A. Phonetic structure

There are 8 vowels, 35 consonants and 5 Semi-consonants in Santali. The vowel system of Santali language in the Santal Pargana as described by Bodding and others, contains 8 or 9 vowels (Zide, 1996), in West Bengal in Bengali characters it contains 10 (D.N. Baskey), In Singhbhum district of Jharkhand basic vowel system has the six vowels (Minegishi & Murmu 2001) and in Ol Chiki it contains 6 vowels which are the first characters of each row in 6 by 5 matrix arrangement.

Santali has eight phonemes: there are nasalised variants as well, which are used father rarly. Vowellength is not destinctive in Santali.


frontcentralbackfrontcentral back
high iui~u~
mid higheao+e~ao~
mid lowEcE~c~

Outline of the phonology of the Singhbhum Dialect


Santali basic vowel system has the five (or six) vowles as shown below.

close i i~u u~
half closee e~ (ǝ, ǝ~)o o~
opena a~

Basic Vowels:

5 vowels, /1, e, a, o, u/ woul be postulated as basic ones in the original Santali vowls, system. In the present Santali, /ǝ/ constitute a six vowel system. Originally, [ǝ] had been a variant of /a/ This /ǝ/now not only appears in the above circumstance but eather independently; thus, it would be regarded as an independent phoneme.

Length of the vowel:

Santali has no phonological distinction between long and short vowels phonetically speaking, however, a vowel in the word final position is prono-unced longer, Simiarly, a vowel in a monosyllabic woed is relatively longer.

Nasalized Vowel:

Santali has no phonological distinction between long and short vowels. Phonetically speaking. However, a vowel in the word final position is pronounced longer. Similarly, a vowel in a monosyllabic word is relatively longer.

Nasalized Vowels:

Original Santali vowel system seem seems not to have had nasalized vowel. In the present system, however, mostly in loans, a vowels due to assimilation to the preceding or following nasal consonant is observed, thus marked with a bindu in Devanagari transcription, but it is not regarded as phonemic.

Vowel system:

Some descriptions, including that of Bodding, of the Santali Dialects in the west Bengal or in its adjacent part of Jharkhand show the distinction of half close and open /e,3 ,o,ǝ/. Singhbum clearly has no such distinction. Which would be a characteristic of the dialect.

Consonants found in the dislect in the following:

Articulatory Position Iabialdentalpost-alveolar palatal velarglottal
Voiceless unaspirated stoppttck ?
Voiceless aspirated stopphththchkh
Voiced unaspiated stopbddjg
Voicet aspirated stopbhdhdhjhgh
Liquidl, rr

Unaspirated / aspirated distinction:

It seems that Santali have had no distinction between unaspirated and aspirated stops. As a result of contacts, however, with adjacent Indo-Aryan languages like Hindi, Santali has obtained such distinction in its consonant system.

Syllabl final stops:

The syllable final stops of words of Santali origin are unre leased stops [p', t', c']. There is no unrelesed post-alveolar stop in Santali. It should be noted that loans from the Indo -Aryan languages maintain, if any a release in the syllable fineal stop, like [p, t, t, c, k,] etc. Also distinction between voicless, voiced, unaspirated or aspirated stops in the syllable final position are observed only in the loanwords.

[Rh] :

The combination of post-alvolar /R/ and /h? Is not regarded as a single phpneme, but as a succession of two phonemes /R/ and /h/. This is due to the fact that metathesis as in [dohRa] and [doRga] exists in the language, which shows the degree of independence of the each consonant.


In most of the Indo-Aryan languages, nasals are homoorgani to the stop that follow them. It follows that postulating one archiponeme, like anusuara would be suffcient for the nasal in this phonological environment. Besides homoorganic sequences, Santali, however, has phonological distinctions between /n, n,n~, n/ even in the word final position. Note that /n/ in the intervocalic position where either of the surrounding vowels is at least nasalized , or in the syllable final position following a nasalized vowel , is realised as nasalized flap.


		a. as in father.
		e. as in men.
       		i. as in bit.
       		o. as in sort.
       		u. as in put.
       		e. as in air.
       		o. as in not.
       a. some what like in hurt, fur, slur.

       All vowels may be nasalied with( ) above the vowel.


Santali possesses the same sets of consonants as Hindi, viz. Four gutterals four palatals, four cerebrals, four dental and four labial with corresponding nasals. They are written and pronounced as in Hindi. Two consecutive syllables can not begin with an aspirated letter. From jhich, open we must therefore from jhijhi-ich one who open. Four ssound which has been called semi-consonent and are written k' ch', t,' and p'. The pronunciation of satali

Santali has the following consonant (the status of the glottalised series is doubtful, see below):


bilabialalveolarretroflpalatal velarglottal
vcl. Aspphththchkh
ved. asp.bhdhdhjhgh
liquidsl rr rh
	K, kh, g, gh		like the Hindi gutturals.
	N			as ng in song.
	C,ch, j, jh,			like the Hindi palatals.
	N			as in nyaya.
	Y			as in yes.
	T, th, d, dh, r, n		like the Hindi cerebrals.
	T, th, d, dh, n, r, l		like the corresponding  Hindi consonants.
	P, ph, b, bh,		like the Hindi labials.
	W			as in wind.
	S			as in sink.

	K, c, t, p are peciliar to santali. Each of these is  formed in the mouth and checked.


From s phonolgical point of view, Santali is typical the northeast Indian area of south Asia (Neukom, f.c.): It has retroflex consonants, aspirated stops, very few fricatives (only two,/s/ and/ h/), abd glottalised final consonants.

Aspirated consonants are commonly found in word of Indo-Aran origin. According topinnow (1959) I aspiration was absent in the Proto-Munda, system, wheres nowadays aspiration is fully phonemic and has spread into the native vocabulary as well.e.g. Dhiri 'stone' Mu , diri, or dhumbek' crumple' (glottalised consonants do not occur in Indo-Aryan loans).

With aspirationwithout aspiration
bhul 'mistake' cf. Hi. Bhu~l bul 'drunk'
khicri 'mixed' cf.Hi. Khicri~kicric' 'clothes' cf. Mu. Kicric
thck 'rebel' cf. Hi. Thok tck 'desire'

7. Diphthongs and related phenomenon

The follwing diphthongs are found in Santali:

Table 3: Diphthongs

V\V ieEa acou


	ia	nia	'this'		ae	sedae	'old times'
	io	tiok'	'reach'		ao	dhao	'times'
	iu	maeiiu	'woman'		ae	ckce	'who'
	ea	dea	'back'		oe	hoe	'become'
	eo	deonao	'be sulky'		oa	noa	'this'
	Eo	heo	'carry'		ui	nui	'this'
	ai	gai	'cow'		ua	ruar	'return'
	au	bujhau	'understand'

		Sequeces of more than two vowels are possible, e.g. Eae 'seven'

Within one stress unit (i.e. A mono- or dissyllabic word or part of a word ,not necessarily mono-morphemic) the distribution of vowels is restricted as well. The Santli vowel harmony can be described by three sets: a vowel tends to occur exclusivelv. with the

B. Phonology (organization of speech)

11. Tone

A phonetic or phonological unit belonging to a set distinguished or primarily distinguished by levels or by changes in pitch. E.g. In Ngbaka (spoken mainly in the Central African Republic), ma 'magic', ma 'I', and ma 'to me' are distinguished phonologically by a low tone (') a mid tone (~), and a high tone (`).

