon Resham joon (1986) and Dard(1991) are the collections of her stories.

Mohan Kalpna (1930 - 92), Lal Pushp (b. 1935) and Guno Samtani (1934 – 97) reacted against the trend of progressive and idealistic stories written in simple narrative style. The social topics were replaced by individual complexities. They brought a new wave of individualism and neo classicalism in Sindhi fiction. Mohan Kalpna is considered the most popular among them who adopted the romantic and individualistic approach. Mohi Nirmohi (1961) , Chandicism Zahar (1964), Farihtani ji Dunya (1967) Uha Sham ( 1981), Atheen Katha (1989) and Dard ji Talash (1995) are the collections of his selected short stories. He dealt with contemporary themes with his own style. Pathar jo Dushman and Hiku Sharif Manhoon Gadia mein by him are the master pieces of Sindhi short stories.

Lal Pushp dealt with the inner complexity of his characters which made him most successful fiction writer in Sindhi. He had made many experiments in the content, form and techniques. Dairo (1964) Bandhan ain Arman (1965), Punarmilan (1966) Varia ja Mahal (1966) Khal ee khal (1970) and Karz ji Darkhast (1976) are the collections of his stories. Karz ji Darkast is a sensitive commentary on the absurd bureaucracy.

Guno Samtani brought neo-classicalism in Sindhi short story. His characters as well as incidents do not look close to the real life. Even then their impact is very strong due to the admixture of classical and modern approach, with the flash back technique and selective choice of vocabulary and style. Abhiman (1964) and Aparajita (1970) are two collections of his selected stories. Kathje Sanche mein (1971) by K. S. Balani (1930- 1970) is also a representative collection of contemporary short stories written during this period.

After 1965, modern short stories became popular. Vishnu Bhatia (b. 1941) Ishwar chandra (1937) – 1992), Anand Khemani (b. 1933), Harish Vaswami, Shayam Jaisingani Prem Prakash, Param Abichandani, Motilal Jotwani, Brij Mohan (b. 1943) and Namdev are main writers of Modern and post modern short stories in Sindhi. They wrote individualistic experimental stories around the disbelief, helplessness, dehumanization and machine like monotonous urban life. Vishnu Bhatia denounced the traditional social values and moralities through his stories. Ishwar Chandra, a distinguished modern short story writer wrote in Sindhi and Hindi. Thadha Chap (1965), Mualu Makoro(1971), Panhinja ee Ghar mein (1973) Sakht chehire varo Manhoon (1980) Moti Ayal Maazi (1981), Sat Kahanyoon (1983) and Ghatnauni jo Chakar (1987) are the collections of his selected stories. His stories are the mirror of the present day middle class family life. The complexity of different social relations in the modern life reflects the hopes and despairs aspirations and frustrations of the common man in his stories. Panhinje ee Ghar meins, Na Maran jo Dukh and Safar and many other stories deal with such realities. Luchi (1965) and November ji Akhiriri Rat (1976) are the collections by Anand Khemani. Chalih Asi (1980) is a collection of modern short stories by Harish Vaswani. Ghanti written by him in 1985 is an artistic presentation which underlines the danger of loss of linguistic identity by the Sindhi community in India. Shyam Jaisughani- a post modern fiction writer portriats the complexity of urban life. Nango Asman (1987) Thaungo ( ) Mailani jo Safar ( 1983) , Hiku Biyo Dil and Zindah Machhi (2002) are the collections of his short stories. Vilen (1976) and Veeh (1994) by Prem Prakash, Bhav Abhav (1991) by Param Abichandani; Paramparahin (1970) and Sunjanap jo Sankat (1992) by Motilal Jotwani, Gum Thiyal Chehro (1973) by Brij Mohan (b. 1963) and Vikhoon (1981) by Namadev are the main collections of modern short stories.

Mohan Deep (b. 1948), Hiro Shevkani, Satish Rohra Bhagwan Atlani (b. 1945) Nari Padam (b. 1938), Gope Kamal, Hari Himthani (b. 1933) Ishwar Bhati(b.1942) Tirth Chandwani (b. 1946) and Bansi Khub Chamani (b. 1943)and many other writers have enriched the Sindhi short story.

Among the women writers Ishwari Jotwani (b. 1930), Rita Sahani (1934), Indra Vaswani (1936) Maya Rahi, Kamala Goklani (b. 1950), Vina Shringi (b. 1948) and others have also contributed in this field.


