II Structure of Language


Kashmiri employs a set of fifty-nine consonant and twenty-eight vowel phonemes in word formation. Some of the salient features of Kashmiri phonology are as follows:

1. All consonants except the inherent palatals are palatalized, thereby the number of consonant phonemes goes up to fifty-nine.

2. Of the fifteen vowels, thirteen undergo nasalisation. Thus the number of vowel phonemes reaches twenty-eight. The front i and the central I do not undergo nasalisation.

3. All consonants including the palatalized ones occur in word initial, medial, and final positions.

4. All vowels with the exception of mid-low back vowel exhibit a short vs. long distinction.

5. The voiced plosive and affricate consonants are not aspirated, whereas their voiceless counterparts undergo aspiration.

6. All the vowels do not occur in the word initial or final positions. The central I do not occur word-initially; mid-low כ occurs only word-medially.

7. Gemination is not found in the language.

8. Consonant clusters are found in the word-initial, word-medial and word-final positions. In the word-initial position the first consonant could be a plosive, an affricate, or a fricative and the second consonant would invariably be 'r'. The word-medial clusters are found in large numbers. In the word final position the closing consonant of a cluster would always be a plosive whereas the penultimate member could be a nasal, or a fricative. Two aspirated consonants do not occur in a cluster. A consonant cluster does not allow more than two segments in word initial and final positions. A consonant cluster in the word-medial position may have three members but only two of them will constitute part of a syllable, the third member will be a constituent of the following syllable, e.g. In g∂nzrun 'to count', sombrun 'to gather' the syllable boundaries will be g∂nz|run; somb|run respectively.

9. It has two sets of affricates – alveolar and palatal. The alveolar set does not have a voiced member.

10. It has a set of mid-low and high central vowels, which are not found in other Indo-Aryan languages.

11. Some of the prominent phonological processes involved in the language are :


	a. Vowel raising :
		sath 'seven' + im > sətim 'seventh'
		akh 'one' + is > əkis 'to one'
		par 'read' + in > pərin 'let him/her read'
	b. Vowel lowering :
		 nər 'arm' + i > nari 'arms'
		nə:r 'pitcher' + en > na:ren 'to pitchers'
	c. Centralization :
		 mo:l 'father' + is  > mə:lis  'to the father'
		gol 'melted' + ith > gəlith 'after melting'
		son 'deep' + is > sənis 'in the depth'
		mokur 'dirty mas.sg.' > məkIr 'dirty fem.sg.'
		phoph	'stammerer mas. Sg 	> phəph'. 	'Mas.pl.'
		tor	crossed  mas. sg 	> tər’	Mas. pl.’
		tsol	ran away mas. Sg.	> ts əl’	Mas. Pl.
		mo:l	father 		> m ə:l’   	fathers
		tsok	sour mas. Sg 	> tsok’   	Mas. Pl.

(Note that the centralization of a vowel is accompanied by consonant palatalization in some of the instances given above).


