2.1 Phonetic Structure:

2.1.1 Initiation:


2.1.2 Phonation: Obstruents:

Unaspirated	p	t	k	ts	H/ʔ
Aspirated		ph	th	kh	tsh
Unaspirated	b	d	g	dz
Aspirated		bh	dh	gh	dzh
Voiceless						h Sonorants

All sonorant sounds in Rabha language are voiced and unaspirated:

Consonants 	:	m	n	N/ɳ	r	l	
Glides 		:	w	y
Vowels		:	i 	E/e	a/ɑ 	O/ɔ
				o	u	U/ɯ	I/ɨ

2.1.3 Articulatioin Complex Articulation:

In the Rabha language [ts], [tsh], [dz] and [dzh] are alveolar affricates, therefore these sounds can be classed as sounds produced with complex articulation. In the articulation of these sounds, the alveolar stops [t] or [d] are followed by the palatal fricatives. Secondary articulation:

Rounded vowels [u], [o] and the rounded glide [w] are velarized as expected. Unrounded vowel [e], [I] and the unrounded glide [y] are palatalized as expected.


Both, Plosives and africates are aspirated in Rabha. The Rabha language has the following aspirated forms.

Voiceless aspirated 	: 	ph	th	kh	tsh
Voiced aspirated	:	bh	dh	gh	dzh
Vowel Retroflexion 	:	Missing

2.1.5 Nasalization:

No nasalization is seen in Rabha language. However following nasals are prominent in Rabha.

		N	n	m

2.1.6 Dipthongs and Related phenomenon:

The sequence of all vowels followed by the high vowel [i] or [u] and mid vowel [E] or [o] is a dipthong in this language. However, in the case of mid vowel [E] and [o] are pronounced as [y] and [w] respectively.

Following 15 dipthongs are seen in the Rabha language.
	iu	:	/ diutshi / 'assistant priest'
	Eo~ew 	: 	/ tshEora~tshEwra / 'a kind of tree'
	ai	:	/ tshilai / 'gun'
	aE~ay 	:	/ kaE~kay / 'man'
	ao~aw	:	/ tsharao~tsharaw / 'epidemic'
	au 	:	/ haura / 'poor'
	oE~Oy	:	/ doE~doy / 'a kind of fruits'
	oE~oy	:	/ tOroE~tOroy / 'lenthening' (infin)
	oo~ow 	:	/ zooa~zowa / 'time'
	ou 	:	/ tou / 'black cookoo'
	ui 	:	/ kui / 'a bettle nut'
	uu 	:	/ ruua / 'poisonous fruits'
	UI 	:	/ phUI / 'come'
	Uo~Uw 	:	/ lUoak~lUwak / 'frog'
	Ii 	: 	/ dIi / 'collective utterance in some group work'.

2.1.7 Tripthongs:

Tripthong is not prominent in Rabha. However, it is found in some sequences where more than three vowels are used in combination. For example:

	iai 	: 	/ biaiOn / 'to the father-in-law of son or daughter' (emphasis)
	aii 	: 	/ tsayiian / 'in the song' (emphasis)
	aiE 	:	/ awaiE / 'prattling'
	iao~iaw 	: 	/ dziaOn~dziaOn / 'to the dzia tree' (emphasis)
	uai 	: 	/rauwaian / 'at the beam of the roof' (emphasis)
	uao~uaw 	: 	/ tsuaOn~tsuawOn / 'to the well' (emphasis)
	oai~oay 	: 	/ dzoaian~dzowayan / 'in the times' (emphasis)

2.2 Phonology

2.2.1 Phonemes

2.2..1.1 Segmental Phonemes:

The Rabha language has the following segmental phonemes

	i 	(high front unrounded)
	E/e	(mid front unrounded)
	a/ɑ	(low central unrounded)
	O/ɔ	(low back rounded)
	o	(mid back rounded)
	u 	(high back rounded)
	U/ɯ	(high back unrounded)
	I/ɨ	(mid central rounded)
Following phonemic contrasts establish the vowel phonemes in Rabha :
	i 	: 	/ tsiN / 'we / ri / 'to be weighty'
	E 	: 	/ tsEN / 'to be light' / re / 'cane'
	a 	:	/ tsaN / 'who' / ra / 'to take'
	O 	:	/ tsON / 'to be prepared' / rOH / 'to boil'
	o 	:	/ tsoN / 'worm' /ro / 'to be long'
	u 	: 	/ tsuN / 'to be big'/ ru / 'to bathe'
	U 	:	/ tshUm / 'to be sweet' / trUH / 'to make one bathe'
	I 	:	/ tshIm / 'to follow'/ rIH / 'to shift'


	p	ph	b	bh	m	(Bilabial stops and nasal)
	t	th	d	dh 	n	(Alveolar stops and nasal)
	k 	kh	g	gh 	N	(Velar stops and nasal)
	ts	tsh	dz	dzh		(Alveolar palatal affricates”
	r					(Alveolar lateral)
	l					(Alveolar trilled)
				h	H/ʔ	(Glottal fricative and stops)
	w	y				(bilabial and palatal glides)

Following phonemic contrasts establish the consonantal phonemes in Rabha :

	p 	:	/ pa / 'to cross' / topa / 'cage'
	ph 	:	/ phas / 'to vomit'/ topha / 'name of a kind of bird'
	b 	: 	/ ba / 'to carry on the back'/ toba / 'cock'
	bh	:	/ bho / 'to cut down'/ bobha / 'dumb'
	m	:	/ma / 'to lose'/ boma / 'lap'
	t 	:	/ ta / 'to touch'/ ata / what/
	th 	:	/ tha / 'vein'/ atha / 'gum'
	d 	: 	/ do / 'to unload from back'/ boda / 'python'
	dh 	: 	/ dhaN / 'to enter'/ badha / 'temporary shed'
	n 	: 	/ na / 'fish' /bana / 'artificial dam'
	ts 	: 	/ tsak / 'leaf'/ botsa / 'other'
	tsh 	: 	/ tsha / 'to eat'/ totsha 'somewhat'
	dz 	:	/ dzap/ 'fan' / budzi / 'elder brother’s wife'
	dzh 	: 	/ dzhak / 'a fall of rain' / dzhadzhi / 'a bit straw'
	k 	: 	/ kak / 'to bite'/ boka / 'fool'
	kh 	:	/ kha / 'to tie' / tokha / 'crow'
	g 	: 	/ ga / 'to carry'/ doga / 'war-shield'
	gh 	: 	/ ghEk / 'goitre'/ bigha/
	N 	: 	/ laNa / 'name of Good'
	r 	: 	/ ra / 'to take'/ lara / 'widower'
	l 	: 	/ laN laN / 'transparent' / lala / 'stammer'
	h 	:	/ ha / 'soil'	/ laha / 'lac'
	H 	:	/ braHa / 'one feels shy'
	w 	:	/ brawa / 'one feels burning sensation'
	y 	:	/ braya / ‘one ejects out from mount’ Suprasegmental phonemes:

Rabha does not have phonemic stress, length and nasalization. But it has the phonemic tone. For example

	high / rising 	mid / level		low / falling
	/ tshó / 'to burn'	/ tshō / 'mosquito'		/ sho`/ 'to spite'
	/ tshám / 'mortar' 	/ tshām / 'grass' 		/tsha`m / 'to wait'
	/ tshí / 'to die' 	/ tshī / 'blood'		/tshi`/ 'to scrape'

Intonational pitch defference is also phonemic in Rabha, but difference is found in terms of area (habitat), e.g.

	/ name nukina / reNo / (with falling intonation), 'you will go home.'
	/ name nukina reNo / (with level intonation), 'You will go home!'
	/ name nukina reNo / (With rising intonation), 'Will you go home?'


 Following are the phonetic variants of the Rabha language 

		[tsh] ~ [ ʃ ]
		[dz] ~ [ʓ]
		[ph] ~ [f]
		[bh] ~ [β]
		[th] ~ [θ]
		[dh] ~ [ð]
		[ʔ ] ~ [t ]
		[r] ~ syllabic [ŗ]
		[I] ~ syllabic [!]
		[y] ~ [i]
		[w] ~ [o]
		[o] ~ [u]

2.2.3 Allophones and their distribution:

The alveolar palatal africates [tsh] is free variation with the alveo-palatal fricative [s] before high back unrounded [u] and mid central rounded [I], e.g.

		[tshUN] ~ [ ʃUN], 'to ask'
		[tshim] ~ [ ʃim], 'salt'

The alveolar palatal africates [dz] is free varitation with the alveo-palatal fricative [z] before high back unrounded [U] and mid central rounded [I], e.g.v

		[dzUksai] ~ [ʓUksai], 'couple'
		[dzriman] ~ [ʓrIman], 'drowsily'

The bilabial aspirated plosive [ph] is free variation with labio-dental fricative [f] before high back unrounded [U] and mid central rounded [I], e.g.

		[phUI] ~ [fUI] 'to come'
		[phin] ~ [fIn], 'to closely fixed on another'

The bilabial aspirated plosive [bh] is free variation with bilabial fricative [β] before high back unrounded [U] and mid central rounded [I], e.g.

		[bhIl] ~ [βIl], 'force'
		[bhINan] ~ [βlNan[, 'speedly'

The alveolar plosive [th] is free variation with dental fricative [θ] before high back unrounded [U] and mid central [I], e.g.

		[thUpsa] ~ [θUpsa], 'to cause to dance'
		[thIr] ~ [θIr], 'to split up'

The alveolar plosive [dh] is free variation with dental fricative [ð] before high back unrounded [U] and mid central [I]. e.g.

		[dhIkdhIk] ~ [ðIk ðIk], 'fully matured as young girl'
		[dhIt] ~ [ðIt], 'expression of dislike'

The glotal stops [ʔ] is free variation with alveolar plosive [t] intervocally e.g.

		[tsiʔa] ~ [tsita], 'lays egg'
		[brʔa] ~ [brata], 'feel shy'

The alveolar trill [r] is varied with syllabic [ŗ] before [U] and [I], e.g.

		[rIʔ] ~ [  ŗIʔ], 'to shift'
		[rUʔ] ~ [  ŗUʔ], 'to make bathe'

The alveolar [l] is varied with syllabic [ļ] before [U] and [I] e.g.

		[plIk] ~ [pļ k], 'to make untie'
		[glIkan] ~ [gļ kan]

The bilabial glidez [w] is varied with central vowel [o] intervocally, e.g.

		[aoa] ~ [awa], 'shouts'
		[praoE] ~ prawE], 'calling'

Central vowel [o] is free variation with high back unrounded vowel [U] before high vowel [i] and [u], e.g.

		[nokini] ~ [nukini], 'domestic, home’s'
		[todzi ~ [tudzi], 'fowls excrata'

Front low vowel [E] is varried with high front vowel [i] intervocally, e.g.

		[mEtsik] ~ [mitsik], 'wife'
		[nEdzuN] ~ [nidzuN], 'honey bee'

2.2.4. Phonetic Paterning

Following are the permitted sequences in Rabha: Two cluster consonants

Generally in Rabha all two consonant clusters are used midially. Only the two consonant clusters of which the second members are /r/ and /l/ are used initially. There is no use of clusters in the final except in few disyllabic words. For example:

/ p p / : / khappur / 'being weeping like face'
/ p ph / : / dapphay / 'about to burry'
/ p t / : / dapta / 'patch'
/ p th / : / gipthay / 'pengolin'
/ p k / : / apkay/ 'to keep in order'
/ p l / : / plik / 'to become untie' / daplak / 'flat'
/ p r / : / prUn / 'goat' / tepra / 'short-statured'.
/ p ts / : / haptsi / 'mud'
/ p tsh / : / raptshaN / 'unity'
/ ph l / : / phlaw-phlaw / 'breaking into two picces at one blow' / sophla / 'cork'.
/ ph r / : / phraw phraw / 'shining or twinkling at night' / sephra / 'mouse'
/ b b / : / babba / 'term of surprise'
/ b d / : / habday / 'to repent'
/ b l / : / bloNan / 'denoting trushing entrance' / thobla / 'cluster'
/ b r / : / bra / 'to shy' / sabra / 'child'
/ b z / : / nabzi / 'tick'
/ bh r / : / bhroN- bhroN / 'growing luxariantly'
/ t k / : / setkawra / 'falcon'
/ t kh / : / tsetkhaw / 'to split up with force'
/ t l / : / tlIk. tlIk / 'denoting broken into pieces' / khOtlON / 'brain'
/ t r / : / trOk / 'to jump' / natra / 'tick'
/ t tsh / : / tshettshra  / 'lazi'
/ th l / : / bothla / 'a float to a fishing line'
/ th r / : / thrao / 'generation group'
/ d d / : / zadda-bodda / 'dull and senseless'
/ d k / : / mudkOr / 'an ear ornament'
/ d l / : / bOdlON / 'black beetle'.
/ d r / : / drItan / 'gradually and instantly (movement)' / badra / 'garden'
/ dh r / : / dhrop-phaN / 'the banyan tree'
/ k p / : / pukpur / 'to be torn into pieces'
/ k ph / : / tshakphar / 'itch'
/ k t / : / tsaktur / 'to scoop out'
/ kth / : / bOkthay / 'navel'
/ k k / : / bOkkay / 'white'
/ k l / : / thakla / 'worn out'
/ k r / : / krIN / 'to sound' / makra / 'monkey'
/ k ts / : phOktsak / 'meal prepared under bamboo pipe'
/ k tsh / : / baktshOk / 'name of a clan'. /phaktsh-thap / 'astringent taste'.
/ kh l / : / pakhlem / 'hastily'
/ kh r / :  / khra / 'itch' / khakhri / 'wine-pot'
/ g l / : / gloksa / 'one draught' / goglak / 'big and round'
/ g r / : / grIp / 'to cover' / zagraha / 'southern'
/ g z / : pagza / 'thing'
/ gh r / ;  ghrIm / 'forest'
/ m p / : / hampa / 'cotton'
/ m ph / : / tshamphar / 'earthen pot'
/ m b / : / dImbay / 'shoot'
/ m t / : / kOmteN / 'a kind of tree'
/ m th / : / pamthe / 'a kind of fruit'
/ m d / : / lamdin / 'plain area'
/ m k / : / kamkay / 'two persons'
/ m n / : / gOmnay / 'musical pipe'
/ m l / : / hamlay / 'to repent'
/ m r / : / mreo / 'to feel burning sensation',  / tImrIk / 'to put of finishing touch'
/ m ts / : / pramtsi / 'dew'
/ m tsh : / ghimtshu / 'flatulent spadix of the Ekra reed' / nemtshpian / 'extremely'
/ m dz / ; / hamdzar / 'Jhum cultivation field'
/ n t / : rontuk / 'goddess of wealth'
/ n th / : / ganthay / 'bell'
/ n d / : / banda / 'end point'
/ n dh / : / kendhap / 'brid -cathcing net'
/ n n / : / kanni / 'of body'
/ n ts / : / zintsi / 'reed'
/ n tsh / : / bantsha / 'piece of bamboo'
/ n z / : / ganzek / 'insect'
/ N d / : / roNda / 'name of a sub-tribe'
/ N k / : / kaNka / 'knife'
/ N kh / : / khiNkhi / 'Jujube'
/ N g / : / guNgar / 'phlegm of the nose'
/ N gh / : / taNghOn / 'huge stick'
/ N n / : / poNna / 'steamed cake'
/ N ts / : / paNtsuN / 'jack fruit'
/ N tsh / : / gONtshar / 'a kind of insect'
/ N dz / : / phuNdzi / 'ash'
/ l p / : / dzElpok / 'loose and lazy'
/ l b / : / golbEN / 'a variety of frog'
/ l t / : /  doltEN / 'to swing'
/ l d / : / galdari / 'loquaeious'
/ l k / : / kElkay / 'to rend'
/ l m / : / zhalma / 'spider-net'
/ l l / : /zolla / 'stupid'
/ l tsh / : / ailtsha/ 'lazy'
/ l h / : / tsalhaga - malhaga / 'expert in talking'
/ r p / : / kharpak / 'a kind of tree'
/ r ph / : / gOgOrphON / 'a kind of bird'
/ r b / : / bIrbaN / 'a low bambo platform'
/ r t / : / pErta / 'laziness'
/ r th / : / darthuN / 'to run'
/ r d / : / bardam / 'fire place'
/ r dh / : / mErdhana / 'slimy'
/ r k / : / sirkEN / 'tumour on the head'
/ r kh / : / kErkha / 'medicinal herb'
/ r g / : / urgi / 'to bow'
/ r gh / : / nagarghEt / 'a variety of duck'
/ r m / : / gErmON / 'tickle'
/ r n / : / dhOrna / 'bambo or wood support on a thatched house'
/ r r / : / tsharran / 'around'
/ r ts / : / partsuN / 'storm'
/ r tsh / : / bartshiN / 'glow worm'
/ r dz / : / khardzi / 'alkali'
/ ts l / : / tslao tslao / 'clod by clod'
/ ts r / : tsrIt / 'to splash' / bitsray / 'to search'
/ tsh b / : / batshbakrEN / 'a kind of plant'
/ tsh t / : / pEtshta / 'support at the bottom of earthen pot'
/ tsh th / : / baitshthap / 'to thrash'
/ tsh ak / : / / bhEtshakula / 'a kind of bird'
/ tsh m / : / khutshmakrON / 'hair arranging instrument'
/ tsh n / : / khOtshnE / 'turban'
/ tsh l / : / tshlIpan / 'blow of sharp weapon' ; / khatshlaN / 'native cigarette'
/ tsh r / : / tshrIN / 'fibre'					
/ dz l / : / khadzlEk / 'to be of alkaline taste'
/ dz r / : / dzrIm / 'sensational feeling'
/ dzh r / : / dzhrit -dzhrat / 'imitative word'
/ h l / :/ kahlay / 'to scream'
/ h r / : / hrat / 'a shout of frightening' Three cluster consonants :

/ k pl / : / tshakplEk / 'reddish white'
/ k ph l / : / kokphlak / 'to beat to death'
/ k t l / : / tektlEk / 'to strike against'
/ k t r / : / toktram / 'to girgle'.
/ k ts r / : / boktsrao / 'whitish'
/ k tsh r / : / phaktshtur / 'ash coloured'
/ k tsh th / :  / phaktshthap / 'astringent feeling'
/ k tsh g / : / aktshgEr / 'blackish'
/ k tsh l / : / tshaktshlay / 'to lick'
/ g d r / : / nogdroN / 'whole houses'
/ m p l /  : / dhamplay / 'to swim'
/ m p r / : / hamprEN / 'straw used as thatch'
/ m ph l / : / pamphlak / 'plank of wood'
/ m ph r / : / phUmphra / 'agitated, annoyed'
/ m b l / : / tsEmblaw / 'in a bursting manner'
/ m p r / : / khEmbraN / 'a kind of insect'
/ m t r / : / tsamtroN / 'instrument in handloom used for embroidery'.
/ m tsh p / : / nEmspiyan / 'extremely'
/ m tsh r / :  / tsamtshroN / 'to sit keeping leg straight'.
/ n t l / : / tsEntElEN / 'tumerind.'
/ n t r / : / kIntri / 'the head'
/ n d l / : / bandlak / 'having no top portion'
/ n d r / : / bandra / 'bachelor'
/ n ts l / : / tsantslay / 'to smooth'
/ n ts r / : / tsEntsray / 'to shout'
/ n tsh l / :/tshanshli / 'sharpening implement'
/ n z r / : / khanzram / 'wild potato'
/ N k l/ : / ghuNkla / 'bamboo poles used as gate'
/ N k r / : / haNkray / 'to scream'
/ N kh r / : / maNkhram / 'crematory ground'
/ N g l / : / zaNglaN / 'ghost'
/ N tsh r / : / raNshri / 'evening'
/ N z l / : / kuNzluN / 'curved'
/ r k r / : / parkrop / 'to split up as (bamboo)'
/ r tsh r / : / bErtshri / 'a rafter of roof'

2.2.5 Morphophonemic alteration: Initial /o/ is replaced by /u/ when it is followed by /i, u/ e.g.

		nok (house) + i > nuki, 'at home'
		khok (basket) + dur > khukdur, 'a fish container' / ɔ O/ variated freely with /o/ before / ɔ (O) a o e/ e.g.

		to (bird) + pak > topak ~ tOpak, 'butterfly'
		o(that) + khre > okhre ~ Okhre 'thus' /e / is optionally replaced by /i/ when it is followed by /i u/ in the environment with intervention of any single consonant.

		e (this) + tshi > itshi, 'here'
		nE-ka(bee)+dzuN > nEdzuN ~ nidzuN, 'honey bee' The vowel except /a u I / of the prefix are assimilated according to the syllabic vowels (first in the case of multisyllabic words) of following roots.

		t (v) + ki, ‘to fall’ > tiki, 'to'
		t (v) + khEN, ‘to live’ > tEkhEN ~ thEkhEN, 'to save'
		k (v) + tsOn ‘to dress up’ > kOtsOn 'to dress up others'
		t (v) + ro (to be long > toro 'to lengthen'
		t (v) + nu (to sit) > tunu, 'to make sit'
	Exception : On the otherhand in the case of /a/, it is replaced by /I/ in the prefix regularly. e.g
		k (v) + tsha (to eat) > kItsha ~ khItsha, 'to feed'
		t (v) + ba (to carry on back) > tIba ~ dIba, 'to load on back'
	In the case of /u i/ it is replaced by /a/ in the root optionally. e.g.
		t (v) + mUr (to be small) > tUmUr ~ tUmar, 'to make small'
		k (v) + trIN (to teach) > kItrIN ~ kItraN, 'to taught' The consonant except /m n r/ of the prefix are assimilated according to the nature of consonant, i.e. aspiration, despiration, voicing, non-voiving in the on set of main verbs. e.g

		k (v) + tsOn (to dress up) > kOtsOn, 'to make dress up'
		k (v) + dzOk (to be free) > gOdzOk, 'to make free'
		t (v) + phuN (to be filled up) > thuphuN, 'to fill up'
		t (v) + bhON (to meet) > dhObhON, 'cause to meet'
		t (v) + phUtsha (to dance) > thUphUtsha ~ thUphtsha 'to cause one dance' The non-voiced consonants are termed as ‘voiced’ when it is followed by the voiced consonant. e.g.

		bak (boar) + dzi > bagdzi, 'boar’s excreta'
		bak (boar) + ni > bagni ~ bagNi, 'boar’s'
		khap (to weep) + dzo >khabdzo, 'wept' The nasal /n/ of a suffix is termed ‘as’ the other homogenious according to the place of articulation of the coda of the preceeding words, e.g.

		khap (to weep) + no > khapmo ~ khabmo, 'to be weep'
		tsham (to wait) + na >tshamma ~ tshama, 'to be wait'
		man (to find) + no> manno ~ mano, 'to be found' The adjacent consonants are mutually assimilated even when they are not a regular phenomenon. e.g.

		pan (tree) + tsu (high) > pamtsu, 'silk cotton tree'
		bEn (how) + tsuN (big) > bEntuN ~ bintuN, 'how large'
		tsiN (we) + bE (nom. marker) > tsimbE ~ tsimE, 'we' (nom.)
		tsu (wine) + tuk (earthen pot) > tsutsuk ~ tsudzuk, 'wine pot'

2.2.6 Syllable types and structure:

Following are the types and structure of syllables in Rabha. Basically Rabha is monosyllabic language, however, bi-syllabic and multisyllabic sequences are also seen in particular cases. Monosyllabic:

		v : / i / 'it', / u / : 'he/she'
		vv : / ao / 'cry', 'shout' / oi/ 'Hello'
		vc : / aN / 'I', 'me' / In/ 'to say'
		cv : / ba / 'bamboo' , / ki / 'dog'
		cvv : / kay / 'man' ,/kui/ 'bettle nut'
		cvc : / tsiN / 'we' ,/kak/ 'to bite'
		vvc : / eis / 'term of hatred'
		ccv : / khra / "itching", / bra / "to feel shy"
		cvvc : / bIis / 'age'
		ccvv : / prao / 'to call', / bray / 'to lick out'
		ccvc : / krON / "horn", /grIm / 'jungle'
		ccvvc : Rare. Bisyllabic :

The above mentioned mono syllabic structures may be used in bisyllabic structure. However the following two structures are used only in bisyllabic words.

		vcc : / aks-kho / 'blackish'
		cvcc : / phOks-tur / 'greyish'

The same syllabic structure may be seen in different syllabic division. e.g.

	Syllabic Structure 		bisyllabic 			monosyllabic
	v v  : 			/ i- ?O / 'to it' 		/ ao / 'shouting'
	cvv: 			/ sa- ?a / 'eats'		/ kay / 'man'
	vvc: 			/ i-? On / 'to it (emphasis)' 	/ eis / 'term of hatred /
	cvvc : 			/ ki- ?an / 'the dog itself' 	/ bIis / 'age'
	ccvv : 			/ khra-?O / 'ringworm' 		/ prao / 'to call'

In bisylabic words, the maximum of seven phonemes may be used: e.g.

		cvc - ccvv : / laN-grOy / 'gibbon'
		cvc-ccvc : / ham-prEN / 'thatch -grass'
		ccvv-cvv : / brao-kay / 'burning sensation'
		ccvc-cvv : / sram-kay / 'brittle'
		ccvc-cvc : / prap-tsEp / 'to be alkaline'
		cvcc-cvc : / phaks-thap / 'feeling of astringent taste'

In Rabha multisyllable, syllables ranging from three to eleven may be used in a single word. For example: cvc-cvc-cvc-cv-cvc-cv-cv-cv-cv-cvc-vc: /nuk-bar-zIn-khI-tak-tho-tsa-na-ta-mIn-an/ 'their pretending to fall in love with each other is not worth looking in dramatic performance' (emphasis) N. B.- In such words maximum 27 phonemes can be accomodated.