After the partition, apart from a number of translations from other languages many original novels were written in Sindhi. Gobind Malhi, Ram Panjwani, Chanduilal Jaisinghani (1919 – 93), Guli Sadarangani (1906 – 94), Sundari Uttam Chandani, Papati Hiranandani, Tara Mirchandani, Kala Prakash and Krishin Kathwani enriched the Sindhi novel by writing on different topics related to the nostalgic love and social aspects. Their novels became very popular among the common people.

Gobind Malhi known as ‘Novel Samrat’, ‘the emperor of Sindhi novel’, wrote about two dozen novels. Pyar ji Pyas (1972), his most popular novel, protrays the charactor of Mohini who is sexually exploited by men every time. Dehi Pardehi thya (1961) written in the form of letters, deals with the emontional attachment among the two communities living in two different countries. Ram Panjwani wrote Ahe Na Ahe (1955) - a religio social novel and Shal Dhiaru Na Jaman (1957) based on the dowry system. Chandulal Jaisinghani wrote many novels on legal themes. Guli Sadarangani wrote two novels. Sadhana jo Supino (1960) and Akhreen Inqlab (1979) based on the social themes. Sundari Uttam Chandani wrote Kirandar Deevaroon (1953) and Prect Purani Rit Nirali (1956) which depict the socio-economic realities and role of women in the changed environment. Papati Hirandani wrote four novels : Manju (1950), Hasiratuni ji Turbat (1961), Jia mein Jhoori tan mein Tat (1965) and Sailabu zindagia jo (1981). Her last novel is based on the partition. The women characters portrayed by her are very bold who strongly fight for their rights. Kala Prakash has written six novels which deal with the sufferings of partition and different social aspects of the middle class joint families. She narrates the tender feelings of family members in native diction. Krishin Kathtwani wrote romantic novels like Amar Prem (1961) and Yad Hik Pyar Ji (1976). His Munhiji Mithiri Sindh (1962) is based on the nostlgic feelings for the homeland.

Like in the short story, Mohan Kalpna Lal Pushp and Guno Samtani brought freshness and variety of experiments in the field of novel also. Mohan Kalpna wrote about one dozen novels. Runj ain Pachha (1968) is an autobiographical romantic novel by him. His three novels alavatani (1974), Mau (1980) and Kaanu ain Samand (1981) artistically depict the sufferings of banished community. Lal Pushp became the most successful novelist for his experiments in the theme form and technique. He mainly wrote antihero novels, Hik sard Divar (1969) Hunje Atamjo Maut (1978) and Tadahin ain Hane (1978) are his representative novels. Hunaje Atamjo Maut, the most discussed novel is based on only one event. Guno samtani interwines the tender feelings of love and humanity in his own style.

Vishnu Bhatia, Anand Khemani, Param Abichandani, Shyam Jaisinghani and Motilal Jotwani are the main novelists of the modern and postmodern era. Vishnu Bhatia wrote four novels on different contemporary themes. Hik Shakhsa ji Vasana (1970) by Anand Khemani is considered the first novel in Sindhi which deals with the search of ‘self’ Param Abichandani has written four novels Jharna (1962) , Hik Jar Ba Jibhoon (1964) , Ien Bi (1988) and Kaya Kalp (2000). Kaya Kalp is a multidimensional novel which deals with the complexities of upper class society in the modern urban life. Shyam Jaisinghour has used new symbols, and new technique in his novels. Kacha Dhaga (1966) and Khahia je chautarf (1976), his both novels represent the pattern of post modernism and depicit all the negative forces of life, defeat and the sense of alienation. Motilal Jotwani has written three novelettes , Pili Bhatiate (1974), The Rishta Nata (1982) and Koth (1988) based on the relationship between man and women in the cosmopolitan life. He has also written an autobiographical novel entitled Aun jo ee Ahyan so ee Ahyan (1999).

Hath yogi (1990) by Tara Mirchandani, Pirah ja Piyak (1992) by Rita Shahani, Soor Jooon Sau Sooratoon (1997) by Goverdhan Bharti and Tarandar Badal (1998) by Krishin Kahtwani are the four novels written in the traditional style, on different themes , which gave new life to the Sindhi novel. Hath yogi is an artistic presentation based on a story narrated by Nanak Hingorani. Pirahga Piyak is a spiritual journey of Acharya Anand , Soor joon San Soooratoon is base on the author’s self experience as a T.B. patient admitted in a sanitarium . Tarador Badal depicts the nostalgic feeling for home land , the struggle for maintaining the identity , hypocrisy of the neo rich class and the curiosity of younger generation to know about their roots.

Anand Golani, Asandas Mantora, Moti Prakash, Hari Himthani, Lakhmi Khilani, Hari Motwani, Mohan Deep, Nari Padam Namdev and some other writers have also contributed in this field.