	a. Deaspiration of word-final plosives:
 		drכkh 'vomit' + an 	> drכkan  'to the vomits'
		sath 'seven' + an 	> satan  'to  seven'
	Deaspiration does not occur in instances like:
 		phoph 'stammerer' + is  > phophis  'to the stammerer'
		poph 'paternal aunt' + i  >  pophi 'to aunt'.
	b. Plosives become affricates :
	       The stem final dental, retroflex, and velar plosives become affricates as follows:
		got 'weak mas. Sg.'  		> g əts  'fem. Sg.'
		khot 'rose mas.sg.' 		> kh əts 'fem.sg.'
		tot 'hot mas. Sg.' 		> t əts  'fem sg.'
		k əT 'girl fem. Sg.' 		> kaci 'fem pl.'
		tsoT 'roti fem.sg.' 		> tsoci  'fem pl.'
		tshoT 'short mas. / fem. Sg' 	> tsoci 'fem. pl.'
		g əND 'tied fem. Sg.' 		> ganji 'fem. pl.'
		ts əND 'slap fem. sg.' 	> tsanji  'fem. pl.'
		thok  'tired mas.sg.' 		> th əky  'mas.pl.'
		thok  'tired mas. Sg.' 		>  th əc 'fem sg.'
		hokh 'dried mas. Sg.' 		> hoch 'fem. sg.'
	c. Lateral becomes an affricate:
		tsol 'ran away mas. Sg.' > ts əj 'fem sg.'
		gol 'melted mas. Sg.' 	   > g əj 'fem. sg.'
		mo:l 'father' 	   > m ə:j 'mother'
	d.Voiced dental plosive becomes a fricative:
		ru:d 'stayed mas. Sg.'  > ru:z 'fem sg.'
		ru:d’  'stayed mas. Pl.' > ro:zI 'fem. pl.'
		thod 'tall mas. Sg.' 	 > th əz 'fem. sg.'
		th əd 'tall mas. Pl.' 	 > thazI 'fem. pl.'
	e.Voiced  velar plosive becomes a retroflex plosive:
		lang 'branch mas. Sg.' > l ənD 'dimunitive form fem. sg.'
		long 'lame mas. Sg.'    > l ənD 'fem sg.'

Vowel deletion :

	a). A stem final vowel is deleted when the following suffix begins with a vowel.

		kalI  	'head'  + as 		>	kalas	Acc./Dat
		tsolI	'Make-shift oven'  + an   	>	tsolan	Acc./Dat.
		go:li	'Bullets' + an              	>	go:len	Acc./Dat
		kachi	'Underwear'  + as       		>	Kachas	Acc./Dat
	b) In a disyllabic stem, the vowel of the final syllable is deleted before a vowel (initial) suffix.

		ga:TIj	'Wise fem. Sg'.          		>	ga:Tji	fem. pl.
		cobIr	'Pretty lass fem.sg.'  		>	cobri	fem.pl.
		kh ə:tir`     'Hospitality'	    	>	kh ə:tras	Dat.
		gobur	'Son'	               		>	gobris	Acc./Dat.

Segment Insertion :

	a.A verb stem ending in a front vowel allows insertion of y, w or m as follows :
		ni 'take II sg. fut' 	> niyiv 'take II pl. fut.'
		ce 'drink II sg.fut' 	> ceyiv 'drink II pl. fut.'
		di 'give II sg. fut.' 	> diyiv 'give II pl. fut.'
		ce 'drink II sg. fut.' 	> cemav 'will drink Ist pl. fut.'
		di 'give II sg. fut.' 	> dimav 'give Ist pl. fut.'
		ni 'take II sg. fut.' 	> nimav 'take Ist pl. fut.'

Syllable Structure:

Kashmiri allows the following syllable structures :

		V – a: 'yes'
		VC – akh 'one'
		CV – ce 'drink', khe 'eat' bI 'I'
		CCV > tre 'three'
		CVC > me:z 'table', bo:r 'load'
		CCVC > krakh 'shriek', shra:kh 'sword' tra:m 'bald / copper'
		CVCC > tsomb 'pierced' grand 'counting' kranz 'skeleton'

In multisyllabic words like gənzrun, gənzra:vum 'to count' sombrun, sombra:vun 'to gather' the medial consonant clusters are broken as follows :

		g ənz/run / ra:/vun
		somb/run / ra:/vun

Thus, multi-segment consonant clusters are broken in a way such that the number of consonants in a cluster within syllable does not exceed two.


Noun Morphology

Noun in Kashmiri has an inherent gender, masculine or feminine, that determines which particular inflectional affixes will go with it.