2.2.7 Suprasegmental aspects of speech: Length:

Length is not a distinctive feature of Rabha phoneme. Stress:

Basically Rabha is a non-stressed language, but the stressed syllables have retained its importance in Rabha. Stress-less syllables generally deletes. However stress shifting is a peculiarity of Rabha phonology.

(i) Contrast in open stress.
	Inital stress		Final stress
	/ pára / 			/ pará / 'blooms'
	/ zára / 'mad'		/ zará / 'runs away'
(ii)Contrast in closed stress
	/ áNtsa / 'cloth'/		/ raNtsá / 'not carry'
	/ Úmba / 'husband' 		/ Imbá / 'said'
(iii)Stress equally falls in poly syllabic words:
	/ ábáláká / 'wild herbs'
	/ tóndáléNká / 'wood peeker' 
(iv)Deletion of stressless sylable:
	/ tsáripák / ~ / tsarpák /, 'life, soul'
	/ thÚphÚtsá / ~ / thUptsá /, 'to cause to dance' Tone:

Tone is not prominent in most of the Rabha dialects except Kocha. Due to syllabic stress, the tone shift has become the common feature in Rongdani and Maitori dialects. However three tones are marked in Rabha language.e.g.

	(i) high(raising)		(ii) mid (neutral)		(ii)low(falling)
	/ tshó / 'to burn'		/ tshŌ / 'mosquito'		/ tshÒ / 'to spite'
	/ tshám / 'mortar'		/ tshām / 'grass'		/ tshằm / 'to wait'
	/ tshí / 'to die'		/ tshī / 'blood'		/ tshì / 'to smooth'
	/ mán / 'to crawl'		/ mān / 'honour'		/ mằn / 'to get' etc. Juncture:

Juncture is a distinct feature of Rabha phonology. Two types of junctures namely, open juncture and close juncture is found in Rabha.

	Open juncture 				close juncture
	/ zap-ra / 					/ zapra /
	‘to take the hand fan’				'to be surprised'
	/ na-tshia  /				/ natshia /
	'fish dies'					'pays affection'
	/ ha-bay / 					/ habay /
	'to plough' 					'the Pati Rabhas' etc.


2.3.1 Nouns:

The nouns are either monomorphic or polymorphic. A noun consists of a root and optionally one or more affixes. There are three types of noun roots viz. simple, compound and derived.

(a) The simple noun root consists of single morpheme e.g.

		bidi 'grandmother'
		ken 'seed'
		tatshi 'hand'
		ki 'dog'
		nok 'house'

(b) The compound noun roots are formed by adding specific adjectives or nouns or verbs to generic nouns.

	miNku 'cat'+ mUlkai 'small' = miNku-mUlkai  'small cat'
	miNku 'cat' +  tsuNkai	 'big' = miNku-tsuNkai  'big cat'
	nen 'cloth'+ thakla 'worn-out' =nen-thakla  'worn out cloth'
	nen 'cloth'+ tseNkloN 'narrow' = nen-tseNkloN 'narrow cloth'
	atshu 'atshu paddy' + ha 'land' = atshuha 'atshu field'
	nu 'to sit' + ha 'land' = nuha 'low land or marshy'
	kara 'upper, upstream' + ha 'land' = karaha 'upper parts of any place i.e. the East'
	dzaktsi 'left hand' + ha 'land' = dzaktsi ha 'the left side i.e. the north'.
	ha 'land' + tsu 'to be high' = hatsu 'high land' i.e. hill 
	rampar 'wind' + tsuN 'to be big' = partsuN 'the bigger wind i.e. the storm'
	pan 'tree' + the 'fruit' = pamthe, 'the fruit holding tree i.e. the wood palm'
	pan 'tree' + tsuN 'to be big' = paNtsuN 'the big tree i.e. jackfruit'
	aya 'mother' + tsuN 'to be senior' = aytsuN 'elder mother i.e. paternal aunt'
	aphe 'star' + dzisraN 'tailed' = aphe dzisraN 'the tailed star i.e. the comet'
	tatshi 'finger' + dzibra 'mother' = tatshi dzibra 'the mother finger i.e. thumb'
	tatshikhu 'finger'+ tshabra 'child' = tatshikhu-tshabra 'little finger'
	kutlai 'tongue' + tshabra 'child, little' = kutlai tshabra 'the little tongue i.e. uvula'
	taka 'money' + dzibra 'mother' = taka dzibra 'the mother money i.e. capital'
	taka 'money' + tshabra 'child' =taka tsabra 'the child money i.e. interest'
	to 'bird / fowl' + maba 'male' = toba 'cock'
	to 'bird, fowl' + madzu 'female' = todzu 'hen'
	to 'bird fowl' + tshabra 'child' = totshabra 'chicken'
	ki 'dog' + bhonta 'male' = kibhonta 'male dog'
	prUn 'goat' + khatshi 'catrasted' =prUn khatshi 'he-goat' etc.

(c) Derivation of noun: The derived roots are formed with derivative suffixes. The verbal nouns and agent nouns are derivative constructions.

(i)Verbal noun: These are formed by adding the suffix –kai to the verb roots.

		tsoN 'to start' + kay = tsoNkay 'starting'
		bom 'to swim' + kay = bomkay 'swimming'
		bhan 'to travel' + kay = bhankay 'travelling'
		batshay 'to select' + kay = batshaykay 'selection'
		dzeptshu 'to translate' + kay = dzeptshukay 'translation' etc.

(ii)Agent noun :The singular agent noun is formed by adding –ba suffix to the root verbs .

		reNba 'one who goes' cf. reN 'to go'
		kharba 'one who does' cf. khar 'to do'
		kalamba 'one who is sick' cf. kalam 'to be ill'

Again, the plural is formed by adding the plural marker- bataN to the root verbs.

		kharbataN  'those who do'
		ribibataN 'those who come'

(iii)Suffixed noun: As in other languages, in Rabha, there is a system that is very prominent in noun formation i.e., in Rabha, Noun can either be formed by addition of nominals (secondary) or verbal (primary) suffixes or by compounding two or more words.

	Illustrations :
	-tsi (in the sense of the liquidity as well as spreadness) :
		nuken 'eye' + tsi = nuksi 'tear'
		pha 'to rain' +tsi = phatsi 'rain drop'
		raN 'heavenly body' + tsi = raNtsi 'juice'
		khardzi 'alkali powder' + tsi = khartsi 'alkali'
		sona 'gold' + tsi = sonatsi 'golden' etc.
	-dzi (in the sense of dirty and uncleaness) :
		nuken 'eye' + dzi = nukdzi 'morbid secretions of the eye'
		phakham 'tooth' + dzi = phadzi 'dirt of the teeth'
		tsapha 'sole' + dzi = tsadzi 'dust of the feet'
		na 'fish' + dzi = nadzi 'entrailes of fish' etc.
	-men (in the sense of hair or mane) :
		dzikhar 'annus' + men = dzimen 'tail, candal finn'
		rikhu 'penis' + men = rimen 'pubic hair of male organ'
		tshuthay 'vagina' + men = tshumen 'pubic hair of female orgen'.
		nuken 'eye' + men = numen 'eye hair' etc.
	-dam ( in the sence of a place or centre) :
		bar 'fire' + dam = bardam 'fire place'
		bok 'belly/intestine' + dam=bokdam 'belly part'
		kIn 'outer surface of the body' + dam = kIndam 'back',
		ha 'earth' + dam = hadam 'place, venue'
		pra ‘to give birth +dam = pradam 'motherland' etc.
	- thay (in the sense of centre) :
		bok 'belly' + thay = bokthay 'naval'
		tshu 'femal organ' + thay = tshuthay 'vagina'
		tsapha 'sole' + thay = tsaptahy 'calf' etc.
	- giri (in the sense of presiding or ownership etc) :
		kay 'man' +giri = kaygiri 'owner'
		tsay 'song' +giri = tsaygiri 'song composer, lyrist'
        		 pardam 'garden' + giri = pardamgiri 'gardener' ruN 'boat' + giri = ruNgiri 'sailor, ferry man'
	-kai  (relating to action i.e. verbal noun and gerund) :
		tsoN 'to start' + kai = tsoNkai 'starting'
         		bom 'to swim' + kai = bomkai 'swimming' etc.
	- tshini (in the sense of relate, connected etc.) :
		bhit 'civilized' + sini = bhetshini 'civilization'
		that 'ethicic' + sini = thatshini 'culture ethnicity'
		dzOk 'to free' + sini = dzOktshini 'freedom' etc.
	- grIm (in the sense of breeding place, abundancy etc) :
		pan 'tree' + grIm = pangrIm 'jungle'
		may 'paddy' + grIm = maygrIm 'paddy field'
		mi 'vegetable' + grIm = migrIm 'kitchen garden'
		dzi 'excrection' + grIm= dzigrIm 'a place for refuge, dustbin etc.'

(d) Noun formation by addition of sub-morpheme: Moreover, there is a system of noun formation by addition of sub-morpheme, which is very prominent and interesting. It is formed by addition of some particles denoting to generic, class, species etc before the main words. This system may be called sub-morpheme (generic term).e.g.

	ma (denoting animals) :- 
      		ma+tsha = matsha 'tiger'
      		ma+da = mada 'bear', 
     		ma+kra = makra 'monkey'
      		ma+tshu = matshu 'cow' etc.
	na (denoting fish): 
       		na+tshan = natshan 'small variety of fish'
      		na+rak =narak 'big variety of fish', 
      		na+mOtso = namOtso 'a variety of fish' etc.
	to (denoting birds) : 
      		to+kha =tokha 'crow'
     		to+raN=toraN 'kite', 
      		to+khur=tukhur 'dove' etc.
	ha (denoting earth or soil) : 
      		ha+ tsu=hatsu 'hill' 
      		ha+dzek=hadzek 'mountain', 
      		ha+dabur=hadabur 'powder of soil' etc.
	raN (denoting sky or celestial objects) : 
      		raN + tshaN=raNtshaN 'sun', 
      		raN+gre = raNgre 'moon',
      		raN+khop = raNkhop 'cloud', 
      		raN+par= rampar 'wind' etc.
	tsi (denoting water, river etc.) : 
      		tsi+ka=tsika 'water', 
      		tsi+ka+dara = tsikadara 'rivulet', 
      		tsi+mandi = tsimandi 'name of a river i.e. Dudhnoi river' etc.
	tsho (denoting insects) :
      		tsho+tsheN = tshotsheN 'house fly',. 
      		tsho+drap =tshodrap 'big variety of fly i.e. gnat' etc.
	no ~ nok ( house items): 
       		nok+phak = nokphak 'post of the house', 
      		nok+ dar = nokdar 'wall of the house' 
      		no+gOr =nogOr 'pig sty' etc.
	kho ~ khok (denoting basket) : 
      		khok +dur = khukdur 'fish keeping basket', 
      		kho+phalak = khophlak, 'rabbish throwing basket etc.'
	khO (denoting hair, skull) : khO + tloN = khOtlON ‘brain’ 
     		khO+ro= khOro 'hair' , 
     		khO+prON = khOprON ~ khoprON 'turban',  
    		 khO+tshumakrON = khutshumakroN 'hair pin' collected from the spines of porcupine etc.
	khu  (denoting mouth or beak): 
     		khu+ tsem= khutsem 'mouth', 
     		khu+tsar 'lip', khu+men= khumen 'moutache', 
	nuk (denoting eye view) : 
     		nuk+ken = nukken ~ nuken 'eye', 
     		nuk+tsi =nuktsi 'tear', 
     		nuk +dam = nukdam 'eye brew' etc.
	bok (denoting parts of bellly) : 
      		bok + dam= bokdam 'stomach',   
      		bok+thay= bokthay 'naval', 
      		bok+tshuk=boktshuk 'abdomen' etc.
	dzi  (denoting excreta) : 
     		dzi+ makhar=dzimakhar ~ dzikhar 'annus or back side', 
     		dzi+pithay= dzipthay 'buttock', 
      		dzi+men= dzimen 'tail' etc.

2.3.2 PRONOUN:

Pronouns show the distinction of person. As in other languages, in Rabha, pronouns fall into three groups, viz. personal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns and interrogative pronouns.

A three-way distinction of person is made in personal pronouns i.e. first person, second person and third person.

Thus the singular and plural forms of personal pronoun in Rabha are given below:-

				Singular		Plural 
	I person			aN "I"		tsiN 'we'		
				*ame		*tsime
	II Person 			naN 'you'		naroN 'you'
	III person			o 'he/she'		oroN 'they'
*It is used only in nominative case: (see

The plural forms in demonstrative pronouns in Rabha are as following.