6. Biography and Autobiography:

Many biographical works by Tirth Basant, Baldev Gajra (1885- 1968), Kanhaiyalal Taluja and others have been published in Sindhi. kanwar, biography of Kanwar ram (1885-1939) ‘a renouned martys saint singer’, is the best literary work in this field .
Chetan Mariwala(1916-1984), N R Malkani, M.U Malkani, Popati Hiranandani, Mohan Kalpna, Hari Dilgir, Kirat Babani, Motilal Jotwani, Narain Bharti and some other writers wrote their autobiographies which have literary importance. Chetan Mariwala has narrated some important incidents of his life. N.R. Malkani has discussed about the political situation with the Gandhian philosophy along with his life experiences in Nirali Zinadagi (1973) M.U. Malkani has artistically recorded the memories of his young age in Juvania ja Jazba Piria joon Yadgiryoon (1975) ; Munhinje Zindajia ja Sona Ropa Varq(1981) by Popati Hiranandani is considered the best literary work among the all autobiographies written in Sindhi . Apart from the ups and downs occurred in her life , she has artistically narrated awful conditions and sufferings of the community due to the partition. Bukh Ishq ain Adab (1987) by Mohan Kalpns is other important work having all the qualities of a successful autobiography. Hari Dilgir has faithfully opened the pages of his life before the reader by giving th account of the weak and strong points of his personality in Cholo Munhinje chik mein (1987) and Gandhu Munhinje Godi mein. Gobind Malhi has written his detailed autobiography in Adab ain Abid published in five volumes (1987, 1988, 1989, 1990 and 1991) in which he has discussed about his native village, home land and friends. He has also discussed about the struggle of the rootless people to maintain there self respect and rich cultural traditions. Kujhu Budhayumi Kujhus Likayumi, by Kirat Babani, Atam Katha je Nale mein (1994) by Motilal Jotwani and Sarau jo panu (1995) by Narain Bharati are the important contributions in this field.

7. Travelogue:

M.U. Malkani wrote Pachhimi Yatra in 1963. Apart from the above mentioned work, most of other travalogues are about the visits to their homeland, Sindh Sabhu Samdhyumi Saah Sein (1987) by Moti Prakash, Je Hiare Manjhi Hurani (1987) by Kala Prakash, Miti Munhinje Mulk ji (1989) by Narain Bharati, Munhinja Masuarar ( ) by Krishin Khatwani, Juryal Jani Saan Jind (1988) by Hari Motwani and Jite Munhija othiara (2003) by Rita Shahani are the major work in this field. Se Sabhu Sandhyami Saah sein by Moti Prakash is considered the best work in which he has narrated about the changed conditions of Sindh in detail.

8. Children Literature:

Hari Dilgir and Goverdhan Bharti are the most successful poets who have written a number of children rhymes which have become very popular. Mauji Geet by Bewas and Dilgir is a collection of the children rhymes. Mazeda Geet by Dilgir was published in 1983. Gul ain Mukhryoon (1956) and Latyoon (1958) are the popular colections by Goverdhan Bharti.
Jeevat Gogya (1929- 1995) contributed in this field by writing many children stories and some rhymes. His four collections published are Dadia Joon Akhanyoon (1960), Paryuni joon Akhanyoon(1968), Akhanyoon ee Akhanyoon (1979) and Rang Birangi Geet ain kahanyoon (1991).

Hundraj Balwani (b. 1946) is the most popular writer who has written a number of Children stories, dramas and songs on various topics. Parasram Zia, Dayal Asha, Vasudev Nirmal, Jagdish Lachhani, Jetho Lalwani and others have also enriched the Sindhi Children literatue.

9. Folklore:

Sindhi folklore has a rich tradition which reveals the attitude, beliefs, social customs and way of life of the community.

After the partition in India, Narain Bharati collected, compiled and published Sindhi folk songs and folk tales which include Hojmalo (1961), Sindhi Lokgeelani win Samajik Pasmanzaro (1991) – a critical study of social aspects in Sindhi folk songs.

Lilaram Ruchadani has also written some books and articles on Sindhi folklore . Parso Gidwani (b. 1937) and Jetho Lalwani have collected Sindhi folk literature from the Banni region of Kutch district in Gujarat. Jetho Lalwani has also written some books on different aspects of Sindhi folk literature i.e Sindhi LokNatak (1988), Sindhi Pirolyoon (1995), Bannia jo Sindhi Lok Adab (1996), Sindhi folklore (1988) and Asaan jo Varso (2001). There is a great need of undertaking a project on the line under taken in Sindh, to record and preserve the Sindhi folk literature from the boarder areas of Gujarat and Rajasthan.