	Examples –
		Sg. 	   Pl.
		də:r     	'window' 	 	> da:ri    	fem.
		Lab       	'Wall'   	  	> lab I	fem
		gər	'watch / clock' 	> gari	fem
		ku :r	'girl'		> ko :ri	fem
		mə:j	'mother'	 	– ma:ji	fem.
		necuv,  	'son'		> neciv’	mas
		mo:l 	'father' 		> mə:l’	mas.
		bo:y 	'brother' 		> bə:y	mas
		beni	'sister'	 	> beni	fem.
		palav	'clothes' 		> palav	mas.
		sawa:l 	'question'		> sawa:l	mas
		hu:n 	'dog' 		> hu:ny	mas
		hu:n	'bitch'		> ho:ni	fem
		sIh	'Tiger'	 	>sIh	mas
		si :min 	'Tigress'	 	>si:mni	fem
		khor	'urchin'	 	> khər’	mas
		khər	'urchin'	 	> khari	fem.
		Khu: r	'heel'		> Kho:ri	fem.
		animate 					inanimate
	     ┌────────┴────────┐                                             ┌───────┴───────┐
	human		non-human		     mass		    count

		ləDkI 	'boy' sg./pl		sha:l  	'jackal' mas.sg./pl.
		ku:r 	'girl'sg./		shə:j 	'jackal' fem.sg.
		ko:ri 	'girl' pl.		sha:ji 	'jackal' fem. pl.
		ru:n  	'husband'sg.	bro:r  	'cat' mas Sg.
		rI:n’  	'husband' pl.	brə:r’   	'cat' mas pl.
		zana:n 	'wife' 'woman' sg.	brə:r  	'cat' fem.sg.
		zana:ni 	'wife' pl.		bra:ri 	'cat' fem.pl.

Case –

Kashmiri is a split ergative language. The case is indicated as follows:

	1.ləDkI 'boy/ boys'

		Nom./Abs. 	:	ləDkI-ϕ
		Ergative  		:	ləDk-an (Sg.)
					ləDk-av (pl.)
		Dative 		:	ləDk- as (Sg.)
					ləDk –an (pl.)
		Possessive 	:	ləDkI – sund (Sg.)
					ləDkan – hund (pl.)
		Ablative 		:	ləDk-as + pp (Sg.)
					ləDk-av+pp (pl.)

	2. ku:r > ko:ri 'girl > girls'

		Nom./Abs. 	:  	ku:r- ϕ sg.
					ko:ri- ϕ pl.
		Ergative 		: 	ko:r-i (sg.)
					Koiri "girl" + av=ko:r’av
		Dative 		: 	ko:r – i (sg.)
					Kor’ –an (pl.)
		Possessive 	:	ko:ri- hund (sg.)
					ko:ren –hund (sg.)
		Ablative 		:	ko:r-i+p.p. sg.
					ko:r’-av+p.p. Pl.ə fem.

Pronouns – First, Second and Third Person Pronouns

CasePersonDeixisGender and number
Remote 1huhumhumI
Remote 2sutimכstimI
Remote 1homishumanhomishuman
Remote 2təmistimantəmistiman
Remote 1homihumavhomihumav
Remote 2tamitimavtamitimav
Remote 1hom’humavhomihumav
Remote 2təm’timavtamitimav

Modifier PersonDeixisComplement Gender and number
3sgRemote 1hom’sundhom’sInd’hom’sInzHom’sInzI
3plRemote 1huhundhuhInd’huhInzhuhInzI
3sgRemote 2təm’sundtəm’sInd’təm’sInztəm’sInzI
3plRemote 2tihundtihInd’tihInztihInzI

Ist Person :
			Sg. 			Pl.
	Nom/Abs. 		bI			əs’
	Erg		me			asi
	possessive 	myo:n			so:n
	ablative 		mya:n-i			sa:n-i
IInd Person
	Non./ Abs.		tsI			toh’
	Erg./Dat.		tse			tכhi
	possessive 	co:n			tuhund
	Ablative 		ca:n-i			tuhInd-i

3rd Person :
	Nom./Abs.		Sg.			Pl.
		Prox.	yonder  distal	Prox.		yonder	distal
 	 Mas :	yi	hu	su	yim		hum	tim
  	 Fem :	yi	hu	su	yimIhumI		timI