12. Intonation

A distinctive of tones over a stretch of speech in principle longer than a word. Thus there is a difference in intonation between e.g. That's it (I'm finished') and that's iT? (Is that all). A description of intonation usually has three main aspects. First, the relevant stretches of speech must be identifies: in that way sentences or utterances are divided into successive intonational units or tone groups. Secondly, a syllable or series of syllables within each will be described as nuclear or tonic: this will be a position of prominence, indentified e.g. By rapid change of pitch. Thirdly, a specific pattern of tones will be distinguished: this might be described as an overall tune or*contour (rising, falling, falling and then rising, etc.) or might alternatively be divided intoa sequence of smaller components, each with its own pitch level. Descriptions in terms of contours are usual e.g. In British treatments;

15. Vowel harmony & consonant harmony


Santali has richly developed system of vowels. All the vowels can be short as well as long. Some specimens distinguish between short and long vowels, but in a very arbitary way. The long ā , the sound of it 'all', is written a, the short a of the German mann. The short vowels are frequently lengthened when the meaning is emphasized; thus gaµch-ena-e he died becomes gầchen-ā-e with a very much lengthened ầ. The vowels of monosyllabic word are usually long if the word does not end in a semiconsonent, in which case it usually short. Thus ñäl, see . The long vowels of monosyllables is shortened when an accepted syllable is added : ñälâk'. All the vowel can be nasalised are then marked in the usual way, ã, ǐ, ẽ.

Harmonic sequence:

There is a distinct tendency in Santali to approach the sound of vowels in consecutive syllables to each other, the vowel affected by this tendency in sometimes the preceding and sometimes the following one. This tendency is known under the name of harmonic sequence, and it is familiar as occuring also in other languages

In Santali the facts as follows I and U neutralize all vowels which come under their influence but instead of the short or long,

The difference between o and o, e and e is never shown in printed books. Here too we will not mark the long and short o and e. You will have to rely on satali speaking people to help you with the pornunciation.

Singuler, Dual And plural

In English we have singuler and plural. In santali we have singuler , dual h(two) and plural (more than two). To form the dual we add kin to the noun and to form the plural we add ko. When the number is sh(Many tree). Phonology

(11) The golttalised plosives involve a closure which happens at the same time as the primary closure in the oral cavity (labial, dental, where the voiceless and the voiced series of plosives tend to be neutralised. Note that there are no retroflex glottalised plosives.


Syllable structure

Santali syllables can be light or heavy, Light syllables have the shape CV, whereas heavy syllables are of the form.

		(C)	V X

Wher X can be filled either by a vowl (-> disphthong) or by a consonant (CVC). Syllables that are not word-final can end in two consonants (super-heavy syllables). Santali stems are mono- or bisyllabic, rarely triyllabic.

(i) Monosyllabic stems

	CV	n'	'hand'
	CVV	dea	'back
	CVC	hec'	'come'
	VC	ic'	'shit'

(ii) Disyllabic stems

Stress falls on the first syllable: however, if the first syllable is light and the second heavy (iambia structure), stress falls on the second syllable. Note that the heavy monosyllabic CVC above and the iambic dissyllabic CV. CVC are presumed to be typically Austroasiatic (Donegan 1993:6).

The following syllabic strucres have found:

	CV.CV	da.re	'tree'		V.CV	e. ra	'wife'
	CV.CVV	se.dae	'old times'		V. CVV	u. Pei	'measure'
	CV.CVC	bc.tcr	'fear'		V.CVC	o.rak'	'house'
					VC.CV	ed.re	'anger'
					VC.CVV	et.kir	'carryaway'
	CVC.CVC	dal.pan	'nalf-naked'	VC.CVC	en.dak'	'cross'
	CVCC.CV	dang.ra	'bullock'              
					VV.CV	ae.ma	'much'
					VV.CVV	ei.keu	'feel'

C. Morphology (Word structure):Parts of speech / grammatical

categories Criterion: Function & structural


Morphology is the study of the minimum meaningful units of a language, and the way in which these units are arranged in words. The smallest meaningful units are called morphemes. In any language, some words will be found which cannot be divided into meaningful parts. These are morphemes. Other words will be found which can be divided into meaningful parts. Each word part which cannot be further subdivided is said to be a minimal unit or morpheme.

With regards to the morphology of words, morphemeare primary or secondary. The primary morphemes are radicals or stems; the secondary or formative elements are affixes. Stems may be simple stems of one morpheme, called roots, or they may be more than one morpheme. Stems composed of a root plus affix are derived stems; stems composed of two roots are called compound stems. Affixes are generally bound forms. These include prefixes, infixes, suffixes, internal vowel changes, and reduplication. Depending upon the language, words will consist of (1) free forms; (2) bound plus bound form; (3) free plus bound form ; or (4) free olus free form, or combination of these.

The Morphology of Santali serves to establish this language as an agglutinative language. As such, it has primary elements or radicals in combination with secondary formative elements or affixes. The elements are not simply justaposed, they are joined into words. And in the formation of these words, neither the radical nor the formative element undergoes any substantial phonological change.

1. Inflection:

a. Noun - Structure of root, stem etc.

iv. Case marker & past positions of subject, direct object, indirect object,locative, ablative etc.


Santali nominals are marked for the following cases:

Table 6: Case markers

CaseMarkerse.g. Kora 'boy'Function
Dative -then / -thec'koŗaindrect,object
possessor, instrument
Allative-sen / -sec'destination, beneficiary
Instrumental/Allative-tekoŗa-teinstrument cause,destination
Abative-khcn / -khcc'koŗa-khcnsource,separation, origin
Locative-ren / -reak' -reankoŗa-ren / -reak'possessor


The dative suffixes -thdn" and -then' express

(i) the possessof argument of menak' 'to exist' (the genitive is used in the same function):

		hakim-then		ektieri		menak'-a
		magistrate -DAT		Ektier		menak' -a

	The magistrate has authority; (Bo13)

(ii) the goal:

		cedak'    mcre     hcr-then-dcm             lalis-ker' -a?
		Why      five       person -DAT -TOP-2s complain -PST : ACT- IND 

	why   did complain to the five persons (i.e. Village council)? (ft. 3. 12, p.20)

		ona          dare-then         calao-te-ko        met -a -kan -a:
		that          (tree- DAT     go-PST: MID- DAT- 3p say-APPL -3s -IPFV-IND

	They went to the tree  and said ti it: (ft 2.67.p14)

Instrumental / Allative ǝ з ә כ

The case suffix -te is used to express two distinct functions allative and instrumebtal.

