Linguistic expressing of Culture

20.1. Classifier systems:

Kinship terms in Maithili speaking community, primarily denote relationship by birth or marriage as enumerated in 9.2. Secondarily they denote the class of persons socially regarded as such in order of age or generation. For example in ones neighbourhood any male person of one’s father’s age group may be addressed as काका / ka:ka / 'uncle'.

The kinship terms, except father, mother and wife/husband, are classifiers and often create problem of specification. This problem is solved in two ways: (i) by adding specific adjective, for example, लाल काका / la:l kaka: / 'the lovely uncle', छोटका काका / chǒʈka: ka:ka: / 'the younger uncle', or (ii) by tagging personal name as गोनू काका / gonu: kaka: / 'uncle Gonu'.

20.2. Kinship organization and terminology:

In Maithil society there are three kinship organizations: Svajana of family, kuʈtumba or kinsmen outside family, and gotra or clan.

Svajana or family consists of not more than four generation: Grand father, father, Brothers and children.

Kuʈumba or Kinsmen consists of Pitri-bandhava or Paternal relatives (i.e. father’s brothers, sisters and their children) and ma:tṛba:ndhava of maternal relatives (i.e. mother’s brothers, sisters and their children).

Gotra (or gǒtia:) or clan (not a happy rendering) is divided into three sections: sapinɖa or up to reveal generations from the common ansestor. Sagotra marriage is prohibited in Brahmins and shaving of head on the death of a rabinda is customary.

20.2. Mass media:

Kinship terms may be seen in § 9.1.

20.3. Body parts:

See § 9.3.

20.4. Colour terms:

See § 9.2.

20.5. Pronouns :

	These are four grades of second person pronoun and two grades of third person pronoun:

		(1)  अपने  सुनल जाए / apne sunal ja:ĕ / 'would you please hear, sir' 
		(2)  अहाँ  सुनू / ahã: sunu: / 'please hear'.
		(3)  तों सुनह / tõ sunah / 'listen'.
		(4)  तों सुन / tõ sun / 'listen'.

	Third Person: 

 		(1)  ई  सुनताह / i: sunata:h / 'He will hear' (honorific).
		(2)  ई सुनत / i: sunat / 'He will hear'.

20.6. Family Organization:

The family organization in Maithili speaking community is patrilineal. The title to the inherited property vests in family and the head of the family is only karta: or manager of the joint property. Traditionally only male members have right to hold property. Normally family consisting of white females enjoy property with and through their husbands. But social awareness has discarded that tradition. Father, children and grand children and rarely uncles are also included. On demise of father his eldest son becomes Karta: of the family. But now-a-days nuclear family system is prevailing because sons just after marriage are virtually getting separated.

20.7. Social stratification:

Maithili speaking community is composed of numerous castes differing from each other on social, educational, religious, and cultural levels. Broadly they are divided in two classes, upper class consisting of Brahmans, Rajputs and Kayasthas among Hindus and Shekhs, Pathans and Saiyyads among Muslims. All the rest form the lower class.

On account of degree of respectability. Maithil community may be divided into four grades as reflected in their language.

		(1)  Extra superior – addressed by  अपने / upane / 
		(2)  Superior – addressed by अहाँ / ahã: /
		(3)  Equal – addressed by हओ तों / haǒ tõ / 
		(4)  Inferior – address by रओ तों / raǒ tõ / 

On the basis of caste, upper class is regarded as superior. On the basis of kinship hierarchy, some relations are extra superior.

The first grade is appropriate for teachers, preceptors, saints, father-in-law of sons and daughters and the like. The second grade includes father, mother, elder brothers and all others of that level. The third is used for equals and juniors. The fourth for inferiors.

अहाँ / ahã: / is a peculiar pronoun in Maithili. It is a symbol of aristocracy in much as it is found only in the standard (Central) dialect. In a topmost class of Brahmans known as सोति / soti / or श्रोत्रिय / srotriya / every member of the family addresses one another exclusively as ahã:. For example:

20.8. Address and reference system:

Addressing superior relatives by name is forbidden. All relatives through father or mother (known as ++ or +++ / sǒjania: / 'internal') are usually addressed by kinship terms optionally preceded by vocative particles – (See...). For example:

	Grade		Male			Female
	1. 	अओ भाइजी / aǒ bha:iji: /		अए भौजी / ae bhauji /
	2. 	हओ भाइ / hao bha:i /		हए भौजी / haĕ bhauji: / 
	3. 	रओ भैआ / raǒ bhaia: /		गए भौजी / gaĕ bhauji: /  

Relatives through marriage are never addressed by kinship terms. For example, if one addresses one’s sa:r (i.e. wife’s brother अओ सार / ao sa:r /) he may feel offended.