Ergative :
  	Mas :	yem’	hom’	təm’ 	yimav 	humav	timav
  	Fem :	yemi	homi 	tami	yimav	humav	timav

Dative :
	Mas /fem	yemis	homis	təmis	yiman		human	timan

Ablative :
	Sg.				Pl.
	yem’sInd-i			yimanhInd-i / yihInd-i
	Hom’sInd-i			humanhInd-i / huhInd-i
	təm’sInd-i			timanhInd-i / tihInd-i

Note – Kashmiri provides a series of ablative and dative-marking postpositions like : peThI 'from' nishi 'from near', sI:t’ 'with', sa:n 'with' etc. and peTh 'on', k’ut 'for', manz 'in', sa:n 'with' etc.

Emphatic pronouns –

Emphatic forms of pronouns are formed by adding emphatic particle-iy to pronouns in all cases. When this particle is added as a suffix to the pronoun, certain phonological changes take place. The emphatic forms in nominative are shown in table .


Sg	Pl
Sg	Pl
bIy	əsiy
bIy	əsiy
tsIy	tohiy
tsIy	tohiy
yihoy	yimay
yihə:y	yimay
Remote 1
hohay	humay
hכhə:y	humay
Remote 2
suy	timay
sכy	timay

Demonstrative pronouns -

Demonstrative pronouns have the same forms as the personal third person pronouns. There are, however, some additional demonstrative pronouns such as ti 'that (out of sight)', which is used with inanimate nouns. Its dative form is that the demonstrative pronouns are used also as demonstrative adjectives.

Relative pronoun –

The relative pronoun yus 'who, which, that' is inflected for number, gender and case. Forms are shown in table .


Sg		pl
Sg		pl
Yus		yim
yכs		yimI
yemis		yiman
yemis		yiman
yemi		yimav
yemi		yimav
Yem’		yimav
yemi		yimav
Yem’sund	yihund
yem’sInz	yehnzI

Reflexive and reciprocal pronouns

The main reflexive in Kashmiri is pa:n 'self'. The compound form panun pa:n is comparable to Hindi apne a:p. The case forms of pa:n are : pa:n (nom), pa:nas (dat), pa:nI (abl), pa:nan (erg). In possessive structures, the reflexive form panun 'self' is used in place of personal possessive pronouns. The possessive panun agrees with the following noun in number and gender as shown in below table. Examples: panun kul 'own tree', panIn kul 'own trees', panIn’ kəmi:z 'own shirt', panIni kəmi:zI 'own shirts'. Genitive forms are used in idiomatic contexts only. The emphatic forms are pə:n’ pa:nI 'only by self' and pa:nay 'self'.


Sg		pl
Sg		pl
panun		panIn’
panIn’		panIn’
panInis		panIn’an
panIni		panIn’an
panIni		panIn’av
panIni		panIn’av
panIn’		panIn’av
panIni		panIn’av
panIn’sund	panIn’sInd’
panIn’sInz	panIn’sInzI

The reciprocal form is akh əkis ‘to one another’. It is a compound with the cardinal akh ‘one’ and its dative case form əkis. The distributive form is pa:nIvə:n 'mutual'. The case forms of the reciprocal are as follows: dative akh əkis; genitive akh ək’sund 9msg), akh ək’sInd’ (mpl), akh ək’sInzI (fpl). There is no nominative/absolutive form of the reciprocal and the dative form is used where nominative/ absolutive is required.

Examples :

	1. lədkav lo:y akh əkis
	boys-erg beat-pst one another
	'The boys beat each other'.

	2. əs’ chi akh ək’sund garI gatsha:n
	We are each other home go-pres
	'We visit each other’s homes.'

Interrogative pronouns –

There are two main interrogative forms: kus 'who' and k’a: 'what', the case forms of which are shown in table.