(i) With allative function it indicates destination (only towards inanimates):

apan-apin           ako-ak'                     orak'-ko-te-ko            rucr-calao-en-a.
One's own' they (p)-GEN:INAN       house-PL-ALL-3p    return-go-PST:MID-IND
They rerurned home, everyone to his own house. (if 2.50, p.12)

The other uses can be subsumed under the label instrumental. They include:


The suffixes -khcn and -khx' are used to express

	(i) source or origin:

	(ii) ona      bir-kh כn -dc-le         parcm-ǝgu-ket'-me-teetak'
	that (INAN ) forest-ABL-TOP-IPe pass-bring-PST:ACT-2s CONV      other

	bir-bon             tiok'-akat'-a
	forest-lpi          reach-PF: ACT-IND
	we have now brought you from that forest away and have reached another forest 


The locative case marker -re indicates general location in space and time.

	in-ge        ona           bosta-re     bhorao-oko-ka-n-pe.
	IiFOC       that(INAN) bag-LOC fill-hide-RES-Is-2p
	'put me into that bag and hide me. 

	in	bכhu	sopo-re		sap' -kate-y -e		כr-e-ken-a
	my	wife	sopo-re		sap'-kate-y-e		כr-e-kan-a
	'He hsa caught hold of my wife's hand and is pulling at her.'


The genitive markers seem to be composed of the loeative marker -re and an additional element -n, which has no clearly definable meaning, and the two nominalisers for inanimates -ak' and -at) The suffixe -ren is used when the folloing possessed noun is animate, whereas -reak' and -rean are used when the following noun is inanimate.

	Lכkhכn-ren hכpכn		Lokhon's son

	Lכkhכn-ren hכpכn  Lokhon's son
	Lכkhכn-reak' ti 'Lokhon's hand'

The genitive case markers -ren and -reak are used to express possessive relationships (see below 2.1.4) -read' and -rean mark clausal arguments as well.

b. Pronoun:

Personal Demonstrative Reflexive Reciprocal Possessive

Interrogatives & Question words Relative pronouns

A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun, such as

	Ramo is my fried. He is an honest boy.
	Sumi is a good girl. She belong to a noble family
	This is my chair. It is made of steel.
	The children are hungry. They want food.

In these sentences `he` is used for Ramo; she is used for Sumi; `it` is used for chair; and `they` for children. All are pronoun

Kinds of pronouns

a) Personal Pronouns:

	These are three kinds:
		First person pronouns: I, my, me, we, our, us, mine, ours.
		Second Person Pronouns: you, your, yours.
		Third Person Pronouns: He, she, it, they, his, her, its, him, them, their, hers, theirs.

b) Reflexive Pronouns:

They are formed by adding self or selve to personal Pronouns as myself, ourselves, yourselves, himself, herself, themselves, itself.

c) Demonstrative Pronouns:

This, that, these, those are demonstrative pronouns. When these words are put before nound, they do the work of adjectives.

		This is my book. (Pronoun)
		This book is mine. (adjective)
		That is your house. (pronoun)
		That house is yours. (Adjective)
		These dolls are hers. (Adjective)
		These are her dolls. (Pronoun)
		Those pictures are his. (Adjective)
		Those are his pictures (Pronoun)

d) Interrogative Pronouns:

The words – who, what, whom, which, what – are used for asking questions. These are called interrogative Pronouns.

		Who has come?   
		What is in your hand? 
		Which is your pen?
		Whom do you want to see?
		Whose is this watch?
		Who is used for asking wuestions about persons.
		What is useed for asking wuestions about things.
		Which is used for asking wuestions about the particular person or a thing.
		When these words are put before nouns, they are called interrogative adjectives.
		Which book do you like? (Adjective)
		Which is you favourite books? (Pronoun)
		What book do you want? (Adjective)
		What do you want? (Pronoun)


Personal pronouns

Table: Personal pronouns

excl incl
excl include
1in ǝlin alanale abo(n)

The personal pronouns differ from the respective verbal suffixes by the preposed vowel a- / ǝ-: exceptions are Ist person -in with verbal suffix -n/-in and 3rd person ac' with suffix -e.

The pronominal stems aer invariable; case, focus and topic markers are added to them . There are reflexive nor reciprocal pronoouns in Santali. Reflexivity is expressed by middle voice, see 2..2.3. and reciprocity by infixes on the verb,

c. Verb morphology (Finite and non-finite verb) Voice/Tense/Aspect/Mood/Person/number/Agreement


An action sone is called a verb. When the action is done in the present time it is called Present Tense. When it was done in the past time, it is called past Tense, when the action will take place in future time, it is called Future Tense.


The Santali verb is obligatorily marked for four categories:

  1. Tense, aspect and mood;
  2. voice;
  3. Voice :

    Different trends or particular inclination of sentences are called Voice in Grammar.

    There are four voice in Santali, namely the Active, the passive, the Reflexive and the Reciprocal voice.

    Active Voice

    The Active voice trend sentences denote simply statements or information of actions as they occur, e.g.

    	Bading siyuk'  kana. : I am ploughing the field.
    	Orak' ko tek' yar kana. : They are building houses.
    	Noa gaDa re tayanko menak' koa. : There are crocodiles in this river.
    	Ja~ha~e ho~ bako hec' lena. : No body came here.
    	Node duRub ko  ta~he~kana. : They were sitting here.

    Passive Voice

  4. one or more pronominal arguments;
  5. sentential modality.

  6. Optionally, furter cregories can be expressed:

  7. Parallel to the set of neutral TAM markers there are two sets, the applicative and the
  8. resultative set (Santali has three "conjugations")
  9. Auxiliaries allow the formation of an additional series of past tenses, of I ntentional forma and of some Continuous forms.
  10. The verb stem can be composed (cauative and serial verbs ) or denved (Intensive, Repetitive or Reciprocal).

The strucrure of the Santali verb is represented by the following diagram (the numbers refer to the respective chaprers):

Diagram 1: Structure of the Santali verb.

Stem*+	Conjug.+		TAM+	Voice (+ Pron)+	Aux (+ Pron)+	Modality (+ Pron )
	Neutral		Nonpast	Active		Background Past	Indicative
	Applicative	Imperf	Middle		Continuative	other
	Resultative	Past, etc.			Intentional
stem:		simple
		derived (Intensive,  Repetitive, Reciprocal)
		composed (root serialization).
	1.stem + 2.  stem
	other verbs



Santali has two sets of TAM affixes, one for active and one for middle voice (see 3.3). The table below lists the suffixes of the two sets (they may be called "neutral" TAM suffixes, in contrast to the respective sets of the applicative and the resultative,

Table 18: "Neutral" TAM affixes

TAM categoriesActive Middle
Nonpast^-ok' -^
Imperfective-et (-kan)-ok'-kan

Table: Example paradigm with dal-'strike"

NPSTda-a-ehe will strike'dal-ok'.a-e'he will be struck'
IPFVdal-et' -a-e'he is striking'dal-ok'-kan-a-e / dal-er' -kan-a-e'he is being struck'
PSTdal-ket'-a-e'he struck'dal-en-a-e'he was struck'
PLUPdal-let'-a-e'he struck'dal-len-a-e'he was struck'
PFdal-akat' -a-e'he has struck'dal-akan-a-e 'he's been struk'
IRRdal-le-a-e'he would strike'dal-len-a-e 'he would be struk'
OPTdal-ke-a-e'he shoul strike'dal-k-ok'-a-e 'he should be struck'


The Nonpast is the unmarked catrgory within the TAM system. The forms:-

Table: Nonpast verb forms

NaeutralActivedal-a-e'he will strike'
Middledal-ok'a-e'he 'll be struck'
ApplicativeActivedal-a-k'a-e'he will strike at it'
Middledal-jכn'he will strike for himself'
ResultativeActivedal-ka'-k'-a-e'he will strike it'
Middledal-ok'-a-e'he will be struct'