Peculiarly, four kinship terms in Maithili have two forms each, one for address and the other for reference:

	Address						Reference 

	भाइ / ba:i / 'brother' 				भाए / ba:ĕ /
	भौजी / bhauji: / 'wife of to elder brother' 	भाउजि / bha:uji / 
	मामा / ma:ma: / 'mother’s brother'		माम / ma:m /
	मामी / ma:mi: / 'wife of ma:ma:'			मामि / ma:mi /
	पीसी / pi:si: / 'father’s sister'			पीउसि / pi:usi /
	मौसी / mausi: / 'mother’s sister'		माउसि

	ई हमर भाए (not भाइ) थिकाह / i: hamar bha:ĕ /  thika:h / 'he is my brother'.  

	भाइ (not भाए) एम्हर आउ / bha:i, ĕmhar a:u / 'brother, come here'. 

A person socially assumed to be relative may be addressed by kinship term, but is not referred so. For example.

"When Mohan babu came, I asked him, 'Ka:ka:, which would you like, tea or coffee?'"

General terms of address for persons known and unknown alike are the vocative particles as described in § 6.12. for example:

हओ, एहि गामक नाम की थिकैक ? 'haǒ, ehi ga:makna:m ki: thikait?/ 'Hallow, what is the name of this village?'

Numerous high flown terms of address and reference words used are suitable for different dignitaries, as महाशय / maha:saya' / महोदय / mahodaya / महानुभाव / maha:nubha:b / श्रीमान् / sri:ma:n / सरकार / haju:r / हजूर / sarka:r / etc.

In old style, personal letters address words in Sanskrit plural locative case followed by a greeting word in plural. For example.

स्वस्तिश्री ....... महानुभावेषु नमस्काराः svasti sri:....... maha:nubha:bekhu namaska:ra:h / 'With greetings' Some stereotypes of rhetoric adjectives have been used for address in the old-fashioned letters. Now only English style prevails: प्रिय महोदय / priya mahodaya / 'Dear sir' and the like.

20.9. Politeness expression:

These are many devises in Maithili to express politeness. Important ones are as follows:

	(a) Use of honorific form of verb:  
		ओ कहल / o kahal / 'he said' (Neutral)  
		ओ कहलनि / o kahalani / 'he said' (Polite). 
	(b) Use of honorific form of pronoun: 
		ओकए दिओक / okra: diauk / 'give him' (Non-honorific) 
		हुनका  दिओन्ह / hunka: diaunh / 'give him' (polite). 

	(c) Use of passive voice: 
		ई देखू / i: dekhu: / 'See this'  (Neutral). 
		ई देखल जाए / i: dekhal ja:ĕ / 'this may be seen'. (polite).  

	(d) Reference by third person instead of first person: 
		ई कखन अएलाह ? / i: kakhan aela:h? / 'When did he come?' = When did you come?  (Polite). 

	(e) Use of words of higher level of dignity: 
		खाउ गए / kha:u gae / 'go to take meal'(Un-polite).
		भोजन करू गए / bhojan karu: ge / 'please go to take meal'. (Polite).

	(f) Use of some adverbial phrases: 

		कृपा कए आएल जाए / Kripa: kaĕ a:ĕl ja:ĕ / 'You may kindly come'. 
		खेद जे / khed je / 'I am sorry that'. 
		क्षमा करब / kşama: karab / 'forgive me'. 

	(g) Converting a request to question :
		अपनेक ई  पत्र हम देखू? / apneki: patra hamdekhu:? / 'May I see your letter?' 

20.10. Greeting and departure terms:

Traditional manner of greeting is the bowing down and touching the feet of one’s elder accompanied optionally with the word प्रणाम / praɳam / 'obeisance' or गोड लगैछी / goɖ̥ lagai chi: / 'I touch your feet'. It is responded by showing the palm of right hand accompanied with the word निकें रहू / nikẽ rahu: / 'live happily'. Between equals, greeting word from both sides is नमस्कार / namaska:r /.

Departure terms are the same as greeting terms.

20.11. Men’s and women’s speech:

Gender variable in Maithili is very slight, mostly suprasegmental and rhetoric. It is already dealt with in § 11.12.