Sg		pl
Sg		pl
kus		Kam
kכs		kamI
kəmis/kas	kIman
kəmis/kas	kIman
kami		kImav
kami		kImav
kəm’		kImav
kami		kImav
kəm’sund	kəm’sInd’
kəm’sInz	kəm’sInzI
kIman hund	kImanhInd’
kIman hInz	kIman hInzI
kuhund		kIhInd’
kIhInz		kIhInzI
k’a:		k’a:
k’a:		k’a:
kath		kIman
kath		kIman
kami		kImav
kami		kImav
kam’uk		Kamik’
kamic:		kamic:i

Other question words also begin with the question element k’a:. These include adverbs, qualifiers and interrogative adjectives. The question words are kus h’uv ‘which one’, kar ‘when’, k’a:zi ‘why’, kati ‘where’, kap:r’ ‘which direction’, kithI kIn ‘ how, which manner’, ko:ta:h ‘how much’ etc. Some of these have alternative forms as well. Their forms along with related demonstrative forms are given in the below table

Pronominal Derivates

(within sight)
(out of sight)
Manner kithI kIn’yithI kIn’huthI kIn’tithI kIn’

	1.yeten cha rab
	here (prox) is mud
	'There is mud over here'
	2.hoten chanI rab
	there(remote-I) is-neg mud
	'There is no mud over there'.

	3.taten chunI po:n’
	there(remote-II) is-neg water
	'There is no water over there.'		   		     

Adjective –

The adjective in Kashmiri agrees in number and gender with the head noun it qualifies e.g.

	sg. 		pl. 	│	sg. 		pl. 
	vozul 		vozIl'	│	vozij		vozji	'red'
	kruhun	krIhIn’ 	krIhIn~	│	krehn~i	'black'
	thod		thəd’	│	thəz		thazI	'tall'
	mokur		məkIr’	│	məkIr		məkri	'dirty'
	ja:n		ja:n	│	ja:n		ja:n	'good'

There are two types of adjectives, a. base adjectives and b. derived adjectives. Derived adjectives are those formed from nominal, verbal and other bases by adding certain suffixes. Examples are shown in table drawn below.

Adjectives can be further divided into two classes: those which are inflected for number, gender and case of the noun they modify and those which are not. To illustrate the first category of adjectives, forms of n’u:l ‘blue’ are given in the table


BaseSuffixDerived form
mal 'dirt'I mə:lI 'dirty'
gula:b 'rose'C’gulə:b 'pink'
də:r 'beard'alda:r’al 'bearded'
mazI 'taste'da:rmazIda:r 'tasty'
madad 'help'ga:rmadadga:r 'helpful'
kI:mat 'price' i:kImti: 'expensive'

For example: n’u:l ko:Th 'blue cost', ni:l’ ko:Th 'blue coasts', ni:j kəmi:z 'blue shirt', ni:ji kəmi:zI 'blue shirts'. Other adjectives in this category are: vכzul 'red', kruhun 'black', ga:Tul 'wise', tshoT 'short', dwarf’, z’u:th 'tall'. Adjectives like sa:ph 'clean', mə:lI 'dirty', ja:n 'good', da:na: 'wise', sabIz 'green', saphe:d 'white' belong to the second category. For example: sa:ph kamrI 'cleam room', sa:ph kamrI 'clean room', sa:ph palav 'clean cloths', sa:ph dəj 'clean handkerchief', sa:ph daji 'clean handkerchiefs'.

Adjectives can be either qualitative or quantitative. The former constitutes a large class. All modifiers of quality like different colours (vכzul 'red' , n’u:l 'blue' , saphe:d 'white', etc.), personal qualities (ča:la:kh 'clever', da:na: 'wise', buzdil 'coward', etc.), physical qualities (thod 'tall', tshoT 'short', v’oTh 'fat', zə:v’ul 'slim', etc.), qualities of taste (modur 'sweet', tsok 'sour' , t’oth 'bitter', etc.) fall under this category.