Taking first the ACTIVE Voice only, the following are the commonly used tenses:-

  1. THE GENERAL, OR FUTURE: is formed simply by adding the verbal suffix a- the sign that any word is being used as a verb -to the root n^e+lan^ -I will see . This is the only tense which you have so far been taught to use. In addition to the future, it is general sense, for a habitual reference to the present time. N^e+tko may mean they will see, or they see. (are in the habit of seeing ) according to the context. It is also used of actions in the past in vivid narratives. Tehen^ amak^ oRak^in^ n^ela -To day I will see your house; Maejiuko do+ko dakaea, he+re+lko do+ko sia ^ Women cook rice. Plough.
  2. THE INDEFINITE PRESENT : is formed by adding -ef to the root: n^e+let^, or n^e+ledan^- I see , I do see. This is used of actions in the present time, with no particular stress on the present moment.Whille not so gemeral as the tense above (which may refer to past and future as well as present).It is not so particular as the one which follows. Khe+treye kAmiyet^ a- He works in the rice-field.
  3. THE DEFINTTE PRESENT: is formed by adding – < ef^ kan > to the root: < n^e+lef^ kanan^ > I am at the moment aeeing.In this case, stress is laid on the present moment of time. Either of these present tense be used with a past meaning in vivid narratives. < khe+treye kAmiyet^ kana >. He is now working in the rice – field.
  4. THE INDEFINITE IMPERFEOT : is formed by adding < -et^ tahe~+kan > to the root:< n^e+let^ tahe~kanan^ > - I was seeing .It refers to an incomplete action in the past – an action still being performed at the time referred to. < Hols khe+tih^ siet^ tah~kana > - Yesterday I was ploughing the rice -field.
  5. THE DEFINITE IMPERFECT: is sformed by adding < -et^ kan tahe~+kana > - to the root: < n^e+let^kan an^ > -I was, at the moment, srring. The distinction between these two imperfect tenses is the same as that between these two imperfect tenses is the same as that between the two imperfect tenses is the same as that between the two present ten-ses -i, e., in the definite, more stress is laid on a particular moment of time.< Unre khe+tin^ siet^ tahe~kana > - At that time I was ploughing the rice -field.
  6. THE RECENT PAST: is formed by adding < -kef > to the root: < n^e+lhef^ an^ > - I saw, This is the tense mormally corresponding to the past tense in English , but is not used in negative stative statments < Noays ro+Rkeda > He said this.
  7. THE ANTERIOR PAST: is formed by adding < -LET^ > TO THE ROOT: < N^E+LLET^AN^ OR N^E+LLEDAN^ > -i SAW , This refers to an action in the past more remote than the above , or one which has since been neutralised by a more recent action:< nahe+lin^ iditeda > -I took away the plough. This is the logical tense to use with negative statements in the past: < ban^ n^e+lled > (not ban^ n^e+lkeda.) -I did not see. - He preciously said this (but now says some thing els); < In^ak^ katha baka an^jo+mleda >- they did not hear (or heed) my woed.
  8. THE ANTERIOR PLUPERFECT: is formed by sdding , < -let^ tahe~kan > to the root: < n^e+he~+kanan^ > -I has (previously) seen, This is used in the same way as the anterior past when something HAD subsequently happened to neutralisethe action described. It is also used in negative state ments. < Idilet^ tahe~kanan^ > I had taken it away (but subaequebtly brought it back); < Dumke bae n^e+llet^ tahe~+kana > - He had not (up till then ) seen Dumka.
  9. THE PERFEOT : is formed by adding by adding ,< -akat^ > to the root: < n^e+l akat^an^or n^e+l akadan^ > -I have seen. Seen. It refers to a completed action in the past and corresponds to the same tense in English, < Orak^e benao akat^a > - He has made a house.
  10. THE RECENT PLUPERFECT: is formed by adding , < -akat^ tahe~+kan > to the root: < n^e+l akat^ tahe~+kanan^ > -I had seen. This refers to a completed action in the past more remote than the above -i e., an action already completed at the same tense in English. < Orak^e benao akat^ tahe~e~+kan > - He had made a house.
  11. THE ANTERIOR: is formed by adding < -le > to the root: < n^e+llen^ > I first see. This is used in the future and past as well as the present to signify that the future and past as well as the present to signify that the action it describes takes place, or ought to take place, or ought to take place, before some other action does, or can, take place: < n^e+llem, ado+m pAtiAuk^a >- you will first see, then you will belive (i.e., seeing's believing) Excet when used with < o+ho+ >, it does not take the verbal < a. Ul jo+mlem ado+ sebeltet' em baDaea > You must first eat a mango to know its savour. The emphatic negative, < o+ho+ > is generally followed by this tense : < o+ho+m n^e+llea > (not < n^e+ls >) you will by no means see it.
  12. The verhal a may in this tense be replaced by certain particles rather subtle differences in meaning. You may, if you like , list these forms as separate tenses undery persuasive, and preliminary expostulative!

  13. THE INFINTIVE : consists simply of the root without the verbal a: < n^e+l >- to see .This is a mood rather than a tense, but for various reasons it is more convenient to consider it here. Clauses with an infinitive construction in English are however often put in different ways in Santali :-
    1. By the use of the infinitive with the performative base (Section G): < n^e+n^e+lin^ calak^a > - I will go to see. This is a very common use.
    2. By the use of the postposition < lAgit^ > - for the sake of -after the infinitive : < n^e+l lAgit^ in^ calak^a > I will go to see, for the sake of seeing .
    1. By the use of the future tense including the verbal a, followed by < me+nte > (that, in order that, for the purpose of): < n^e+la me+nten^ calak^a > -I will go to see, for the purpose of seeing .
    1. By the use of the future tens, excluding the verbal a, preceded by < je+mgn > (in order that I may see


So far, all tenses considered have been in the Active Voice. We now come to consider the other Voice, generally called Middle

As a general rule, it may be said that when a verb is used transitively, when it is used passively object, if is in the active voice; when it is used passively, it is in the middle or passive voice; in interally used, there is no definite rule, and you must learn for yourself the normal use difficulty arises < n^e+lae > - he will see; < n^e+lok^ae > -he will bw seen. In the former, the sense is active, in the the latter, passive; and this of course applies to many common verbs.

The middle or passive is sometimes used where the active would seem more logical. 'He ploughs' would seem, for instance, to suggest the active coice; but in Santali it is generally < siok^ kanae >. If, however, an object is expressed or definitely implied, the active is generally used:- < khe+le sief kana >- he is ploughing the field. Similarly used :- < khe+te siet^ kana > he is ploughing the field. Similarly, < e+mok^ako > - they give; but < Takako e+ma> - they give money.< Takako e+mok^a > is also, however, used, when the emphasis is on the giving rather thau what is given). Similarly,

Conversely, the active is sometimes used where the middle and passive would seem more logical. Thus, while < gitic^enae > (mid & pass.) is used for 'he lay down ; < iApifkedae > (act) is used for 'he slept', and < be+nget^ akadae > - for 'he has wakened up', which seem more logical. Thus, while < gitic^enae > (mid & pass.) is used for 'he lay down'; < ia+pit^ kedae > )act.) 'he has wakened up' has wakened up', which seem equally passive acts. But the literal meaning of < iApit^ > is shut the eyes, and of < be+n^ge+t^ > to open the eyes; and therefore their use in the active voice is here quite logical.