	Singular			Plural
	o 'he / she'			oroN 'they' (human)
				obizan 'those' (non-human)
	e 'it / this'			ebizan 'these' (non-human)
	i 'it / this'			ikay / ibizan (non-human)

The interrogative pronouns are listed below:-

		ato 'what'		
		ana 'why'			
		bitshi 'where'
		bedo 'when'
		tsaN 'who'
		bekay 'which'
		bekhare 'how'
		bentsek 'how much'
		tsaNi 'whose'

Examples of more proximate and more remote demonstrative pronouns are given below:

		e.g.   	hekay 'this' (very proximate)
         			ekay 'this' (proximate)
        			okay 'that' (very remote)
       			hokay 'that' (remote)

Reflexive pronoun : Reflexive: for a reflexive sentence in Rabha, 'kakay-na kakay' is used.

		e.g. 	dapheN (be) kakayna kakay thitshiki-ba.
			'Dapheng killed himself'.

The second occurance of 'Kakay' can be dropped in Rabha.

	 	e.g. 	dapheN kakayna thitshiki-ba.
			'Dapheng killed himself'. 

Reciprocal pronoun : In Rabha 'ina-una' occurs as the reciprocal.

		e.g.  	oroNbe ina-una nukbardzo.
			'they have fallen in love with each other'

Rabha has a marker –dzIn which occurs with the verb and it functions as a verbal reciprocal marker.

		e.g. 	oroNbe ina-una nukbar-dzIndzo.
			'They have fallen in love with each other'. Gender:-

Rabha does not have any grammatical gender. In Rabha, adjectives, verbs, personal pronouns do not show any gender distinction.

However, there are some terms, which can be labelled as unique masculine and unique feminine e.g.

Unique masculine: malora 'having one testicle', 'impotent', phatra 'flatter' mitca bhaura 'hen pecked' etc.

Unique feminine: lautshi 'free and frank lady', bukila 'a girl appointed for nursing children' baygor, 'naughty girl' metsha maba 'a women who behaves like a man' etc.

On the other hand, there are numerous common gender or neuter gender, e.g. kay 'human being', bay 'god/goddess', tupu 'snake', kana 'blind' etc.

Kinship terms in Rabha are also common gender, e.g. tsabra 'child, offspring', subra 'grand child', nebra 'parent-in-law' etc.

Some common genders are derived from nouns and adjectives e.g. maura 'orphan', numila 'youngest' etc.

Some compounds and idioms also have common gender e.g. tsuNba roNba 'the respected person' subra thebra 'posterity' etc.

All the classifiers and pronominal adjective referring to animate objectives are also not affected by gender distinction e.g. tshaksha 'one(man)', kamiN 'two (men)', metham 'three (men)'

Some kinship terms are classified into masculine and feminine using mutsha 'male' and mitsa 'female' e.g.

	masculine 				feminine
        	sabra mutsha 'son'			sabra mitsa 'daughter'
        	subra mutsha 'grand son' 		subra mitsa 'grand daughter'

Some non-human animate nouns are classified into feminine and masculine gender using maba 'male' and madzu 'female' e.g.

	masculine				feminine
        	matshu maba 'bull'			matshu madzu 'cow'
        	bak maba 'boar'			bak madzu 'sow'

Inflection of feminine forms by suffixation:

In Rabha quite few feminine forms are found replacing ‘-a’ of the masculine stem by ‘-i’ or ‘-ni’, e.g.

	mesculine				feminine
        	beNa 'deaf'				beNi 'deaf woman'
       	leNra 'lamb'			leNri 'lamb woman'
        	tepra 'dwarf'			tepri 'dwarf woman'
        	dzara 'mad'			dzari 'mad woman'

Gender distinction by using a pair of opposite words :

Rabha makes gender distinction of a few borrowed professional terms by using a pair of words attributively e.g.

	masculine 				feminine
        	daktar babu 'doctor'			daktar rani 'lady doctor'
        	tsokidar babu 'watch man'		tsokidar rani 'wife of watchman'

Similarly, Rabha makes gender distinction of quite a few nouns by attributively using 'giri' or 'buda' in the masculine and 'budi' or 'mari' in the feminine e.g.

	masculine				feminine
         	tsaygiri 'lyrist' 			tsaybudi 'woman lyrist'
         	roNgiri 'hero'			roNbudi 'heroin'

Gender distinction by suppletive forms :

Another peculiar device of gender distinction in Rabha is the employment of different sets of words denoting masculine and feminine of the same species. e.g.

	masculine				feminine
       	babra 'father'			dzibra 'mother'
       	dzudzu 'grand father'			bidi 'grand mother' Number:

Rabha manifests only two numbers- singular and plural. There is nothing like dual number in Rabha.

The plural morpheme in Rabha could be conceived as ‘taN’, which has three allmorphs such as 'rON', 'bidzan' and 'nani'. These may be illustrated as follows.

-taN : It mostly occurs with human nouns referring to class, profession, kinship terms and derived agentive nouns e.g.

Professional terms :

      	Singular				Plural
      	kamla 'labourer' 			kamlataN 'labourers'
      	mastar 'teacher' 			mastartaN 'teachers'

Kinship terms :

	Singular 				Plural
     	dzibra 'mother' 			dzibrataN 'mothers'
     	nutshibra 'sister in law'		nutshibrataN 'sister-in-laws'

Derived agentive nouns :

           	Singular 				Plural 
        	reNba 'goer' 			reNbataN 'goers'
        	tshaba 'eater'			tshabataN 'eaters'

Animate nouns used in abuses :

           	Singular 				Plural
        	makra 'monkey/rascal' 		makrataN 'rascals'
        	matshu 'cow/idiot' 			matshutaN 'idiots'

-rON : It is mostly used after personal pronouns and human names to convey the sense of "the person named and others" and also with kinship terms’

           	Singular				Plural
        	ram 'Ram'				ramrON 'Ram and others'
        	sita 'Sita'				sitarON 'sita and others'
        	bibi 'elder sisiter'			bibirON 'elder sister'
        	momo 'brother'			momorON 'brothers'

-bidzan : It is used mostly to non-human nouns and sometimes it is used for human nouns too, but in a non-respectable sense e.g.

	Singular				Plural
        	to 'bird'				to bidzan 'birds'
        	pan 'tree'				panbidzan 'trees'
        	bay 'god'				bay bidzan 'gods'
        	tsika 'water'			tsikabidzan 'waters'
       	rao 'word'				raobidzan 'words'

nani :- It is suffixed to nouns of any category to express the sense of plurality across class affiliation. e.g.

		kaynani 'human beings and the like species'
		matshunani 'cow and the like'
		tsikanani 'water and other liquid'

Placement of plural markers in poly morphological construction:

If an NP consists of a noun alone, the plural marker is added to the noun; if the NP consists of a noun and an adjective the plural marker is suffixed to the adjective as follows :

		tobidzan 'birds'
		sabra-mutsha-taN 'male children i.e. sons'
		Kay-tsuNba-taN 'aged men'
		Kay-mul-taN 'minor men i.e. boys and girls'

When an NP consists of (i) a noun and a numeral meaning of two or above, or (ii) noun and another noun of multitude, there is no need to pluralise the head nouns. In such constructions the head nouns always remain in the singular form which are identical with the root forms.

The following examples could be found :

(i) Pluralisation of NP containing noun+numeral :

In the presence of a co-occuring numeral, it is not at all necessary to suffix any plural morpheme to the head noun . e.g.

		Kam-iN-kay 'two persons'
		matshu-maN-aniN 'two cows'
		kho-niN-nen 'two pieces of cloths'

(ii) Pluralisation of NP containing N+ nouns of multitude:

		mrIkan pakdza 'all things'
		ha mrIkan 'whole land'
		bIra nok 'some houses'

Pluralisation by reduplication:

Rabha also obtains plural sense by reduplication of pronouns and adjectives referring to or co-occuring with the head nouns. For example:


		tsaN tsaN 'who (are the people)'
		bekay bekay 'which (items)'


		pidan pidan nok 'new houses'
		nemkay nemkay tshabra, 'good boys'

Number of Pronouns:

Like nouns, pronouns also manifest two numbers- singular and plural. However plural markers are differed according to its forms i.e. personal or demonstrative pronouns. Illustration

(i) Personal Pronouns:

	Singular				Plural
         	naN 'you' 				narON 'you' (pl.)
         	o 'he /she' 				orON 'they'
        	e 'this person' 			erON 'these persons'

But in the case of the first person it is not affixed. The plural form is an underived stem. e.g.

	Singular				Plural
         	aN 'I'				tsiN 'we'

(ii) Demonstrative Pronouns:

            	Singular			                  Plural
	e/ ekay 'this thing'			  ebidzan /ekay bidzan 'these things'
	o/okay 'that (those) things'		  obidzan/okay bidzan 'those things'

Pluralisation of adjectives used as nouns:

When some adjectives are used as nouns, they also take plural suffixes when necessary e.g.

	Singular				Plural
	pidan 'new one'			pidan bidzan 'the new things'
	nemkay 'good one'			nemkay bidzan 'the good persons'
	thokay 'tasty one'			thokay bidzan 'the tasty things'

Double affixation:

It is a typical case of Rabha that two plural suffixes described above could be suffixed one after the other. Generally bidzan comes at the end. This is used only to refer to some persons in a more dignified and honored way, in a collective sense.

   		rabhataNbidzan 'all the respectable Rabhas'
		narONbidzan 'all of you'(respectable one). Cases:

There are as many as ten cases in Rabha, viz. Nominative, Accusative, Instrumental, Sociative, Dative, Ablative, Intrusive, Genitive, Locative and Allative. These cases and case markers are discussed below:

(i)The Nominative is the case of the surface object of a sentence and usually it is unmarked. For e.g.

              		naN(/) may tsha?a 'you eat rice'

However if there is an expression of emphasis or definiteness, the Nominative case is marked with –an or –be respectively e.g.

             	 	naNan may tshanata "It is you who ate rice"
             		obe mia ribastanatamUn "it is he who did not come yesterday"

Thus, inclusive emphatic -ba and exclusive emphatic -tshan are also marked optionally in the sense of Nominative case.

(ii)In Accusative case -O is marked compulsorily to indirect object and optional to direct object. e.g.

            		aN tsika (-O) nambamUn. 'I asked for water'.
		aN uni bibraO nambamUn. 'I wanted his sister.'

(iii)The Instrumental case in Rabha is marked with -pake or -tsaki (in passive) e.g.

		aN kaNka pake pan tana 'I cut tree with a knife'.
		u naN tsaki rIm matshadzo 'He has been caught by you'. 

(iv)The Associative case is also marked with -pake e.g.

		aN naN pake phUtshano. 'I will dance with you'. 
		tsiN kamla pake hal baya. 'We plough by servent'.

(v) The Dative case in Rabha is marked with –na,–ma,-Na phonologically. e.g.

		una khirtsa kani. 'tell him a story'.
		ekay golapma rabanata 'this is brought for Golap'
		aN bakNa hadar rakhuita. 'I am providing food to the pig'.

Morever in the sense of conjunctive –na~ma~Na~a suffixes are added with verb roots , e.g.

            		aN prIna nama
		'I want to buy'
            		aN reNa nameta
             		'I wish to go'

(vi)The Ablative case in Rabha is marked by addition of postposition -para to the genitive markar. e.g.

		trIndamini para riba 'Come from school'.

(vii) The intrusive case in Rabha is marked with -teka or-tokoro e.g.

		pathar tokoro reNatamUn 'he went through the field'.         
		aN gariteka reNo 'I will go by bus'.

(viii)The genitive case in Rabha is marked with -i or –ni,- mi, -Ni e.g.

		uni taka 'his money'.
		aNi tshoN 'my village'.

However -ini also denotes Genitive case in the sense of belongingness e.g.

		tshoNini kay 'man of the village i.e. villager'. 
		grImini to 'bird of the forest i.e. wild birth'.  

(ix)The Locative case in Rabha is marked with -i, -ti, -si suffixes or kataN,, digi post positions. e.g.

		noki> nuki 'at home'.
		nok digi 'inside the house'.
		aN kataN 'in or with me'.
		usi 'there'.	
		bisi 'where'.