10. Language and Linguistics:

After the partition in India, a number of articles and some books were written on the different aspects adopting traditional as well as modern linguistic approach. Sindhi Bhasha ka Parichy (1957) in Hindi by Kishan Chand Jetley (1910 –1995) gives a brief description about the development of Sindhi, its dialects and structure based on the traditional model. Bhasha Shastra by Popati Hira nandani and Sindhi Boli (1989) by Lilaram Ruchndani are also written adopting the traditional approach. Sindhi Bolia ja Hazar Sal (2000) edited by Manohar Matlani and published by University of Mubai consists of four articles related to the development of the Sindhi language i.e origin of the Sindhi language and its development up to the fifteenth century by Murlidhar Jetley. Sindhi language from 1500 to 1843 A.D. by Hiro Thakur, Sindhi language during the British era by Jetho Lalwani and Development of the Sindhi language in India after the partition by Kanhaiyalal Lekhwani (b. 1942) are noteworthy .

Lachhman Khubchandani (b. 1932) Murlidhar Jetley, Satish Rohra, Yashodhara Wadhwani ( ), Kunhaiyallal Lekhwani and Dundari Parchani have published a number of articles and some books adopting the modern lingustic approach. Sindhi Samaj ain Bhasha vigyan (2001) by Lachhman Khub chandani, Bolia jo Sirshto ain Likhavat (1999) by Murlidhar Jetly and Bhasha ain Bhasha vigyan (2001) by Satish Rohra are important works written in Sindhi in this field.

Sufficient work in the field of dictionary making is done in India. A Hindi - English Sindhi Dictionary compiled by Deepchand, Devdatt and Prabhdas was published in 1962, Hindi Sindhi Laghu Kosh (1984) was compiled by Satish Rohra and Murlidhar Jetley. They also asssisted in compiling Hindi - Sindhi English Dictionary (1988) by writing the Sindhi equivalents. Mulidhar Jetley also assisted Narvane by providing Sindhi proverbs for Bharatiya Bhasha kahavat kosh by Narvane. Lachhman Hardwani (b. 1942) has compiled two important dictionaries namely Matathi-Sindhi dictionary (1991) and Sindhi Marathi Dictionary (1995). Bunyadi - Sindhi - Hindi Dictionary (1996) and Sindhi - Hindi - English Pictorial dictionary (2001) are compiled by Kanhaiyalal Lekhwani. Sindhi Shabda Mahran, (1999) a small thesaurus is compiled by Kishin Chand Jetley and edited by his son Murlidhar Jetley.

Some collections of Sindhi Idioms and proverbs are also published. ‘Sindhi Istilah’ (Sindhi idioms) by Lekharaj Aziz is published in two volumes (1976, 1987). Satrumdas Sail (b.1914) compiled ‘Durani ji Dabu li’ a collection of Sindhi proverbs in 1982 and ‘Manik Moti’ - acollection of Sindhi Idioms and phrases in 1983. ‘Sindhi Pahaka ain Muhavra’- a collection of Sindhi proverbs and idioms compiled by Santdas Kishinani and edited by Murlidhar Jetley published in 1993 has been considered the most important work in this field.

11. Translations:

After the partition, in India many literary works of Indian languages and English have been translated into Sindhi. Jagat Advani (1913 - ) is considered the most successful translator in Sindhi who has translated more than one fiction work in Sindhi from Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Bengali and English. His translation are beautiful and faithful to the originals and very popular among the readers. Lal Pushp, Kirat Babani, Gobind Malhi, Shyam Jaisinghani, Krishin khatwani, Lakshmi Khilani and some other writers enriched the Sindhi language by translating representative works from other language along with their original writings.

Kishin Chand Jetley has translated the Sanskrit classics Shringar Lahar (1972) and Meghdoot (1981) into verse form. Dayal Asha has also translated Vikram Urvashi and Meghdoot into Sindhi. Tulsoyo Talreja translated Tulsidas’s Ram Charit Manas into Sindhi. Rita Shahani has translated G.D. Madgulkar’s Marathi Geet Ramayan into Sindhi. Lachhman Hardwani has translated Iravati Karve’s Marathi novel yugant and many representative Marathi short stories into Sindhi.

Among the non fiction writings two books wrote in Sindhi are very important, Fun-e Tahqiq ain un ja usool (1997), an Urdu book by A.S. Dalvi translated by Baldev Matlani and Sindhi Adab ji Tarikh (1919). Lalsingh Ajwani’s English book History of Sindhi Literature is translated into sindhi by Hiro Shekani.