Thw following are the TENSE-SIGNS of the middle and passive voice. While rather less numerous, they correspond in their meaning to those of the active vouce, so nothing more need be said of their individual use, though examples will be given:-

  1. GENERAL OR FUTURE : < ok^ -n^e+lok^an^ >- I will be, or am, seen. < In^ak^ aRak^ do+ no+NDe+ khon ban^ n^e+lok^a > - my house is not visible from here.
  2. GENERAL AND PARTICULAR PRESENT:- < ok^ kan -n^e+lok^ kanan^ >- I am being seen. This one tense serves the purposes of both the general and particular presents of the active voice :< tehen^ gapako siok^ kana > - in these days are ploughing; < piprAten^ calak^ kana > I am (at the moment) going to pipra.
  3. INDEFINITE & DEFINITE IMPERFECT: < -ok^ kan tahe~+kana -n^elok^ kan tahe~+kanan^ >- I was being seen. < So+ro+kreko se+nok^ kan tahe~kanren^ n^e+lket^koa > -I saw them as they were going on the road.
  4. RAST PAST PAST :- < -en -n^e+lenan^ >- I was see . < Holako he+c^ena>- they came yesterday.
  5. ANTERIOR PAST: < -len -n^ellenan^ >- I was seen. they came yesterday (but has since risen: in making the statement of anyone else, < go+c^ena > would be used).


We have till now been considering verbal forms in which there is no object, or in which it is inanimate and therefore is not shown in verb. If , however, the object is animate, it is shown by the insertion of the short form of the appropriate personal pronoun at a specified place in the verb. Objects are of two kinds: direct and indirect. Dome verbs, from their inherent meaning, are normally followed by the direct object; other by the indirect, , < Ne+t >, to see, normally takes the direct object- I saw him, you , them, it etc. < Be+n^ge+t^ > meaning literally to open theb eyes, but also used with the meaning to look, takes the indirect object- I looked at him, at you, etc. Other verb may be used with either, In English, when we bsay "I gave him to him' is used with two different meanings. In the first case, it is the direct object of the verb; in the second, an indirect object, meaning 'to him' or 'for him' Santali , the form for the direct object would be used in the first case, for the indirect object in the second.

The DIRECT OBJECT occurs obviously only in the active voice. It is shown by inserting the short form of the pronoun (chap. II Lesson III, and Chap. VI) after the tense, -sign and befor the verbal a Taking the General tense, with 3rd pers, singular subject, you get the following:-

		< N^e+lin^ae > (or < n^e+len^ae >, for euphony) -he will see me. 
		< N^e+lmeae >- he will see you .
		< N^e+leae >-he will see him.
		< N^e+llin^ae >
				}    -he will see us two.
		< N^e+llan^a >- he will see you two.
		< N^e+lbenae > -he will see them (dual).
		< N^e+lleae > -he will see us.
		< N^e+lbonae > - he will see us.
		< N^e+lpena > - he will see you .
		< N^e+lkoae > -he will see them.


While the tense of a verb distinguishes as to the time with respect to which it is used, the mood expresses the mode or manner in which it is used. A part from the Infinitive (a mood itself), the tenses listed from the Infinitive (a mood itself), It is doubtful whether all the fors in this section should strictly be elassified as moods ; but it is convenient to gather them under this head. The following are the commonest:-

  1. THE IMPERATIVE: used in commands or in tructions. This is formen by adding a special form of the 2nd. Pers. Pron. To the root, in place of the verbal a : ,n^e+lme, n^e+lben, n^e+lpe- see, according to whether the command is given to one, two, or more than two Animate objects and genitives may be included in the regular way: < gAi idikotin^pe > -take away my cows: < gidrA daleme> -beat the child.
  2. THE BENEDICTIVE: is formed by adding < ma > to the rrot in place of the verbal a, followed by the subject pronoun.< n^e+lmae >- he may see, let him see. It is used (a) sometimes as a softened imperative < kAmi mam > -you may do the work: b) sometimes as a benediction: peace be with you, or to you; (c) sometimes permissively: < hijuk^ mako > -let them come. The negative used with this is always -May they not come.
  3. THE SUBJUNCTIVE & CONDITIONAL: is formed by replacing the verbal a by < khan>. Unlike the above, it may be used with different tenses. < noam baDae khan lAian^me+ baRe+ >- if you know this, please tell me; < amge nuiem dalakade khan in^ do+ am go~+n^ dalmea > -if you have beatrn this person, I will bwst you also; < anam n^e+lle khanem pAtiAuk^a > -if you will first see that, you will believe.
  4. As suggested by its name, it is used with rather different meanings:- (a) subjunctively, were 'id' would be used in English < amem se+nok^ khan, in^ ho~+n^ senok^a > if you (will) go, I will go also; (b) conditionally where some such phrase as provided that you, will first go, I will go. In negative clauses, while is used when the sense is subjecttive, , is used when it is conditional: < uni bae hijuk^ khan in^ do+ ban^ se+nok^a >- if he does not come, I will not go; uni bae hijuk' khan in^ do+ o+ho+n^ se+nlena.> i. e. I won't go unless he comes.

    There is also a common use of - if this work is good for me, then I will do it. This is not to be confused with the conjunction meaning 'but' This comes at the end of the claise it governs, the conjunction at the beginning It is probably a subjunctive of the verb to say ; and the literal meaning of the example given above would be: If (you or they) say that this work is good would be : If (you or they say that this work is good for me .

  5. THE OPTATIVE: is formed by adding < -ke > to the root in the active, < -kok^ > in the middle and passive voice. As its name indicates, it signifies choice, wish , or desire or the part of the subject of the verb, and can often be translated by would' or'could; < in^ak^en? Would you like to see my house? < tehen^ thora gan dakan^ gan dakan^ jo+mkea >- to-day I would like to eat a little rice . It is often used is a clause following what the subject may be willing to do provided certain conditions are fulfilled: < uniye hijuk' khan, amem se+nkok'a >? - if he comes, would you go?;
  6. THE CAUSATIVE is formed by adding < oco > to the root followed in the active voice by the DIRECT animate object if present, and is also used with the vaious tenses. Its meaning is elear from its name, and is illustrated in the following examples: < kuRin^ se+n ocokedea > - I caused the girl to go : < khe+tre kAmi ocokom >- cause them to work in the field; < dhiriko rakap ocokeda >. They raised the stone (lit.caused it rise). In the middle or passive voice, it is used to emphasise a passive meaning, sometimes where the simple passive would seem to meet the case: - I will show myself to him dit.
  7. THE PERMISSIVG is found in the active voice only, and is formed by adding to the root, followed by the INDIRECT animate or inanimate object (in distatinction to the direct in the causative). While the causative is used with the sense of to cause or force, this is used in the sense of to allow or permit: < n^e+l ocoadean^ > - I allowed him to see; < kAmi ocoakome > - let them work; < n^ir oco akawat^koae > -he has let them run away ;
  8. THE INTENTIONAL : is formed (a) by adding < -ka > to the root in the future, persent imperfect, and imperative in the in the future, preesent imperfect, and imperative in the active voice; < dalkakoae > he will beat them , < dalkako kanae >- he is beating them; < dalkako kan tahe~+kanae- he was beating them ; < dalkakome >- beat them; (b) by adding <-lak^ > to the base in the recent past tense of the active voice: < dalkat^ koae >- he best them; (c) by adding < -lak^ > to the base in the anterior past tense of the active voice; < ona khe+t-in^ irlak^a > -I previously reaped that rice-field; by adding < kok^ > to the rrot in the future, present , imperfect, and imprative of the middle or passive voice:< n^e+lkok^ae > -he will be seen; < n^e+lkok^ kanae >- he is being seen; - he was being seen ; < n^e+lkok^me > be seen. It does not modify tenses other rhan the above , But it is probably the same particle which appears in the normal perfect and pluperfect tenses, which contain in themselves the idea of completion which this form implies. It is used to give the sense of completion or thoroughness of an action:
  9. THE CONTINUATIVE : is formed by adding < akae tahe~n > to the root in the active , < akan tahe+n > to the root in the middle or root in the active, < akan tahe+n > to the root in the middle or passive voice. It is found in both cases only in the future, present, imperfect, and imperative: < n^e+l akae tahe+-nae >- he will continue to see; < n^e+l akae tahe+n kanae > - he cohtinues to see; < n^e+l akae tahe+n kan tahe~+ tahe~+kana > he was continuing to see; < n^el akae tahe+n kan tahe~+kanae > he was continuing to see; < n^e+l akae tahe+nme > continue to see ; < n^e+l akan tahe+nae > -he will continue to be seen, etc. Its use is suffinciently indicated by its name and the above examples. When there is an animate object, the short form of the pronoun is shown in place of the final e in < akae >:


Certain particles may be inserted in the verb to modify the meaning corresponding to adverbs in English. They are inserted between the root and tense-signs.

The commonest are:- < ho+t^ or go+t^ > - quickly, suddenly : < n^ir go+t enae > - suddenly he ran off: < sab ho+t^kedin^ako > - They suddenly seized me.

< Agu > -to do something when coming; to do something, then come: < hiri Agukom > - visit them as you come;

             	< n^e+l Aguime > - see it and bring word.
	< idi > - to do something when going; do something, then go :
           	< n^e+l  Aguime > - see it and bring word

	< idi > - to do something when  going; do something, then go:
            	< n^e+l idikom > -see them as you go, on your way. 

These two are also used to expresent continued action, < Agu > from the past towards the present,

< idi > from the present towards the future: < setak khonin^ kAmi Agu akada, Ayub hA-bic^in^ kAmi idia > - I have worked continuously from the morning, I will continue to work till the evening; < kAmi idime > go on working..

< dara > - along with; like < Agu > it is used with the idea of coming: < Agu darakedeako > - they brought him along with them. It is also used as an impersonal verb (Section K).

< tora > - along with, with them .

< n^o^+k^ > - little, slightly: < n^e+l n^o~+k^kedean^ > - I caught a glimpse of him.

< baRa > - here and there, frequently, habitually: < boge baRa > - < geape >?- are you keeping well?; < ro+R baRakedin^ae > - he said me a great deal, told me off, spoke a mouthful.

< hataR > - in the mean time, for the time being: < take+n hataRok^me > -remain meanwhile.

< maRan^ > - in the first place, foremost (not to be confused with < maran^ > - big, old); uniye dal maRan^kedin^a> - it was he who first struck me.


Two or more verbs are often used in conjunction, forming a combination-verb. If one of them is transitive, the combination- verb takes its construction:- < n^e+t he+c^kedean^ > - I saw him come; < an^jo+m roa;aaar akat^ koam >? Have you heard them say so?; < se+n n^amkedean^ >- I went and found him. With two intransitive verbs, the first gives the emphasis: < he+t^ ruAr akmae >, and < ruAr he+c^ akanae > - both mean he has come back; but in the first case the emphasis is on the coming, in the second on the returning. If, however, the second word of the combination be , used with the indirect object in the sense of to be able (Section D,it always governs the structure, i.e. The combination word takes the indirect object: < ban^ kAmi daReak^a >- I cannot work; < ban^ an^jo+m daReat^ koa > - I could not hear them.


The following. Are the commonest alteration in the root word or nase of the verb:-

  1. THE RECIPROCAI, BASE is formed by reduplicating the vowels in the first syllable, and inserting < p > between the two vowels thus formed. From is formed < n^e+pe+l >; from < dulAr, dupulAr >; from < e+m, e+pe+m >, etc. It is used to indicate reciprocal action: < n^e+pe+takin > - they two will see each other; < r+po+r kanako > - they are talking to one another (i. e. Quarreling); duplAr – mutual love. It is found in both voices and in all tenses.
  2. THE PERFORMATIVE BASE is formed in two ways:- (a) by reduplicating the first two letters of the word; becomes < n^e+n^e+l >; : < go+c^ go+go+c^ >; < dal dadal >, etc.: (b) by inserting < k^ > after the first vowel. This form is always used where the initial letter is a vowel: < idi > becones < ik^di >; < Ak^gu; an^jo+m, ak^jo+m >; but it is also sometimes used in other words; < kAmi > becomes < kAk^mi; be+n^ge+t^; calao, cak^lao; taRam tak^tam; dak^re >, etc.
  3. It is used (a) to indicate that a certain action is at the moment being performed ; < n^e+n^e+l kanako > - they are now engaged in looking; (b) to indicate habit or wont; dak'Re < ho+R kanae > he a strong man; < cak'laoic^ > - the one who manages, the supervisor; < nui do+ Adiye e+k^Re+a > this man tells many lies; (c) very commonly as an infinitive; < n^e+n^lko he+c^ akban > they have come to look on: < dadalko baDaea > they know how to strike (they are quarrelsome).

    Ther base is used only with the futre tense and tenses forned by adding < kan and tahe~kan se+n akana > he has gone to visit relatives.

  4. THE PASSIVE PERFORMATIVE is a corresponding construction in the middle and passive voice, formed by reduplicating the sign of this voice < ok^- i.e. Ok^ > plus < ok^ > becomes < ogok^ >; < k^ > plus < ok^ > becomes < gok^ > -to show that a real passive is meant; < n^e+logok^a > it will be seen, visble, evident; < ro+rogok^- kana > - it is being said.


These, which are adjective formed from verbs, are formed simply by omitting the verbal . The verb is otherwise formed normally as to tense, mood, object, etc., but does not show an animate subject if present: < n^e+lkedin^ ho+rko >- the people who saw me; < se+n go+t^ akantin^ gidrA > - my child who has gone suddenly; < e+mat^me maejiu > - the womsn who gave it you; < burure n^e+logok^ kan dare > - the tree visible on the hill . < po+anak^ kAmi > beneficial work ( reflexive form of the past, middle and passive).

These participles are often employed as nouns, by adding the appropriste suffix (Chap. IV ): < n^e+logok^ic^ > - the one who is visible; < n^e+logok^ > the thing that 18 visible; < baDaete+t^ > knowledge.