20.12. Concept of space and time:

Space is concieved as a void divided by earth. The space above earth is आकास (or आकाश) / aka:s / 'sky' and below it पताल / pata:l / 'underworld'. For practical reference it is subdivided in four directions, four corners, above and below. The following terms specifying directions are common:

		पूब / pu:b / 'east'		कोन / kon / 'corner' 
		पच्छिम / pacchim / 'west'		आगाँ / a:gã: / 'in front'
		उत्तर  / uttar / 'north'		पाछाँ / pa:chã: / 'behind' 
		दच्छिन / dacchin / 'south'	लग / lag / 'near' 
		उपर / upar / 'above'		दूर / du:r / 'away' and others. 
		नीचाँ / ni:cã: / 'below' 		

Time is conceived only in pieces i.e. in periods as :

			जुग / jug / 'several years' 
			बरख / baraka / 'year' 
			मास  / ma:s / 'mouth'
			पख / pakh / 'fortnight'
			दिन / din / 'day'
			पहर / pahar / '1/4 day'
			छन / chan / 'moment' 

Natural phenomena, like season, weather, atmosphere, are concieved as समय / samay /.

Day starts with sun rise and is divided into four parts.

			परात / para:t / 'morning'
			दोपहर / dǒpahar / 'midday'
			बेर खन / berkhan / 'afternoon' 
			साँझ / sã:jh / 'evening' 

Any year, like A.D., B.C, is unknown to the people of grass root. In educated class fasli san (crop year) started in 593 A.D. is in vogue. Now only A.D. holds supreme.

For agricultural operation nachattar (nakʂatra), or periods of constellations numbering 27, is yet in vogue. It starts from 13 April.

Month in all religious and festive occasions is lunar. Only two festivals, one each on the day of vernal and automnal equinoxes, are related to solar month.

20.13. Myths and Mythology:

Maithil community is composed of only Hindus and Muslims, and as such its myths and mythology do not differ from those prevalent elsewhere in these two sects. Traces of some aboriginal myths (or beliefs) are, however, noticed. For instance, in a myth, Li:li: (Blue girl) is said to be a daughter of Lord Shiva. Sun and moon are brother and sister. Once their mother cursed her son तोंजरैत रइ / tõ jarait rah / 'to burn always', and blessed her daughter, तों जुडाइत रह / tõ juɖ̥a:it rah / 'to stay cool always'.

20.14. Belief system:

Maithili speaking community, like all Hindu and Muslim communities in India, is overburdened with all sorts of beliefs. Gods, demons, spirits and ghosts fulfill desire if propitiated in some specific way. Some natural phenomena and worldly happening foretell something good or bad. This sort of beliefs are universal. They differ only in detail from community to community. Instances of belief characteristic to Maithil community are, inter alia, as follows:

(a) Before breakfast hearing some thing like khir (milkrice), notorious village etc. Is believed to deprive one of his good. 
(b) Female witches relish flesh of young babies. 
(c) Kicin, a kind of female ghost, speak through nose and has feet turned backward. 
(d) At the time of departure the sight or mention of oil is considered highly auspicious. 
(e) On yawning fingers are snapped to ward off evils. 
(f) On sneezing nearby elder utters  शतं जीव / sataṃ ji:va / 'live hundred years' to ward off evils. 

20.15. Proverbs, Idioms and Abuses:

(a) Proverbs:

Proverbs in Maithili, like in all languages are the rich store of wisdom gained through age old experience of practical life ↝ poetically spiced with wit and honour. Some of them are didactic:

	अपने करनी पार उतरनी / apane karani:  pa:r utarani: / 'Success depends on your own deeds'. 
	पहिने भीतर तखन पितर / pahine bhitar takhan pitar / 'First (take)  then (worship) manes'.
	जे गरजए से बरसए नहि / jegarajaĕ se barisaĕ nahi / 'Cloud that roars seldom pours' 

Often they are used to ridicule unseemly behaviour and laugh at awkward situation.

कुटनी पिसनी एक बखरा, बैसल बिलाडि कें तीन बखरा / kaʈani: pisani: ĕk bakhara:, baisal bila:ɖ̥i kẽ ti:n bakhara: / 'One lot for him who husks and grinds, cat sitting idle three lots finds'.

बहए बडद हकमए कुकुर / bahaĕ baɖ̥ad hakamaĕ kukur / ‘Oxen silently toil and toil, dogs heave heavily sitting while.