A number of Sindhi writings have been translated into English, Hindi, Marathi , Gujarati, etc.

Hashu Kevalramani translated some representative Sindhi short stories into English and published them in 1962. Moti lal Jotwani published Sindhi short stories (1985) – a collection of the selected Sindhi short stories translated by him. He has also translated the poetry of Qazi Qadam and Shah Karim into English. Param Abichandani has translated many contemporary Sindhi short Stories and poems into English.

Bharat Bhushan Agrawal has translated the selected Sindhi Rubais by Haroo Sadarangani into Hindi poetic form. Motilal Jotwani has translated two collections of Sindhi short stories and Zeenat, novel by Mirza Qalich Beg into Hindi. Rita Shahani has translated her own novel Piya ja Piyak into Hindi.

Many other short stories and some novels are also translated into Hindi. Lachhman Hardvani has translated some representative Sindhi short stories into Marathi. Tolaram Raheja has translated Bhimbhirkeji Bhun Blun, a novel by Rita Shahain and some short stories in Marathi. Yashodhara Wadhwani has translated Sindhu Kanya – a famous Sanskrit novel in Sindhi. She has also translated some short stories into Gujarati and Marathi. Jayant Relwani (b. 1936) is the most popular translator who has translated many Sindhi writings into Gujarathi and vice versa. Jetho Lalwani, Hundraj Balwani and others have also contributed in this field.

Sahitya Akademi is regularly publishing translations of the representative Sindhi writings Surabhi, a Hindi literary magazine edited by Lachhman Bhambhani and Kamla. Goklani is playing an important role in this field by publishing selected Sindhi writings into Hindi.


Thus during the last fifty seven years sufficient literature is published in Sindhi. But due to two main reasons, its readership in Sindhi is declining rapidly. Firstly, most of the Sindhi speakers have become bi/multilinguals, therefore, they have come across the better literature on variety of themes in other languages. Secondly in most of the cases, they do not get opportunity to learn their mother tongue, therefore they are not able to enjoy and appreciate their our literature.

8.3. Sahitya Akademi Awards:

Writer Book Year
Tirth Basant Kanwar (Biography) 1959
RamPanjwani Anokha#Az*muda #(Short story) 1964
Lekhraj Az*iz* Sura#hi (Poetry) 1966
Kalyan Advani ShahjoRisalo (Critically Announced collection) 1968
Mangharam Malkani Sindhi Nasur ji Ta#rikh (History of Sindhi prose) 1969
Narain Shyam Va#ria Bharyo Palandu (Poetry) 1970
Krishin Rahi Kumach (Poetry) 1971
Guno Samtani Aparajita (Short Story) 1972
Gubind Malhi Pyar ji Pyas (Novel) 1973
Lal pushp HunjeAtam jo Maut (Novel) 1974
LachhmanKomal Jia Jharokho (Poetry) 1976
Haroo Sadarangani Chikh (Poetry) 1978
Hari Dilgir Pal pal jo Parlau (Poetry) 1979
Krishin Khatwani Yad Hika Pyarji (Novel) 1980
Prabhu Wafa Surkh Gulab Suraha (Poetry) Khwab 1981
Popati Hiranandani Munhinje Zindagia (Autobiography) Jasona Ropa Varq 1982
Aojan Shad Andho Doohon (Poetry) 1983
Mohan Kalpna Uha Sham (Short story) 1984
Arjan Hasid Mero Siju (Poetry) 1985
Sundari Uttamchadani Vichhoro (Short story) 1986
Harish Vaswani Chalih chorasi (Criticism) 1987
Moti Prakash Se Sabh Sandhyami Sah sein (Travelogue) 1988
M.Kamal Bahijavaris (Poetry) 1989
Goverdhan Bharati Sihse jo Ghar (Poetry) 1990
Harikhant Jothwani Soch joon Suratoon (Poetry) 1991
Tara Mirchandani Hath Yogi (Novel) 1993
Kala Prakash Arsia Ado (Novel) 1994
Hari Motwani Ajho (Novel) 1995
Lakhmi Khilani Gufaje Hun Par (Short story) 1996
Iswar Anchal Tandana Andheri (Poetry) Rat mein 1997
Shyam Jaismghani ( ) (Poetry) 1998
Vasudev Mohi Barfjothahyalu (Poetry) 1999
Param Abichandani TakTor (Criticism) 2000
Prem Prakash Bhagati (Poetry) 2001
Hari Himthani Udammdar Armam (Short story) 2002
Hiro Thakur Tahqiq ain Tangid (Criticism) 2003


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