1.Ges. & Future–	n^e+la-		n^e+la...a-		n^e+lok^a	-	n^e+ljona
2.Indef. Pres.-	n^e+let^a-		n^e+a...kana-	n^e+lok^ kana–	n^e+ljon^ . kana,
3.Def. Pres.-	n^e+let^-		do.-		do.-		do.
4.Ind imperf.-	n^e+let^-		n^e+la..  kan-	n^e+lok^ kan-	n^e+ljonkan
		tahe~+kana-	tahe~+kana-	take~+kana-	tahe~+kan
5.Def. Imperf.-	n^e+let^ kan-	do-		do-	 	do
6.Recent past.-	n^e+lket^a-	n^e+lat^...a-	n^e+lena-		n^e+lana
7.Ant. Past.-	n^e+llet^a-		do-		n^e+llena-		do.
8.Ant. Plup.-	n^e+llet^-		n^e+akauat^-	n^e+llen-		n^e+l okawan
     		tahe~+kana	tahe~+kana	tahe~+kan		tahe~+he~+kana
9.Perfect.-		n^e+l akat^a-	n^e+l akawat^.. a-	n^e+l  akana–	n^e+l akawana.
10.n^e+l akat^- 	n^e+l akawat^-	n^e+l akan-	n^e+l akan-	n^e+l-
		tahe~+kana-	tah^e~+kana-	------		-----   
11.Anterior-	n^e+llea-		____-		n^e+llena-		___
l2.Perfomative–	n^e+n^e+la	____		n^e+logok^a	___

Direct (animate) and indirect (animal or inanimate) objects, genitive pronouns, and verbal particles may also be inserted.


Certain words, generally describing bodily sensations, are commonly vervally in an impersonal form. Instead of saying used verbally in an impersonal form. Instead of saying 'I, am hungry', the Santal says 'It hungers me', i. e., the subject in English becomes the direct object of the verb, the subject being inanimate (i, e, it), The commonest of these words are: < re+n*ge+c^ > - hunger < tetan^ > -< thirst; ,hoso >- pain; - heat; < raban* >- cold; < sana > - < desire >, wish; drowsiness; -to come < Re+n^ge+c^edin^ kana > - I am had a hedace (lit the head was hurting me); < raban^ket^pea > - were you cold?;


A part from those mentionad in the section above, there is only one, rarely: used: - found only thus in the part tense, meaning went7: they went. Its meaning presupposes that they have since returned.

The verb < me+r >- to say – is also irregularly constructed in come tenses, i, e., in the future, present and past of the < n > is changed to < t >; < metaean^ > (not < me+naean^ >) - I will tell him; (not < me+nadin^am >) - you told me. < Metak^me > - namely, that is to say (lit. Say to it) – is very commonly used. Other tenses both in the active and middle and passive are regular: < me+n akawat^koan^ > - I have said to them; < ne+njon^ kanan^ > - I am saying to myself (i. e. Thinking, or wishing); etc.

Ithers, which may irregular in certain tenses, are really regularly constructed, but modified for the sake of euphony.

The verb < he+c^ >- to come – when used in the tenses of the middle and passive where < ok^ > occurs, shoud become . This has been modified to < hijuk^ > Thus we get: < hijuk^ae > he come; < hijuk^ kan tahe~+kanae > he was coming.

Similarly the verb < calak^ > - to go- is a modifcation of < talaok^> to be driven, to be caused to go. Thus: < calak^ kan > . < tahe~+kanae > - he was going; but < go+c^enae > - he died.


There are two ways in which the English word 'must' is expressed in Santali,. One is by using the word to be, become – with a short genitive orinoun < calak^ hoyok^tin^a > - must go (lit to go will be mine); < calak' hoyentaea > - he had to go (to go became his).

The other is by the use of the word - need or necessity. This be used as an adverb: < jAruRin^ calak^a > - I must go (lit., I will of necessity go; or as a verb with the genitive pronoun, in the same way as < hoe: calak^ jAruRtin^a >- I mustgo (to go is my need; < ca+lak^ jAruR lahe~ kantin^a > - I had to go (to go was my need). < JaruR >, however, when used as a verb in its more literal sense of 'need' or 'want' takes the indirect object instead of the genitive: < mo~+Re~+ taka jAruRan^a > - I need five rupees;


The distinction made in the verb between an animate and inanimate subject has already been stressed; but it remains to say that the Santal, being an animist, draws his own distinction but ween animate and inanimate, and therefor the animate construction is often used wher the inanimate would seem more natural. This is generally in connection with the weather, the sun, moon, stars, wind, rain, etc. - natural elements personified in the mind of the animist. Thus: < dak^kedae > - it(lit. he) rained; < setonabon kanae > it is hot (lit. he) rained; < seton*abon kanae > - it is hot (lit he is shining on us); < ipile n^e+lo+k^ kana > - the star (he) is visible; - it has become cloudy.

Abstract ideas and other impersonal words are also occasionally personified, in rather a poetic way: < dulAr do+e go+Ro+ame >- love will help you; < amak^ li~ do+e kAmia > - your hand will do the work.

d. Adjectives



An adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun as:

	Ramo is a good boy.
	This is a black horse.
	I have many books.
	She has little money.

The words – good, black, many, and little – are adjectives. They are used before nouns and add something to their meaning.

	Kinds of Adjectives: 
		) Adjective of quality:
			Ramo is an honest  boy.
			Sumi is noble girl.
			They are kind people.
			This is white horse.
		) Adjective of Quantity:
			There is a little milk in the pot.
			He has enough money with him.
			There is a sufficient water in the tank.
			Put some sugar in the milk.
		) Adjective of number:
			There are a few boys in the class room.
			I shall come after ten days.
			He killed many birds.
			Some boys do not come in uniform.
		) Demonstrative Adjective:
			This horse is mine.
			That book is yours.
			These clothes are dirty.
			Those flowers are charming.

	This, That, These, Those are all demonstrative adjectives. They are place before nouns.

		) Interrogative Adjectives:
			What colour is your shirt?
			Which boo do you like?
			Whose house is this?

	The words what, which, and whose are used before nouns and are used to ask questions.

		) Possessive Adjectives:
			This is amy house.
			That is your school.
			This is our village.
			His brother has come.
			Her sister is weeping. 
			Teir team has won the match.

There is no word class in Santali. A number of lexemes of lexemes are used as predicates with stative meaning, corresponding semantically to adjrctives of other languages. These lexemes can be used as prenominal attributes. A number of stative verbs borrowed from Indo-Aryan (Hindi or Bengali), 2.g. 'lelha' foolish', kala 'deaf', distinguish two gender forms: -a used with a masculine noun, -i with a femmine noun. Besides this the "adjectives" make no distinction of gender.

	(1)	a. Lelh-a kora		b.Lelh-i kori
    		foolish-M boy		foolish-F girl
    		a, foolish boy'		a' foolish girl' 

	This agreement takes place in predicative function as well:

	(2)	kora kuri-ko    ǝdi-ko           konk-a-konk-i-akan-a
		boy  girl-PL      very-3p          foolish-M-foolish-F-PF:MID-IND

	The boys and girls have become very foolish.

D. Syntax (Sentence structure)

1. Sentence types

1.1. Sentences with mena-

The verb mena-'be, exist' is invariable and never takes any TAM markers. Mena- has no subject pronouns: arguments with experiencer function are marked by object pronouns. The suffix -k', used for inanimate objects elsewhere, appears here. When the experience is non-singular.