Rustic people specially old ladies are adopt in quoting proverbs in every opt context. But there is no stigma of rusticity in using them. Maithili poets as high as Vidyapati, Chanda Jha and Sitaram Jha have been profusely quoting them to make their expression appealing. In Maithili literature proverbs give an attractive local colour and serve as figures of speech.

Here are two opt quoted examples from Vidyapati:

मनि कादो लेपटाए रे तें कितकरगुन जाए रे / mani ka:do lepaʈa:ĕ re, tẽ ki takar gunja:ĕ re / 'A gem may fall on dust and dirt. For that its value is never hurt'.

कौआ मूहन भनिअए बेद / kaua: mu:h na bhaniai bed / 'Crow can never sing a sacred hymn'.

Maithili proverbs are remarkable for their linguistic peculiarities. Generally verbs are omitted without causing any inconvenience. Economy of words is evident everywhere. Archaism bespeaks their antiquity. All proverbs are prosodical. Mostly they are versified and rhymed. They have their own rhetoric.

(b) Idioms:

Indians are less prepondering in Maithili than in Hindi and Urdu. Idiom differs from proverb in many respects. In construction, the former is a phrase while the latter is a sentence. The former alludes some event or situation which might have given birth to it. For instance,

अहाँक पेट तँ गोनू झाक छीटा भए गेल / ahã:k peʈ tã: gonu Jha:k chi:ʈa: bhaĕ gel / 'Your stomach has indeed become the basket of Gonu Jha'.

Here the significance of the basket of Gonu Jha will be grasped only when the story behind it is known to the hearer. This is why idioms are bound to particular languages and culture and are generally difficult to be translated, while proverbs can easily be translated, rather the same proverbs are current in several languages with, of course, linguistic variations.

Some idioms are the transposition of similar action from animal to man. For instance.

	कान पटपटाएब / ka:n paŧpaŧa:eb / 'flap ears be conscious or heeding'
	कान ठाढ होएब / ka:n ŧha:ḍh hoeb / 'ears being erected → to be alert'. 

Here dogs action is transposed on man to indicate the similar feeling or dendency.

कान्ह खसाएब / ka:nh khasa:eb / 'lowering one’s shoulder ↝ shirk from one’s duty'. Here action bullock is transposed on man.

(c) Abuses or impricatives

Maithili is replete with stereo types of abuses and curses. The sociology of calling names in the Maithili speech community is a fertile field of investigation, but none has steeped in for fear of being vulgar and obscene. But they are not always obnoxious. There are three motives for their use : for expressing anger as in quarrel, for fun, and for aphetic or expletive expressions.

(i) The most obscene abuses are used in quarrel, specially among women, charging each other with indulgence in sexual intercourse illicitly or eating the flash of near relatives.

(ii) It is interesting to note that abusing each other among kins related by marriage is an innocent entertainment. Such entertainment is allowed in Maithil community with the wife of elder brother, wife of mother’s brother, wife’s brother and father-in-law /mother-in-law of son/ daughter. Here abuses may or may not be stereotype and may include all sorts of slanderous statements.

(iii) Some of the lower level rustic people are in habit of calling names for nothing or often in annoyance as expletive.

Here are a few examples of abuses:

		पुतखौकी / putkhauki: / 'son-eater'.
		छिनरी / chinri: / 'licherous' 
		उढरी / uḍhari: / 'eloped with a lover'
		बरगाही साए  / barga:hi: sa:ẽ / 'husband of unchaste woman'. 
		बहिन चोद   / bahincod / 'sister fucker'. 
		तोरा बहिनिकें / tora: bahini kẽ / 'I will have sexual intercourse with your sister'.  
		मुहझौंसा/ muhjhaũsa: / 'scorched –faced'. 
		पदना / padana: / 'liar' 

20.16. Indigenous knowledge system:

Indigenous knowledge, in Maithil community, is gained orally in one’s own family. Educational or religious institution is almost unknown. Fathers impart their professional skill to their sons through practical method. Lessons for practical life is obtained from the honorable ideal elders, and from oral didactic literature. Numerous adages or didactic verses attributed to Dak a folk pandit are the best and the most prevalent source of practical wisdom in all aspects of life. On festive occasions religious discourses are arranged on mythological illustrious and ideal figures. Such discourses are an important source of moral, social as well as religious lessons. For teaching of writing, reading and arithmatics tutors, mostly kayasthas, used to be engaged in well-to-do families. In Brahman families children are taught the formula and practice of religious ceremonies and clerical skill.