(x)By suffixing -na with locative markers the Allative case is formed, e.g.

		aN nukina reNatamUn "I went home".
		trINdamina reN "go to school". Classifiers:

The classifiers classify nouns on the basis of the qualities of the object that is identified by the noun. The qualities include the physical shape, size, state etc. the classifier occurs with the numeral. The suffixed numeral precedes or follows the noun.

	e.g . 
            		kay tshaktsha or tshaktsha kay 'a man'
		matshu maNniN or maNniN matshu 'two cows'

	All the enumerated classifiers in Rabha are presented below:

(i) Human:

The human nouns take the classifiers tshak-adding to the numerals. Exception : kam-for ‘two’ and me-for ‘three’e.g.

           		kay tshaktsha 'one man'
           		kay kamiN 'two men'
           		kay metham 'three men'
           		kay tsaktshetsha 'four men' 

(ii) maN :classifier is used for animals

            		miNku maNtsha  'one cat'
		ki maNniN  'two dogs'
		bak maNtshetsha  'four pigs' 

(iii) pIda: classifier is used for categorical purpose

		PIdatsha mai  'a kind of rice'
		PIdaniN mai 'two kinds of rice'

(iv) phaN: classifier is used for plants.

		kui phaNniN 'two bittle nut trees'
		ba phaNtsha 'one bamboo tree'

(v) tsak: classifier for leave like objects.

		pana tsaktsha 'one leave of bittle'
		pana tsakniN 'two leaves of bittle'

(vi) ken: classifier is used for corn or seed like object.

 		potso kentsha 'one mango seed'
		paNtsuN kentsha 'one seed of jack fruit'

(vii) the: classifier is used for fruits.

	 	apel thetsha 'one apple'
	 	apel theniN 'two apples'

(viii) kho: classifier is used for sheet-like objects.

		nen khotsha 'one sheet of cloth'
		kaotsha khotsha 'one sheet of paper'

(ix) tIN: classifier is used for long piece objects.

		khoro tiNtsha 'one hair'
		khoro tiNniN 'two hair'

(x) thok: classifier is used for liquid object.

		tsika thoktsha 'a drop of water'
		nuktsi thokniN 'two drops of tears'

(xi) thol: classifier is used for group.

 		kay tholniN 'two groups of people'
		gabur tholtham 'three groups of bachelors'

(xii) dop:classifier is used for quantity.

 		mai dopniN 'two paddy containers'
		mai doptham 'three paddy containers'

(xiii) dhumuk: classifier is used for time.

		 u-be dhumuktsha bhondzo 'he was late a moment'

(xiv) haba: classifier is used for deeds or activities.

		 haba-tsha ra 'work for a session'

2.3.3 Verb morphology Formation of verb:

(1)Non-derived verb:

Non-derived verbs in Rabha can be categorized into (a) Acting verb and (b) Adjectival verb.

(a)Acting verb:

This category is again divided into (i) Transitive verb and (ii) Intransitive verb

	(i)Transitive verb:    	tsha 'eat'
			natshi 'love'
			nam 'want'
			kak 'bite'
			kani 'inform'
			tsi 'see'
			prI 'buy'
			kay 'plant'
			pay 'carry / lift'
			tsho 'burn'
			dzao 'fry'

	(ii) Intransitive verb : 	tshi 'die'
			reN 'go'
			doN 'suffice'
			tsaN 'happen / become'
			mini 'laugh'
			ki 'fall'
			bukhi 'feel hunger'
			niNgi 'be tired'
			pha 'rain'
			ba 'conceive'
			bra? 'feel ashamed'
			phap 'over-flow'

(b) Adjectival verb:

The verbs which take the form of adjectives in Rabha are as following:

		natshi 'adore' > natshikay 'adorable'
		nem 'to be good' > nemkay 'good'
		tuN 'to be hot' > tuNkay 'hot'
			tsuN 'to be big' > tsuNkay 'big'
			ri 'to be heavy' > rikay 'heavy'
			tseN 'to be light' > tseNkay 'light'
			tsIk 'to be cold' > tsIkkay 'cold'

(2) Derived verb:

Derived verbs in Rabha are categorized into (a) Denominative verb (b) Onopoetic/Reduplicating verb and (c) Causative verb.

(a)Denominative verb:

Denominative verbs are formed from nouns and adjectives without adding any suffixes.e.g.

			dzi 'to excrete'
			rutshu 'to urinate'
			par 'to flower'
			the 'to bear fruit'

(b)Onomatopoetic/reduplicating verb:

These verbs are formed from onomatopoetic sounds. e.g.

			hoN 'to bark'
			keNkay 'to scream in pain'
			pukplak 'to boil(water)'

(c) Causative verb:

Causative verbs can mainly be categorized into kV- type and tV- type. e.g.

	kV-  type:		tson 'dress up' > kotson 'to make someone dress up'
			trok 'jump' >kotrok 'to make someone jump'
			tsuN 'to be big' >kutsun 'to make something be big'
			tu 'put in mouth' >kutu 'feed'

	tV- type:		nay 'be bright'> tInay 'to cause to be bright'
			ro 'lengthen' > toro 'to cause to lenghten'
			kiri 'to be afraid' >tikiri 'to frighten'
			mun 'to be ripe' > tumun 'to cause to ripe'

(3) Compound verb:

These verbs are formed by the process of compounding. e.g.

  			rI 'to move' > rIba 'to come'
			rI 'to move' > rIdzam 'to walk'
			ra 'to take'  > raba 'to bring'
			ra 'to take' > raN 'to carry'
			ra 'to take' > rakhu 'to give / deliver' Tense:

In Rabha, tense is broadly divided into three categories i.e.


The above-mentioned three kinds of tenses can be subdivided again as:

(a) Present Tense:

This is sub-divided into four kinds. Examples of each are given below:

	(i) Present indefinite tense: by addition of –a~-wa~-ya. e.g. 

		aN mai tsha?a 'I eat rice'.
		kai tshiya 'man dies'.

	(ii) Present continuous tense: by addition of –eta~-ita~-yet~-weta~-ta. e.g. 

		aN mai tshayeta 'I am eating rice'
		u haba bIreta 'he is joining in the work'.

	(iii) Present perfect tense: by addition of –dzo. e.g. 

		aN mai tshadzo 'I have eaten rice'.
		u trINdamina reNdzo 'he has gone to school'.  

	(iv) Present imperfect tense: by addition of –nata~-mata~-Nata~-ata. e.g. 

		miyanipara dodan mela tshaNata 'Dodan festival is being started from yesterday'.	
		mianipara raN phanata 'It is raining since yesterday'.

(b)Past Tense:

Past tense in Rabha is expressed in six different senses. Examples are given below:

	(i) Simple past tense:by addition of –bamUn.  e.g. 

		aN mia nukina reNbamun 'I went home yesterday'.
		u mai tshabamun 'he ate rice'.

	(ii) Past indefinite tense: by addition of –a + mUn. e.g. 

		rondona tsondonana kara bItshar aniN tsuNamUn 'Rondona was two years older to Chondona'.
		tIkaNkali rabhataNba tsoko-maiko rUNe towamUn 'The Rabha used to 
		indulge in drinking in ancient times'.

	(iii) Past continuous tense: by addition of –eta + mUn. e.g.

		 aN miya trINdamina reNetamUn 'I was going to school yesterday'.
		roben tsai tsairuNetamUn 'Roben was singing a song'.

	(iv) Past perfect tense: by addition of –dzo + mUn . e.g.

 		miya naN ribapake aN mai tshadzomUn 'yesterday when you arrived I had taken my meal'.
		maya phari naN praobai aNi nukhar rImdzomUn 'The day before yesterday 
		when you called me I had slept'.

	(v) Past imperfect tense: by addition of –nata~-mata~-Nata + mUn. e.g.
		16/2/02 karalni para 18/3/02 karal tsukana aN kalame dami ki to Natamun 
		'I had been lying on bed from 16/2/02 to 18/3/02 because of illness'.

	(vi) Used as subjunctive mood: by addition of –no~-mo~-No + mUn/phaN. e.g. 

		naN ribadoNbe aN reNomUn  'If you had come I would have gone'.
		raN phadoNbe mai nemophaN  'If it rained the paddy plants would be fine'.

(c)Future Tense:

It is sub-divided into three kinds:

	(i) Simple future tense: by addition of –no~-mo~No~o. e.g. 

		aN dzaday nukina reNo 'I shall go home in future'.
		gaphuN raN phano 'It will rain tomorrow'.

	(ii) Future continuous tense: by addition of e + toNo .e.g.

		 aN gaphuN relteka reNe toNo 'I will be going by train tomorrow'.
		oroN gaphung phuNi pathari hal bay toNo 'they will be ploughing in the field tomorrow morning'.

	(iii) Immediate future tense: by addition of –na~-ma~-Na~-a. e.g. 

		aN mai tshana 'Let me eat rice'.
		tsiN reNa 'Let us go'. Mood:

	Imperative:            	may tsha 'Eat rice'
                              		may tatsha 'Don’t eat rice'
	Optative:               	may tshakhan 'Let rice be eaten'
 		      	baian naNo natshikhan 'Let God be kind on  you'
	Possessive:	aN miya may tshanatamUn 'I ate rice yesterday' 
	Negative:	      	an miya may tshatsanatamUn 'I did not eat rice yesterday'

	Exclamatory:        	ha manday ! kaytshabra entsok natshiya 'How sweet the baby is !'

	Interrogative:        	naNi ata mUn 'What is your name?' Number/Gender/Person agreement:

There is no verbal concord or agreement in respect of number, gender or person. Same tense and aspect markers are used in all the cases i.e. numbers, genders and persons e.g.

	(i) in the case of number(sg./pl.): 
                	aN/tsiN  may sa-a 'I / we eat rice'
    		naN/naroN may sa-a 'You / you(pl) eat rice'
    		u/oroN may sa-a 'He eats rice / they eat rice'

	 (ii) in the case of Gender(masc./fem./neu.):            
 		aya may sa-dzo 'Mother has eaten rice'
  		baba may sa-dzo 'Father has  eaten rice'
		tsham tshi-dzo 'The grass has withered' Non-finite verb:

	(i) By addition of –e in the sense of infinitive. e.g.
		aN mai tshaye hatina reNo 'I shall go to bazar after eating rice'
	(ii) By addition of – na~-ma~-Na~-a in the sense of infinitive. e.g.
                         	gari tsOlaybay tsOko rUNa lagitsa 'one should not be drunken while  driving'.

2.3.4 Adjectives

Adjectives may be classified into two types viz. primary and derived. In Rabha , most of the adjectives can precede or follow the noun.

 	(i) The primary adjectives are mostly loan words e.g.
		dhOni kay 'rich person' cf. dhoni 'rich(Assamese)'
		lubhia kay 'greedy person' cf. lubhia 'greedy(Assamese)'
		gyani kay 'wise person' cf. gyani 'wise(Assamese)'
	Morever some primary adjectives of unknown origin are found in Rabha of:e.g. 
		dUmbay 'tender' 
		maytsam 'old'

	(ii) The derived adjectives are derived by adding adjectival suffix  -kay to  verbal roots. e.g.
		tshi 'to die' > tshikay 'dead'
		nay 'be bright' > naykay 'bright'
		tsuN 'be big' > tsuNkay 'big'
		ro 'be long' > rokay 'long'
		buda 'be old' > budakay 'old(agewise)'
	There are some of derived adjectives  which are inseparable in nature. 
	These are formed by addition of pi- and ka- prefixes:
            		pidan 'new,'
            		piri, 'raw,' 'tender'
		pithiN 'unripen',
     		kara 'upper'
		kama 'lower'
		katira 'not straight'
		kapha 'near'


		naynay 'bright'
		tsiktsik 'cold'
		brakbrak 'sunny'
		tsaNtsaN 'moonly'

Modifier of adjective:

		tsakkay 'red' > tshakrONkay 'reddish'
		bokkay 'white' > bokshlekkay 'whitish'

In Rabha, most of the adjectives can precede or follow the noun

	(i) Adjectives following the head noun: e.g.
		to kuli akkay tshidzo 'the black hen is dead'
		ame kay rokayna nukNata 'I have seen a tall man'

	(ii) Adjective preceding the head noun : e.g
		Akkay to kuli tshiodzo 'the black female fowl is dead'

Thus the adjectivializer –kay occurs when the adjective modifies a noun.

-kay occurs as a gerundiaval marker too. e.g.

		parkina reNkay nema 'visiting park is good'

In certain set of collocations (fixed phrases) the adjective in Rabha occurs only to the right of the head noun. e.g

		bhet tsakkay 'lotus'
		raitshuN tshakkay 'onion'

However, if the adjective precedes the noun , it has the meaning of the specific colour modifying noun e.g.

		bokkay raitshuN  'onion which is white'
		tsakkay raitshuN 'onion which is red'

The adjective does not exhibit agreement with the modifying noun in Rabha.This is expected because verbs in Rabha too do not carry any agreement marker. There are two types of adjectives in Rabha—(i)verbal adjectives and (ii)deverbal adjectives.

(i)Verbal adjectives :

verbal adjectives permit the adjectival comparative marker –raN which is equivalent to –er of English and the superalative marker –tshraN which is equivalent to –est of English.e.g.

		u tsithoa 'she is beautiful'	
		u nirmaina kara tsithoraNa 'she is more beautiful than Nirmai'
		rita tsharkayna kara tsithotshraNa 'Rita is the most beautiful amongst all'

(ii)Deverbal adjectives:

There are some adjectives which do not permit an adjectival comparative or superlative marker e.g.

		pidan 'new'
		maitsam 'old'
		dImbai 'tender'
		buda 'old'
		pithiN 'raw'

2.3.5 Adverbs:

In Rabha an adverb of time or place or manner occurs in the initial position of the verb phrase to the left of the verb or direct object.