Table : parading of mena-be, exist'

1.inctmena-n-a 'I am'mena-k'-lan-a mena-k'-bon-a
2.mena-m-a .....mena-k'-lin-amena-k'pe-a

The verb has three functions:

i) It has existential meaning ('exist,'live)

	1.ona-reak'	mi-tan	kahni	mena-k'-a
	that (NAN)-GEN:INAN one-CL story exist-3s: INAN-IND
	There is a tale about this. (ft 16.2.p.228)

The protagonist reached another country. There kings were appointed every day. And were dying daily.)

	2.eken	raj-ren	era	ar	hcpcnera-ge	menak'-kin-a
	only	king-GEN:AN	wife    and	daughter-FOC  exist-3d-IND
	Only the queen and a princess were living' (ft 9. 102, p 118)

Paradigm of banuk” not to be'

1.inclbanug-in-a 'I am not'banuk'-lan-abanuk'-bon-a

5.(i)  Existential meaning:-

	patia  banuk'-a        busup' atet'-jcn-me.
	Mat    be:NEG-IND straw   spread-REFL-2s
	There is no mat, spread some straw (to lie down on).

6.(ii) Loxative sentence :-

	oRak'-re               banug-ic'-an
	house-LOC           be: NEG-3s-IND
	He is not at home.

 (iii)Possessive sentence:

	orak'-re             cet'               jcm-ak'               banuk-ta-bon-a
	house-LOC-also what  eat-NOM:INAN         be:NEG-POSS-lpi-IND
	We have nothing to eat in the house.

Identificational sentences:

Identificational sentences are marked by < kan- or tahe~kan >. They correspond to nominal sentences in other languages. < kan- and taheekan- > function as copulas, < -kan > referring to persent time (1.2), < tah3~kan >- to past time (,4). Whereas the past copula < tah3~kan > is used as full verb, < kan > should be considered as an auxiliary since the subject pronoun. When preceding. Does not immediately precede < kan >. But the predicate noun; e. g. in the second part of first example the pronomial subject < -m > 2s is suffixed to < ma-m > instead to

Two men both claim to be the womwn's husband.)

1.	a.	nui    ma       in-ren            hoR           kan-e,
        	this (AN) MOD I-GEN:AN  person      COP-3s

	b.	ar      am       ma-m            pera   hoR      kan.
         	And    you     MOD-2s friend      person   COP
        	This is my wife, and you are a  there  acqvain tance

2.		oen-re-n            baDae-ket'-a
		that (INAN) -INST-s     kanow-PST:ACT-IND
		nui          gai-da-e     ban       kan-t-in-a        m3nte.
		That's why I know that this cow is not mine,' (fi 3.169. p.56)

3. Simple sentences:

Word order

Generally the head precedes its determiner. In the simple sentence, subject and object normally precede the verb. In unmarked word order the object follows the subject Consider the following example, where the jackal (toyo) is the subject, preceding the object, < hoR' the person:

1.	toyo-do     onko          hoR      met-at'-ko-a:
 	jackal-TOP those (AN):P  person-3s say-APPL:PST-3p-IND
	The jackal said to the men: *Did you see?” (ft 2.137, p.18)

Within the noun phrase deterniners (possessof nominals, demonstratives. Adjectives. Etc) preced the head, for examples see the respectives.

The position after the phrase the head, for examples see the respective chapters.

The position after the predicate can be used as afterthought:

2.	cala-k'  calak'-te   mit-tan  gaDa-ge hoR-re-ko nam-ket'-a
	go-MID  Rdp-CONV   one-CL   river-FOC-3p  find-                                                 
	As they walked along they came to a river, running full'.


Agreement reflects natural number.

(1)	ado sari  ina     neND   din  hilok'-do uDi utar
	then trely that (INAN-ENPH) oppointed day-TOP much 
  	phad-ko   jarwa-y-en-a
  	crowd-3p  gather-y-PST: MID-IND
  	'On the day an immenese crowd came together.

The subject < phad' 'crowd', which is unmarked for number, agrees with the 3rd plural suffix-ko.

Agreement reflects the natural person of the participants. The objcet of the second clause is a third person,

	(Answer to the question: Will they bring is rice?)
	Sanam  hoR -do     agu-ke-pe-a,    con  ban   canal
	all   person-TOP-3p   bring-OPT-2p ever NEG every
	mankhan mit'  hoR-do  khati-ge-ko       

E. Lexicon

2. Basic vocabulary

Names of the days of a week

    	singe  --  'Sunday
	ote  --  ‘Monday’
	bale --  ‘Tuesday’
	sagun  --  ‘Wednesday’
	sardi  --  ‘Thursday’
	jarum --  ‘Friday’
	Juhum  --  ‘Saturday’


	mit ‘one’
	bar  ‘two’
	pe  ‘three’
	pun  ‘four’
	mo~Re  ‘five’
	turuy  ‘six’
	eyay  ‘seven’
	iral   ‘eight’
	arel ‘nine’
	gel  ‘ten’
	isi ‘twenty’
	mit' isi gel  ‘thirty’
	bar isi  ‘forty’ 
	bar isi gel  ‘fifty’
	//  ‘sixty’
	pe isi gel    ‘seventy’
	pun isi ‘ eighty’
	pun isi gel  ‘ninety’
	mit' sae   ‘hundred’
	gel sae/hajar  ‘thousand’
 	gel hajar   ’10 thousand’
	lakh  ‘lakh’
	gel lakh  ’10 lakhs’
	karoD  ‘crore’


	sing cando  ‘the sun’
	nida cando ‘the moon’
	ipil ko  ‘planet’
	    ‘star’   
	ara~D ipil ‘pole star’ 
	bhurkak' ipil      ‘ morning star’
	suk@r ipil   ‘evening star’
	buDhi parkom ipil  '4 in great bear'

Human beings:

	hopon ’son’
	kuRigidra ’daughter’
 	kuRi hopon /woman’
	    ’man’

Natural Objects:

	bir  hill’
	buru ’mountain’
	gaDa ’river’
	cenal ’canal’
	jharna ’spring’
	rimil ’cloud’
	japut ’rain’
	cituing taras   ‘sunlight’
      	umul ’shadow’
      	hoy wind’
 	bijali ’lightning’
 	hudur ’thunder’


 	dare  ’tree’
 	naRi ’creeper’
  	buda ’shrub’
 	tasad ’grass’


	ul ’mango’
 	kanthaR ’jackfruit’
       	lici   lichi
	supra ’guava’
	ananas ’pineapple’
	sew ’apple’
	tarbuj ’cucumber’
 	kaera ’banana’
	angur ’grapes’
 	dalim ’pomegranate’


 	tarrup ’tiger’
 	kul ’lion’
 	hati ’elephant’
 	sadom ’horse’
 	tayan ’crocodile’
       	garuR  hinoceros
  	jil deer’
 	gai ’cow’
 	merom  ’goat’
 	pusi ’cat’
 	seta ’dog’
 	sukri  'pig


 	saRi sari’
 	saya ’petticoat’
 	gamcha ’Indian edition of towel’
  	tuturi ’veil’
 	lung ’lungi, a long skirt like cloth for men to tie from the waste’
 	dhuti ’dhoti, a white big cloth for men to tie from the waste’
  	gamcha' loth  the upper portion of the body taken with dhoti’
 	angrop -shirt for the men to wear with pajama or dhoti’
	jama salwar ke loose outfit for men’


Copyright CIIL-India Mysore