20.17. Ceremonies and Sacraments:

Out of ten saṃska:ras or sacraments prescribed in Vedic tradition only three namely मुण्डन / muɳɖana / 'tonsure or shaving of head first time', विवाह / viva:ha / 'marriage' and अन्तेष्टि / anlyeʂʈi / 'funeral rite' are observed in Maithil community in general. उपनयन / upanayana / 'admission to religious life' is practised only among Brahmanas. अन्नप्राश / annapra:sana / 'giving solid food to a baby first time' is celebrated in well-to-do families.

Besides the above ceremonies common to all Hindu Communities, the following seem characteristic to Maithil community.

(a) मुहबज्जी / muhbahhi: / 'speaking with the wife for the first time.' It takes place in the fourth night after marriage and is perhaps the vestige of गर्माधान / garbha:dha:na / 'rite of imprignation' of the past. The name मुहबज्जी is obviously euphemistic.

(b) सदहोरि / sadahori / 'feeding a would-be mother with delicious food' is reminiscent of सीमन्तोन्नयन / si:manto nnayana / 'parting the hair of a would-be mother' or पुंसवन / puṃsavana / 'producing a male child by means of sorcery'.

(c) सोहर / sohar / 'celebration of birth’is the same as जातकर्म' / ja:takarma / 'rite of birth of the past but is celebrated in different way'.

(d) नाना भैआ / na:na: bhaina: / the significant of the term is obscure. It is celebrated on the ninth day after the birth of child.

(e) छठिहार / chaʈhiha:r / 'worship of goddess chaʈhi or ʂʈika:'. It takes place on the sixth day after the birth of child. It seems to be a Tantric ceremony and is observed through out north India by Hindus.

(f) नामकरण / na:makaraɳa / 'naming of baby' as a sacrament is performed mainly in orthodox families. It is remarkable that the name given in this occasion is kept secret due to the belief that if it is known to enemies they may cause harm to the baby by means of sorcery.

(g) मसनही / masnahi: / 'monthly bath' is originally a ceremony of attaining puberty i.e. on the discharge of menstruation first time. But now it is performed a month or so after puberty.

(h) दसौत / dasaut / is celebrated some time after marriage by ten lucky ladies with ten items of enchantment.

(i) कोबर / kobar / is celebrated by newly married couple at the brides home. It is suitably comparable to honey moon. It is purely secular and free from ceremonial paraphernalia.

(j) मधुश्रावणी / madhusra:vaɳi: / is a festival of serpent – worship by newly married couple performed in the month of ʃra:vaɳa (mid rainy season) after marriage. It lasts for ten days during which the couple is entertained with mythical, legendary and saucy tales, ballads and poems. It is a remarkable blend of religious and secular interaction.

Except tonsure, marriage and funeral, the ceremonies are observed mostly in upper class families.

In Muslim community सुन्नत / sunnat / 'baptism', निकाह / nika:h / 'marriage' and दफन / daphan / 'disposal of dead body' are main ceremonies.

20.18. Food system:

The Staple food grain of Mithila is rice and pulses, the main agricultural product. But now wheat is gaining ground. Boiled rice, pulse, vegetables, fish and curd is common dish. Dahi:-cuɖ̥a: (curd and flattered rice) is an alternative dish. Ghee and curd were essential items of dish as is clear from the following adage:

	आदि नहि घी  अन्त नहि दही  
	ताहि भोजन कें गीडब कही  
	/a:di nahi  ghi: ant nahi dahi:
	ta:hi bhojan kẽ  giḍab kahi/  
        If there is no ghee in the beginning and no curd at the end, it is simply 'devouring', and in no sense 'dining'.

Fish, meat and sweets are extravaganza in feasts. VIP guests are served with at least nine vegetable dishes called नओतिमना / naǒtimana: /.

20.19. Dress:

Traditionally man’s dress consists of four pieces – head wear, wrapper or scarf, kurta or shirt and dhoti or loin-cloth dress. These are the distinctive feature of class, caste, cult and sex. Brahmans, Kayasthas and Rajputs have their own styles of head wears.

पाग / pa:g / 'a particular type of turban' is characteristic to Maithil culture. It is worn by Brahmans and Kayasthas. Being now generally out of use it is seen only on ceremonial occasions like marriage etc.

मुरेठा / mureʈha: / 'general type of turban' is common to all castes of peasantry. Rajputs have, however, a characteristic style of their turban.