	For eg: 
		kaymUltaN iyantshan gurinata 'the children have slept just now'
		mekhograk tshruk-tshruk dhaNatamUn 'the thief entered silently'
		mitsatshabra bidzan gaphuN okay kamio trIprIno 'the girls will finish that work tomorrow'

These adverbs can even occur in the initial position of a sentence:

	For eg:
		yantshan kaymUltaN gurinata 'the children have slept just now'
		tshruktshruk mekhograk dhaNatamUn 'the thief entered silently'
		gaphuN mitsatshabra bidzan okay kamio tIprIno 'the girls will finish that work tomorrow.'

Reduplication of adverbs:

		TuNtuN 'warmly'
		Taptap 'quickly'

	These reduplication of adverbs may be contracted by addition of –an:
		mrIkmrIk>mrIkan 'totally'
		tshruktshruk>tshrukan 'silently and quickly'

	By addition of –aN suffixes some adverbs are derived from nouns. e.g.

		mUnaN mUnaN 'silently' cf. mUn 'mind' 
		tshaktshaN 'alone' cf. tshaktsha 'one person'

	By addition of –ay, -i, -bay some adverbs are derived from nouns and adjectives.e.g.

		kaphay 'nearly' cf. kapha 'near'
		dzhanbay 'far' cf.dzhanba 'at distance'
		nuki 'at home' cf.nok 'home'

2.3.6 Voice:

All the syntactic constructions, whether active or passive are impersonal in Rabha.e.g.

		aN raNo 'I shall carry'
		naN aNo raNo 'you will take me with you'

However, each and every syntactic construction with or without a subject may be reconstructed in the passive by the following two methods:


In this method, passive construction is done by replacing the case of the subject (nominative by possessive) and adding tsaN "to become", an auxiliary verb to the verb phrase.e.g.

		aNi ikayo raNkay tsaNo 'it will be carried by me'
		naNi aNo raNkay tsaNo 'I shall be brought by you'


Replacing nominative by instrumental is another method of passive construction. The object of the active voice moves to the subject position and a compound (subordinate) verb –matsha "to compel" i.e. reflexive sense added after the main verb of the active construction to generate a passive construction. e.g

		aNtsaki name garaymatshano 'you will be scold by me'
		naNtsaki ame raNmatshano 'I shall be compelled to carry by me'.

An intransitive verb may also be used in passive voice when the subject in the active is unknown and the sufferer i.e. the subject in the passive is compelled by others to cause his action. e.g.

		ekhre  Inkay tsaNata 'it was said so'
		ube ekhre Inmatshanata 'he was called so'

The passive voice of an active verb in the imperative and operative mood is formed by conjunctival construction compounding with some auxiliary verbs.e.g.

		Active :   naN noko tsIp 'you shut the door'
		Passive :  naNo noko tsIptaketa 'you are asked to shut the door'

The passive sense is often expressed periphrastically by means of verbal compounds. e.g. ,/p>

		u rImmatshadzo 'he has been caught'
		nana nathoa 'it is melodious to listen'

The assertive negative constructions, which are formed by compounding two verbs of opposite sense to signify interrogation or suspicion or doubt, are always impersonal.e.g.

		Impersonal: ube reNa reNkhutsa 'has he gone or hasn’t he' 
		Active: ube reNdzo doNba 'perhaps he is gone'

Some agglutinated passives are also found in Rabha where -e is suffixed to the main verb root/stem to which –tsa is again added. In other words this is done by double affixation.e.g.

		(ube) nekini nuktsa 'he is not  seen by eyes'
		ame  bUlpake dzaNtsa 'it is not possible for me by force'.

2.3.7 Derivational Morphology:

In Rabha, words are formed using different morphological processes viz. derivation, compounding, reduplication and contraction. Examples are given below to illustrate the various processes in Rabha.

(i) Derivation:

		(a) By addition of –kai in gerundial senese.e.g.
           			tsuN  'to be big' > tsuNkai 'big'
			ri 'to be heavy' > rikai "heavy"

		(b) By addition of –bakai / bataN in agentive sense.e.g.
          			nukbar 'to fall in love' > nukbakai 'beloved'
          			phar 'to sell' > pharbataN 'sellars'


		nem 'good' + ratshoN  'pride' = nemratshoN 'thanks'
		ha 'earth' + tshoN 'village' = hatshoN 'country'
		ha 'earth' + tsu 'to be high' = hatsu 'hill'


		ram 'road' : ram ram 'through the road'
		tsaN  'who' : tsaN tsaN 'who and who'
		tuNbur 'warm' : tuNbur tuNbur 'warmly'


		tap tap 'quickly' : tapan 'instantly'
		tuNbur tuNbur 'warmly': tuNbubur 'warmness'.

2.4.0 SYNTAX:

2.4.1 Interrogative sentence:

In Rabha question word occurs in situation i.e. in the same position as the constituent (word or expression) that is being questioned.e.g.

		 parmai-be beNa reNo 'where will parmai go?'

However, the question word can be moved to the left to the initial position of the sentence or to the right of the verb + aux. e.g.

		beNa naN reNo 'where will you go?'

In Rabha, expression for 'what' has two forms ata and ato e.g.

		naNi Umbani ata muN  'what is your husband’s name?'

ata can be reduplicated.e.g.

		naroNbe ata ata hadam tsinata 'which places have you seen?'

ato occurs when the question word does not modify a noun phrase.e.g.

		naNi Umbani muNbe ato 'what is your husband’s name?'
		name ato bobayeta 'what are you speaking?'

ato can also be reduplicated.e.g.

		 naroNbe ato ato bobaybamuN 'What did you discuss?'

Yes/No questions:

In Rabha Yes / no question markers occur postverbally.e.g.

		ibe matshana 'is this a tiger?'.
		ibe matsha dowana doNtsa 'is this a tiger or not?'

2.4.2 Negation:

In Rabha the negative markers are -tsa and ta-.

-tsa occurs to the right of verb stem followed by tense and aspect markers in declarative sentences.e.g.

		naN mutshana kaotsha rakhutsadzo.
		'You have not given the book to the person'.
		u (be) tshatsa 'he does not eat'.

The negative marker in imperative sentences is ta- and it occurs to the left of the main verb. e.g.

	     	naN tareN '(You) don’t go'.
		naroN tariba '(you) don’t come'.

2.4.3 Anaphora: (Reflexives and Reciprocals)

Reflexive: for a reflexive sentence in Rabha, kakay-na kakay is used.e.g.

		dapheN (be) kakayna kakay thitshiki-ba.
		'Dapheng killed himself'.

The second occurance of kakay can be dropped in Rabha. e.g.

		dapheN kakayna thitshiki-ba.
		'Dapheng killed himself'

Reciprocals: In Rabha 'ina-una' occurs as the reciprocal.e.g.

		oroNbe ina-una nukbardzo.
		'they have fallen in love with each other'

Rabha has a marker –dzIn that occurs with the verb and it functions as a verbal reciprocal marker.e.g.

		oroNbe ina-una nukbar-dzIndzo.
		'They have fallen in love with each other'.

2.4.4 Comparison:

Comparative marker:

In Rabha, comparative degree is expressed by addition of suffix –raN with adjectival verb. e.g.

		ikaybe ukayna kara tsuNraNkay pakdza / ikay pakdzabe ukayna kara tsuNraNa
		'this object is bigger than that'.
		uni kalamkay ketsha nemraNdzo
		'His illness is (more) improved to some degree'.

Superlative marker:

superlative degree is expressed by addition of suffix -tshraN with adjectival verb. e.g.

		mOina khuraNgan nathotshraNa 
		'Singing of Maina bird is the most melodious'
		uni kalamkay gotaynan nemtshraNdzo
		'His illness is cured to the fullest'.

2.4.5 Equatives:

In Rabha some post-positions are used in single or in reduplication with noun/ pronoun/adjective/gerunds/adverbs in expressing equatives sense. e.g.

	–ganda:(kay):	bay ganda nuka 'looks like god'
			rabhataN ganda ganda tata 
			'seems to be Rabha (tribes)'.
			tshiloN gandakay hadam aro bitshi mano
			'There is no place like Shillong'.
	–rIp(tshani):   	bayrIp tshayrIp '(behave )like god'
	gotshani / tsaktshani: tshabra gotshani / tshaktshani natshikay 'filial affection'
	gota:                	Umba gota (Umba) toNbayan 'in presence of  husband(self)'
	thIN thIN:       	babra thIN thIN nukeba 'even seeing one’s father'
	-gudu gudu/khe khe: 	ube doNa gudu gudu / khe khe katha kania
			'He seems to tell the truth'
	tekabay:       	tetekabay reNdoN gaphuN tekabay bara 
			'if it goes on this day, likely to return  by the next day'  

2.4.6 Emphasis:

To provide emphasis to a noun phrase or verb phrase in a sentence almost same emphatic particle can be added to the noun phrase or verb phrase. Some of the emphatic particles in Rabha are marked in the following sentences: e.g.

		 nasthimaitshe tsika ghatina reNo.
		'Only Nasimai will go to the river bank'.
		 Nasthimai tsika ghatinatshe reNo. 
		'Nasimai  will go to the river bank only'.
		nasthimai tsika ghatina reNotshe.
		'Nasimai will only go to the river bank'.
		Nasthimai-an tsika ghatina reNo.
		'Nasimai herself will go to the river bank'.
		Nasthimai tsika ghatina-an reNo.
		'Nasimai will go to the river bank particularly'.
		Nasthimai tsika ghatina reNo-an.
		'Nasimai  will go to the river bank surely'.
		aN-ba trINdamina reNo.
		'I also will go to school'.
		aN trINdamina-ba reNo.
		'I will go to school also'.
		aN trINdamina reNo-ba.
		'I will also go to school'.
		naN-tshan trINdanina reNtsanata.
		(lit. Only you have not gone to school.)
		'All are present in school except you'.  
		naN trINdanina-tshan reNtsanata.
		(lit. You have not gone only to school.)
		'You have gone everywhere except to school'.
		naN trINdanina reNtsanata-tshan.
		(lit. You have only not gone to school.) 
		'You have gone everything except to school'


2.5.1 Structure semantic fields

Relation (Kinship terms)

miba / Umba / banday
mitsik / manday
tshabra mitsa
tshabra mutsha
baba (babra)
aya (dzubra)
budi / bidi
tshubra mutsha
tshubra mitsa
buditsuN / biditsuN
dzudzu therON
budi / bibi therON
tshubra therON
bang bang
namtsakbra / bhagini
namthay / bhagina
elder brother
younger brother
elder sister
younger sister (female speaker)
younger sister (male speaker)
younger brother / sister
grand father
grand mother
grand son
grand daughter
grand grand father
grand grand mother
fore father
fore mother
great grand child
paternal uncle (father’s yr. brother/mother’s yr. sister’s husband)
paternal aunt (father’s yr. brother’s wife)
maternal aunt (mother’s yr. sister)
father’s el. brother/mother’s el. sister’s husband
father’s el. brother’s wife
mother’s el. sister
maternal uncle (mother’s el./yr. brother, father’s el./yr. sister’s husband)
father’s el./yr. sister, mother’s el. / yr. brother’s wife
yr./el. sister’s daughter (male speaker)
yr./el. sister’s son (male speaker)
yr./el. brother’s daughter (m. speaker)
yr./el brother’s son (male speaker)

Colour terminology:

Basic colours:

		Tshakkay		'red'
		bOkkay		'white'
		akkay      	   	'black'
		bhaykay		'yellow'
		khentsreNkay	'green'
		raNtser		'blue'

Derived terms:

		akho/aktshokho  	'bluish black'
		bantho                 	'purple'
		kOmOla               	'orange colour'
		phakra               	'variegated colour'
		tshakplek             	'pale-white colour'
		phuktshtura         	'smoke-like colour'
		bhaytshram          	'light yellow'
		tshakrON              	'redish'
		laha rON                	'deep brown'
		ha rON                   	'earth-like colour'
		magur matshia        	'copper-like colour, skin colour'.