चादरि / ca:dari / or तौनी / tauni: / 'man’s scarf or wrapper' is common to all Hindus.

अन्गा /aŋga:/ 'body garment' is formal, not usual. The most common type of this are कुरता / kurta: / हाफ / ha:ph / 'half shirt' and गंजी /ganji:/ 'banian'.

धोती / dhoti / 'loin cloth' is the only traditional garment of Mithila, although lungi, Pyjama and trousers are spreading fast specially in urban people. There are two styles of wearing dhoti. In the style known as साँची धोती / sã:ci: dhoti: / half of this is wrapped round the waist and the rest is plaited, folded and tugged to the girdle at the front. This style is aristocratic. Common man drape the lower part of his body with the half of his dhoti and with the rest girdle his waist which is called ढट्ठा /ɖhaʈʈha:/. An informal style of wearing dhoti is called ढट्ठा / adhadhǒtia: / in which half part of dhoti is used as wrapper (cf. तरउपरा below).

Usual garment of woman consists of a sari and a blouse. Half part of sari covers the lower part of the body and rest upper part. Thus a single piece serves the purposes of lower as well as upper garments and therefore this style is called तरउपरा / tar-upara: (cf. अधदोतिआ above). Wearing of blouse have come in vogue recently.

Orthodox muslims in Mith8ila prefer lungi or pyjama to dhoti and bear cap. But Muslim women usually have the same dress as Hindu woman.

20.20. Ornaments:

Till recent past, women in Mithila of all levels were seen ridden with all sorts of numerous heavy ornaments, not only of gold and silver but also of brass, bronze, stone beads, nuts and shells. The following, among them were most conspicuous and prevalent.

      सूति / su:ti /  or  हँसुली / hãsuli: / - Heavy (about 500 gram) silver bar shaped like better c worn around neck.

	पाति / pa:ti / - Silver ring worn on arms. 
	बाजू / ba:ju: / - Silver arm – band. 
	हेंकल / hẽkal / - Neckless of stranged medals or coins. 
	काडा / ka:ḍa: / - Thick circular anklet. 
	कगना / kagana: /  - Bracelet.
	बाँही / bã:ji: / - Bronze bangles spread on the wrists like a band. 
	बीड / bi:ḍ / or तडका  / taḍaka: / - Flower – shaped ear-pin as large as 4 cm.

Now-a-days usual ornaments are ear-pin, nose-pin, necklace, a few finger-rings, bangles and bracelets.

20.21. Loss of cultural vocabulary due to borrowing and cultural change:

Situated in a remote corner of country and known for conservatism, the land of Mithila is least influenced with alien culture. However loss of cultural vocabulary in Maithili has been taking place mainly in the sphere under the control of government. The Indian system of weights and measure, said to be introduced by the Nand dynasty of hoary past was totally replaced first by English system and then by French or International system. Yet surprisingly, the old Indian system did not die, because, it was not willingly borrowed by the people, but imposed on it by law.

Some words of cultural significance have come through trade and have rendered local words obsolete. For example:

साँकर /sã:kar/ ‘sugar’ is ousted by चीनी /ci:ni/ ‘(sugar)imported from china’.

खाँड / khã:ɖ̥ / ‘sugar candy’ is ousted मिसरी / misari: / '(sugar candy) imported from मित्र or Egypt'.

गूआ / gu:a: / 'betel nut' is ousted by सुपारी / supa:ri: / '(betel nut) imported from the port called सुपारा / supa:ra: /.

Loss of some vocals seem to have occurred under the cultural influence.

बहिनि / bahini / 'sister' in address is ousted by दीदी / di:di: / under the influence of Bengali culture.

Words of wider circulation have liberally been borrowed from the neighboring languages and often they render the local words obsolete. Examples are:

		Local words		Borrowed substitutes

		सोहाँस / sõhã:s /		खीरा / khi:ra: / 'cucumber'
		तौनी / tauni /		चादरि  / ca:dari / 'wrapper' 
		उलोंच / ulõc /		चादरि  / ca:dari / 'bed sheet' 
		सरओं / saraõ / 		कुस्ती  / kusti: / 'wrestling'
		सोहारी / sõha:ri: / 	रोटी  / roŧi: / 'chapter'
		चिकस / cikas / 		आँटा / ã:ŧa: / 'flour'
		धाठि / gha:ŧhi / 		बैसन / besan / 'meal of pulse'. 

Devastation of local cultures in course of globalization is now a global scenario.


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