Body parts:

		kan 		'body'
		tIkam 		'head'
		kapal 		'fore-head'
		kumpak 		'nose'
		nuken 		'eye'
		nuken-tshabra 	'pupil of the eye'
		nukman 		'eye-lash'
		nukdam 		'eye brow'
		khOro  		'hair'
		tIkamkhoN  	'skull'
		tala 		'crown of the head'
		phaydam 		'cheek'
		nukhaN 		'face'
		khutsar 		'lip'
		khuthulay 		'tongue'
		phakham 		'teeth'
		phakON 		'gum'
		khumen 		'beard'
		tOkkraN 		'neck'
		kiNdzuN 		'bone'
		pikha 		'heart'
		bodOm 		'belly'
		nu 		'breast'
		tsheN 		'waist'
		tatshi 		'hand'
		buktshuk 		'abdomen'
		khapak 		'chest'
		thaloN 		'spleen'
		tshun 		'heart'
		dzimakhar 	'anus'
		tatshikhu 		'fingers of the hand'
		tsatsakor 		'nail'
		tatheN  		'foot'
		tshibON 		'thigh'
		tatheNkhu 		'fingers of the foot'
		khOrthap 		'skin'
		nakOr 		'ear'
		kIndam 		'back'

Cooking terminology:

		matek-metek      	'vessels'
		thal 		'dish'
		tsuriya 		'a kind of vessel'
		kargha 		'iron pan'
		kUmbay 		'pitcher'
		kOtsOpat 		'ladle'
		phoNka 		'cook-shed'
		khuri 		'bowl'
		may 		'boiled rice'
		mi 		'curry'
		khartsi mi 		'curry prepared with alkali'
		thutsi mi 		'curry prepared with mustard oil'
		mi raNtsiN 	'juice of curry'
		bamtsi mi 		'curry prepared with rice powder'
		may-phakay 	'rice boiled in bamboo tube'
		phoktsak 		'cake boiled in bamboo tube'
		poNna 		'rice or cake boiled by steaming'
		phap 		'cake or powder for fermentation of rice beer'

2.5.2 Basic vocabulary:

Names of the days of the week:

		baytshan 		'sunday'
		tshagritshan 	'monday'
		tsIktshitshan 	'tuesday'
		phuphaktshan 	'wednessday'
		tshItitshan 	'thursday'
		khItshantitshan 	'friday'
		khIraotshan 	'saturday'

Heavenly bodies:

		purkona 			'the universe'
		raNtshaN 			'sun'
		raNgre 			'moon'
		aphe 			'star'
		raNmandi 			'sky'
		raNkhop 			'cloud'
		memaNpur 		'palace of the king of death, hell'
		rONpur 			'heaven'
		hitimolan 			'milky-way'
		raNgrephrao 		'moon-light'
		aphe-bhonta 		'bright-star, Venus'
		tshiktshi                    	'Mars'
		tshanipak			'Mercury'
		raNtshini aphe		'evening star'
		phuNini aphe		'morning star'
		aphe dzibra 		'pole-star'
		aphe-dzitsraN 		'commet'
		bardzamba 		'shooting star'
		totshabra 			'a collection of small stars'
		tsOkobuNi 		'a collection of three stars'
		tshat buinini maNkhram 	'the constellation'
		bItshamUta/hamandi 		'Earth'
		gIti/tshi rata		'new moon'
		purmay/nay rata 		'full-moon'
		raNggre tshabra 		'half moon'
		raNtsrit			'planet'
		raNtsrit tshani		'satellite'
		raNkundi 			'horizon'
		raNmuluk			'solar system'
		raNtshraN/raNphe		'celestial bodies'


		matshu 		'cow'
		mitsi 		'buffalo'
		ki 		'dog'
		miNku 		'cat'
		prUn 		'goat'
		goray 		'horse'
		prUnbhela 		'sheep'
		huti/hiti 		'elephant'
		matsha 		'tiger'
		mada 		'bear'
		makra 		'monkey'
		hulu makra 	'gibbon'
		kerkota 		'squirrel'
		newal 		'mongoose'
		mOtso 		'rat'
		gadha 		'ass'
		maruk 		'wild cat'
		tamana 		'fox'
		phethe 		'porcupine'
		maktsOk 		'deer'
		matha 		'iguana'
		tshatsha 		'hare'
		bak 		'pig'
		tupu  		'snake'
		lUbak 		'frog'
		ut		'camel'
		baduli 		'bat'
		ganday 		'rhinoceros'
		lokra 		'wolf'
		huda 		'otter'
		khutshuN 		'tortoise'
		ginal 		'crocodile'
		tshiNgho 		'lion'

Natural objects:

		rampar 		'air, wind'
		tsika 		'water'
		partsuN 		'storm'
		raNdzigar 		'hail-storm'
		phatsi 		'rain'
		parmanduri 	'cyclone'
		baybadzi/baytera 	'thunderbolt'
		bImbrak 		'thunder'
		kuhuri 		'fog'
		pramtsi 		'dew'
		hadzek 		'mountain'
		hatsu 		'hill'
		tila 		'hillock'
		tambrON 		'river'
		dzhOra 		'stream'
		pangrIm 		'forest'
		bar 		'fire'
		ha 		'soil'
		rONka 		'rock'
		haNtseN 		'sand'
		haptsi 		'mud'
		barkhuntsi 	'smoke'
		hadUrkay 		'earthquake'
		tsi-dzimari 	'sea'
		tsikadzibratsuN 	'ocean'
		hatshidam 	'desert'
		bana 		'flood'
		dubi 		'lake'
		handar 		'dark'
		naynay 		'light, bright'


		pan/phaN 		'tree'
		leowa 		'creeper'
		pOtso 		'mango'
		paNtsuN 		'jackfruit'
		khiNkhi 		'jujube'
		tsentreN 		'tamarind'
		dzambur 		'orange'
		rekphaN 		'banana tree'
		mOnthOl 		'papaya'
		lempOtso 		'guava'
		thekreN 		'a kind of sour fruit'
		pantshan 		'sal tree'
		tshigun 		'teak tree'
		pata 		'jute tree'
		pantsu 		'silk cotton tree'
		mandre		'coral tree'
		dakhOr 		'purging cassia'
		atak 		'a kind of tree'
		phephaN 		'fig tree'
		dhop 		'banyan tree'
		tsipri 		'wood apple'
		ba 		'bamboo'
		badzON		'a kind of bamboo'
		batrai		'a kind of bamboo'
		bhurka 		'a kind of bamboo'

Dress and ornaments:

		nen 		'clothes'
		rUphan 		'skirt'
		kambuN 		'sheet/scarf'
		gamtsha 		'long and broad waist cloth of man'
		khopON 		'turban for men'
		khodabaN 		'cloth weared round the head by women'
		tsheNkanen 	'cloth enclosed round the waist by man'
		bOktsali 		'half shirt'
		patsara/phali 	'thin wrapper of man'
		tsola 		'shirt'
		gundzi 		'guensey'
		pentuluN 		'long pant'
		aNtsa 		'thin boby wrapper'
		butshil 		'blouse'
		nambri 		'ear-ornament'
		tshaNkha 		'bracelet'
		hantsa 		'necklace'
		rubakmala 	'seven tiered chain used round the waist by woman folk'
		nukum/nakaputi 	'nose ornament'
		khutshumakrON 	'hairpin'
		kantabadzu 	'armlet'
		tsatshikOm 	'ring'


		aN 		'I'
		tsiN 		'we'
		naN 		'you'(sg)
		narON		'you'(pl)
		o/u 		'he / she'
		orON 		'they'
		okay 		'that'
		ubidzan 		'those'
		itshi 		'here'
		utshi 		'there'
		beN/bitshi 		'where'
		ekay 		'this'
		ibidzan 		'these'
		bekay 		'which'
		tsaN 		'who'
		ata 		'what'
		tsaNi 		'whose'
		bitshina 		'to where'
		tsaNa 		'to whom'
		tsaNba 		'somebody'
		dzaba 		'someone'


		nema 		'good'
		nemtsa 		'bad'
		tsuNa 		'big'
		mula 		'small'
		tshoNa 		'short'
		rowa 		'long'
		paraNa		'thin'
		tsadela		'thick'
		kaniya/kanikay	'near'
		dzhana 		'far'
		datsi 		'false'
		raka 		'harrd'
		raya  		'soft'
		takray/tsUpan	'few / little'
		paNa/paNkay	'many/much'
		pidan 		'new'
		maytsam 		'old'
		tuna 		'hot'
		tsIka		'cold'
		tseNa		'light'
		preNa 		'straight'
		beNkra		'bend' 


		bentsek 		'how many'
		entsek 		'this much'
		ontsok 		'that much'
		nemekhare 	'properly'
		nemtsakhare 	'badly'
		anare 		'slowly'
		dzakhre		'like this'
		okhre 		'like that'
		karaN 		'on, above'
		kamaN 		'under'
		pimuN 		'inside'
		badziN		'outside'
		bedo 		'when'
		bedoba		'sometime'
		barmatshi 		'always'
		mUnaN-mUnaN 	'silently'
		tap-tap 		'hastily, quickly'
		dzela 		'when'
		ola 		'then'
		tegap 		'nowa-a-days'
		gaphuN 		'tomorrow'
		miya 		'yesterday'
		maya 		'previous day'
		tsuniN 		'the day after tomorrow'
		bruniN		'on the forth day'
		tikaN 		'before'
		raptshraN/grip-grIp	'together'
		dzaduN-dzaduN 	'sometimes'

Numbers System

Twenty one
Twenty two
Twenty three
Twenty four
Twenty five
Twenty six
Twenty seven
Twenty eight
Twenty nine
Thirty one
Thirty two
Thirty three
Thirty four
Thirty five
Thirty six
Thirty seven
Thirty eight
Thirty nine
Forty one
Forty two
Forty three
Forty four
Forty five
Forty six
Forty seven
Forty eight
Forty nine
Fifty one
Fifty two
Fifty three
Fifty four
Fifty five
Fifty six
Fifty seven
Fifty eight
Fifty nine
Sixty one
Sixty two
Sixty three
Sixty four
Sixty five
Sixty six
Sixty seven
Sixty eight
Sixty nine
Seventy one
Seventy two
Seventy three
Seventy four
Seventy five
Seventy six
Seventy seven
Seventy eight
Seventy nine
Eighty one
Eighty two
Eighty three
Eighty four
Eighty five
Eighty six
Eighty seven
Eighty eight
Eighty nine
Ninety one
Ninety two
Ninety three
Ninety four
Ninety five
Ninety six
Ninety seven
Ninety eight
Ninety nine
One hundred
Two hundred
Three hundred
Four hundred
Five hundred
Nine hundred
One thousand
tha / antha
tsha / gOtsha
niN / anniN
tham / antham
tsetsa / antsetsa
tOla / antOla
krob / ankrob
tshiya / antshiya
gin / angin
biN / anbiN
tshatha / antshatha
tshatsha / antshatha tsha
tshaniN / antshatha niN
tshatham / antshatha tham
tshatsetsa / antshatha tsetsa
tshatOla / antshatha tOla
tshakrob / antshatha krob
tshatshiya / antshatha tshiya
tshagin / antshatha gin
tshabiN / antshatha biN
niNtha / anniNtha
niNtsha / anniNtha tsha
niNniN / anniNtha niN
niNtham / anniNtha tham
niNtsetsa / anniNtha tsetsa
niNtOla / anniNtha tOla
niNkrob / anniNtha krob
niNtshiya / anniNtha tshiya
niNgin / anniNtha gin
niNbiN / anniNtha biN
thamtha / anthamtha
thamtsha / anthamtha tsha
thamniN / anthamtha niN
thamtham / anthamtha tham
thamtsetsa / anthamtha tsetsa
thamtOla / anthamtha tOla
thamkrob / anthamtha krob
thamtshiya / anthamtha tshiya
thamgin / anthamtha gin
thambiN / anthamtha biN
tsetsatha / antsetsatha
tsetsatsha / antsetsatha tsha
tsetsaniN / antsetsatha niN
tsetsatham / antsetsatha tham
tsetsatsetsa / antsetsatha tsetsa
tsetsatOla / antsetsatha tOla
tsetsakrob / antsetsatha krob
tsetsatshiya / antsetsatha tshiya
tsetsagin / antsetsatha gin
tsetsabiN / antsetsatha biN
tOlatha / antOlatha
tOlatsha / antOlatha tsha
tOlaniN / antOlatha niN
tOlatham / antOlatha tham
tOlatsetsa / antOlatha tsetsa
tOlatOla / antOlatha tOla
tOlakrob / antOlatha krob
tOlatshiya / antOlatha tshiya
tOlagin / antOlatha gin
tOlabiN / antOlatha biN
krobtha / ankrobtha
krobtsha / antshatha tsha
krobniN / ankrobtha niN
krobtham / ankrobtha tham
krobtsetsa / ankrobtha tsetsa
krobtOla / ankrobtha tOla
krobkrob / ankrobtha tOla
krobtshiya / ankrobtha tshiya
krobgin / ankrobtha gin
krobbiN / ankrobtha biN
tshiyatha / antshiyatha
tshiyatsha / antshiyatha tsha
tshiyaniN / antshiyatha niN
tshiyatham / antshiyatha tham
tshiyatsetsa / antshiyatha tsetsa
tshiyatOla / antshiyatha tOla
tshiyakrob / antshiyatha krob
tshiyatshiya / antshiyatha tshiya
tshiyagin / antshiyatha gin
tshiyabiN / antshiyatha biN
gintha / angintha
gintsha / angintha tsha
ginniN / angintha niN
gintham / angintha tham
gintsetsa / angintha tsetsa
gintOla / angintha tOla
ginkrob / angintha krob
gintshiya / angintha tshiya
gingin / angintha gin
ginbiN / angintha biN
biNtha / anbiN tha
biNtsha / anbiNtha tsha
biNniN / anbiNtha niN
biNtham / anbiNtha tham
biNtsetsa / anbiNtha tsetsa
biNtOla / anbiNtha tOla
biNkrob / anbiNtha krob
biNtshiya / anbiNtha tshiya
biNgin / anbiNtha gin
biNbing / anbiNtha biN
tshathatha / antshathatha
niNthatha / aniNthatha
thamthatha / anthamthatha
tsetsathatha / antsetsathatha
tOlathatha / antOlathatha
biNthatha / anbiNthatha
tshathathatha / antshathathatha

2.5.3. Types of Lexicon:

The lexicon of Rabha language may be categorized broadly into four types, viz. a) Indigenous, b) Homogeneous, c) Heterogeneous, and d) Unclassified. Selected specimens of each category are given below.

a) Indigenous (dzoray):

i) Underived / basic:

kay 'man', bay 'god or goddess', tsay 'song', tsaN 'who', ato 'what', trIp trIp 'silently', dON dON 'speedily', drI drI 'slowly', ao 'to scream', prao 'to call', now 'to rumour' etc.

ii) Derived / compound:

		ka-: kara 'up,over', kama 'down, below', kapha 'near', kaluk 'under';
		pi-: pithin 'unripe', pitshak 'ned', piri 'tender', pithar 'pure';
 		-kay: tsithokay 'handsome', nathokay 'melodious', aokay 'screaming';
 	 	ra 'take': raba 'to bring', rakhu  'to give', raN 'to take away', ratsham 'to keep';
		rI 'to shift, to move': rIba 'come', rIdzIm 'to walk', rIaN > reN 'to go' 
		may 'paddy' + dzham 'store house' > maydzham 'granary' 
		par 'flower' + dam 'place' > pardam 'garden'
	 	nok 'house' + dar 'wall' > nokdar 'wall'
 	 	tsay 'song' + rUN 'to drink' > tsayrUN 'to sing' etc.

b) Homogeneous:

i) Closed related (Bodo group):

ha 'earth, soil', may 'paddy', aN 'I', tshiN 'we', mini 'to laugh', ba 'to carry on back', mun 'to be ripe', tshIN 'to ask', tsha 'one', niN 'two', tham 'three', tsham 'mortar', nok 'house'etc.

ii) Distant related (Non-Bodo group):

		ki 'dog' cf. Mishing: iki 'dog'
		Umba 'husband' cf. Manipuri: mIba, Tibetan: Uwo 'husband'	
            		dzap 'fan, to fan' cf. Karbi: bijap 'fan',Tibetan:yap 'to fan'
		ruwa 'poisonous fruit' cf. Karbi: ruwa 'poisonous fruit'
	phap 'medicated powder for brewing rice beer' cf. Karbi: thap 'medicated powder for brewing rice beer'etc.

iii)More distant related ( Other Sino-Tibetan groups):

		kay 'man' cf. Tai-Phake: kai 'man'
		nu 'breast,milk' cf. Tibetan: numa 'breast'
		u /o 'she / he' cf. Tibetan: O 'he / she'
		gur 'to sleep' cf. Tibetan: g-yur 'to sleep'
		ki 'dog' cf. Chinese: Kiwen 'dog'
		tshi 'blood' cf. Chinese: xiwet 'blood'
		pur 'to fly' cf. Chinese: piwar 'to fly' etc.

c) Heterogeneous:

i) Aryan origin:


pudza 'worship'(puja), haNtshi 'duck' (hangsha),tshirgi 'heaven'(swarga), tshatsha 'rabbit'(shasha), kUmbai 'pitcher' (kumbha) etc.


akhay 'popcorn' (akhoi), aya 'mother' (ai), atha 'gum' (etha / atha), parOk 'pigeon' (paro) etc.


boka 'foolish' (boka), pOrta 'benefit' (porta), bhari 'heavy, great' (bhari), pala 'drama' (pala), thakur 'gentleman, lord' (thakur) etc.


tsarkha 'spinning wheel' (charkha), hapta 'week' (haptah), tshOsta 'cheap' (sasta), paka 'rigid, strong' (pakka), haitar 'sacrificing sword' (hathiyar 'arms') etc.

ii) Deshi (Austric, Dravidian):

		dzunthi 'galloping trap' cf. Munda :jati
		tari 'high land' cf. Munda; tariya
		deNga 'cannoe' cf. Khasi: dieng
		hapa 'wild cat' cf. Malay: hapa
		pagla 'mad' cf. Malay: gila etc.

iii) Bideshi (English, Perso-Arabic):


keratshin cf. 'kerosene', gilatsh cf. 'glass', tsitipin cf. 'safetypin', baktsho cf. box, elatari cf. electric, lOmbar cf. number etc.


tabitsh 'amulet' (tabij), kaotsha 'paper' (kagoz), khOpOr 'news' (khobor), beram 'sick, disease' (be-aram), hadzar 'thousand' (hajar), raha 'means, way' (rah), killa 'fort' (killah), dzamat 'conference, council' (jamiyat) etc.

d) Unclassified:

i) Change of meaning:

		nu 'milk': nu 'breast, milk'
		ha 'soil' + pitsi 'egg' > haptsi 'clay'
		ha 'soil' + tshoN 'village' > hatshoN 'land, kingdom'
		hamdzar 'jhuming field' + par 'flower' > hampa 'cotton'
		mayruN 'uncooked rice' + tUk 'earthen pot' > ruNtUk / runtuk 'goddess of rice i.e. Lakshmi'
		to 'cock' + tIkam 'head' > totIkam 'feast of the marriage i.e. marriage'

ii) Coinage:

		tsaytsak 'poem', tsayktsok 'poet' cf. tsay 'song'
		raotsak 'prose' cf. rao 'voice, sound'
		nuktshini 'scenery' cf. nuk 'to see'
		tsungIr 'sir, gentleman', tsuNraha 'desire' cf. tsuN 'to be large, to be big'

iii) Loan translation:

		nem 'good' + phuN 'morning' > nemphuN 'goodmorning'
		dzibra 'mother' + hatshON 'land' > dzibra hatshoN 'motherland'
		barkha 'fire'+ hatsu 'hill' > barkhahatsu 'volcano' cf. Sanskrit:  agneyagiri
		khuraN 'speech' + dzibra 'mother' > khuraNdzibra 'mother tongue' cf. Sanskrit: matribhasha etc.

iv) Hybrid:

		bish 'poison'(Sanskrit) +  pantsak 'medicine' > bish-pantsak 'poison'
		prUn 'goat' + bhela (Assamese:bhera’sheep’) > prUn bhela 'sheep'
		be- 'less' (Arabic) + kOr 'character'>baygOr 'characterless girl'
		nuken 'eye' + lubhiya 'greedy'(Assamese) > nuken lubhiya 'greedy person' etc.


Content dependent structure:

In Rabha, discourse content dependent structure can be observed in some of the following aspects: These aspects are: (i) Cursing, (2) Blessing, (3) Love-affairs, (4) Sorrow (5) Child- language.


In Rabha society, there are some magico-religious rites in which the priest curses the deities or witches during the propitiation process. As, for example, in the hymn of propitiating ‘tIkar’ i.e. the responsible witch is cursed as following:

		tshoiti tshoiti tini tshot rakhuita naNo
		bhalaN bhalaN teremtana lagia 
		nahole mOhapapina kino mOhakalina kino   

Such cursing is done when a witch affects a person. Therefore the priest taking an oath (tini tshot) commands the witch to either heal the affected person or to suffer from great sin (Mahapap) or to fall into the doom (Mahakal).

However, some set of idioms and phrases are also used in Rabha as cursing (in case of human). e.g. markharaNkay 'calling untimely death' caused by epidemic.

		laNatsharaNkay 'calling untimely death' caused by langa deity.

(2) Blessing:

This Discourse is found in traditional Rabha wedding ceremonies and in caring a child. For example, when a child behaves in an unusual manner (grudge), the elders convey their affection by addressing ONe mao tshona (to the females child) or ONe babuN (to the male child) as such

	name tebe dObON dObON mai tshana lagiya, kherena lagiya, nukhaN tshare toNa lagiya.

This is said along with kissing which means 'O dear of the dearest! , now you should take full amount of rice, play with joy and charm'.

Discourse of blessing in traditional Rabha wedding ceremonies is found in the ‘mantras’ of the priest as following:

		eroNi dzora parok dzora tsaNkhan    
		eroNi dzora moina dzora tsaNkhan
		eroNi dzora tukhur dzora tsaNkhan
		ruk ruk Umba mitsik nok pati tshakhan
		tshawa poro tsaNkhan
		tshoto poro tsaNkhan
		ha poro tsaNkhan
		Umba mitsik mili go- poro tsaNkhan
		Umba mitsik mili gai-poro tsaNkhan
		Umba mitsik mili budhi-giri tsaNkhan
		Umba mitsik mili man-giri tsaNkhan
		Nok pati tshay mela tshamdzay ratshoNtshare toNkhan
		nidzana kayna neme tereme 
		Ine naNo tsheoman khareta
		he tshirgini ritshi thakur !

In the above piece of 'mantra', all the underlined words are indicative of the blessings by the priest to the bride and bridegroom.

(3) Love-affairs:

Discourse in Rabha is found in the traditional songs related to love affairs. e.g.

		pamtsu  paro tsutshia
 		mUndar paro tsutshia 
		ram tshiruk pal

In the above song, the spring birds attract some kind of flowers, which symbolises lovers and beloved.

(4) Sorrowness:

Discourse of sorrowness is also found in Rabha. e.g. O ayare "oh! Mother" O babare "oh! Father"

			agiranina kidzokgo name
			birmaraina kidzokgo name
			nidarainina kidzokgo name
			dandraina kidzokgo name
			teni para naNobe nuketsaro tsime.
			naNi tshona khuraN natsadzok tsime
			naNi ganthi khuraN natsadzok tsime

'you are now in eternal sleep, laid on the bed of death, soon you will be cremated. From today onwards we‘ll see you no-more, your worldly voice will no more be heard , your worldly talking will no more be heard.'

(5) Child language :

Child language is another aspect where discourse is found.e.g. “ha manday tshonakay!

          		tupur tapar nukhar reNdzo
           		aNi bomay;
          		atshuk-bitshuk tsoNkomoti
          		bitshina phuN;
          		dzanbaini hatsu phatshaN
          		atshu grimi toN.

'oh! My dear, you are in sleep, in my lap,irritating insect, where, gathered, hill of far away, stay in the field of atshugrim i.e. paddy field'

Grammar of discourse:

Grammar of discourse in Rabha is evident in some of the poems which may be called the poetic blunder. Such poetic blunder is clearly found in the popular songs of Rajen Pam, Sangeet Natak Academy awardee(folk-artist).

		 e.g.     	mayadini para 
			ribay tsiNi tshoNina
			dziri dziri ato kriNe reNa
			bedo name boNo una
			bentsok dzana reNa laginowa
			ana name tsiNo bobaytsa.

The underlined words, in the above extract are wrongly used by the composer in order to give certain poetic effect. Grammatically mayadini and tsiNo should be mayani and tsiN pake respectively.

Another instance of poetic blunder is found in a popular traditional song composed by Rabha Kristi Sangha.

		O aya naNbe bitshina dzardzokre
		naN toNtsabayan naNi tshabra bidzanbe praNdzok
		bitshina dzardzokre

In the above extract the word naNbe is name from the grammatical point of view.

Discourse Semantics:

Discourse semantics in Rabha is found in some of the dramatic dialogues. For example, to create a situation for drunker, there is the use of Hindi words as given below:

		tsikraN(male character, drunker): Oi budzi, tsokotshe budzi tsoko botol, rUNona?
  		'dear sister-in-law, here is a bottle of wine, lets drink, will you?'

		 nodai(female  character): botol-thotol  nahi mareNga.
      		'you go to hell with your bottle of wine'
			      ('dodan-bir' play composed by Prasanna Pam in 1957)

In order to create humor effect, dialogues with mixed languages are applied by some playwrights. e.g. balabhadra(country gentleman): te akharna lagino? Nobab ribadoNbe…

					'how should we behave to your nobab?'
	phota(invaders follower):adap, adap, adap

				'ceremonious term of address for the Mugal emperor'
	balabhadra:hadap, hadap, hadap(wrong imitation)
	phota: toynal kakNo, tselabuk matshano
				'you’ll be punished by sword or whip'

	( in the drama: roNgir portshuram, scene-iv, written by Dr. U. R. Hakacham in 1998)

In the above dialogue, humorous effect is brought by the use of hadap instead of adap in the speech of balabhadra as well as in the speech of phota who uses tselabuk in place of tsabuk.


Copyright CIIL-India Mysore