Kashmiri verb–morphology is comparatively complex. It reflects number, gender, person and tense:


1.shongun 'to sleep' (intransitive)

Simple past, Ist Per.
		      	Sg.		Pl.
		mas        	shõgus		shõg’
		fem       	shõjis		shõji
Participle/Ist, I1nd, 3rd Per.
Participle Suffiexs

		mas  shõgmut		shõgmit’
		fem   shõjmIts		shõjimatsI
Simple Future, Ist Per.
		mas/fem   shõgI		shõgav

Completive, I, II,  3rd Per.

		mas/fem  shõgith		shõgith

Simple past, IInd per.

		Mas.      shõgukh		shõg’vI
		fem.       shõjikh		shõjivI

Simple future,IInd per.

		mas/fem   shõgakh		shõgiv

Simple past 3rd per.

		mas.              shõg		shõg’
		fem.               shõj		shoji

Simple future, 3rd per.

		mas./fem.   Shõgi		shõgan

Verb Morphology


Nominative n’ul ni:l’ ni:j ni:ji
Dative ni:lis ni:len ni:ji ni:jan
Ablative ni:li ni:l’av ni:ji ni:jav
Ergative ni:l’ ni:l’av ni:ji ni:jav


Cardinals Ordinals
akh 'one' əkim 'first'
zI 'two' Doyim 'second'
tre 'three' treyim 'third'
tso:r 'four' tsu:rim 'forth'
pə:tsh 'five' pĨ:tsim 'fifth'

Causative verbs :

Causative verbs are formed from intransitive, transitive and ditransitive verbs by a productive process of suffixation. Two causative suffixes, -a:v/Ina:v (called the first causative suffix) and Ina:vIna:v (called the second causative suffix) are added before the infinitive marker –un. All vowel-final roots and a few consonant-final verb stems take either of the two suffixes. The second causative suffix Ima:vIna:v is added to all consonant-final verb stems directly; it is added after the first causal suffixes in vowel-final stems. Examples are given in the table below. The process of caustivization results in certain morphophonemic changes.

There are some verbs which have dual valency. They can be used either transitively or intransitively. Sometimes, the direct object can be dropped to render their corresponding intransitive usage. These verbs are: parun 'read', study (in school etc.)’, sõ:cun 'to think', za:nun 'to understand'.


Stem Causative I Causative II
khe 'eat' kh’a:v kh’a:vIna:v/kh’a:vIna:vIna:v
he 'buy' h’a:v h’a:vIna:v/h’a:v/h’a:vIna:vIna:v
di 'give' d’a:v d’a:vIna:v/d’a:vIna:vIna:v
ni 'take' n’a:v n’a:vIna:v/d’a:vIna:vIna:v
mItsar 'open' mItsIra:v mItsIra:vIna:v
a:par 'feed' a:pra:v a:pIra:vIna:v
par 'read' parIna:v parIna:vIna:v

Present Auxiliary 'Be'

Sg	Pl
Sg	Pl
chus	chi
chas	cha
chukh	chiv
chakh	chavI
chu	chi
cha	cha
chu	chi
cha	cha
chus	chiy
chay	chay
chuvI	chivI
chavI	chavI

anun ‘to bring’ transitive

	Sg.	Pl.	Sg.	Pl.	Sg.	Pl.
	on	ən’	onuth	onvI	on	on

Interrogative Pronoun –

	kus > who mas. sg. 
	kכs > who fem. sg.		kus chu?
	kam > who mas. pl. 		Who is (it) 
	kəm’ – who mas. sg.erg.	kəm’ lob ?
	kami – who fem sg.erg. 	Who (ergative )found it?
	kImav – who pl. erg.			
	kar > when
	k’a:zi > why
	kati > where  (stative)
	kot > where (non-stative)
	k’a:> what 
	kəmis > whom
	kapə:r’ > which way

Relative Pronoun –

Yus>whoyimy’כs > whoyimI
Adverb –
Place :
		yeti 'here' (stative)
		yot 'here' (non-stative )
		hoti (Stative)
		hot (non-stative )
		tati 'there' (stative)
		tot 'there' (non-stative)
Time :
		az – 'today'
		ə: d’ 'some time back' 
		teli 'then'
		vכn’ 'now'
		vun’  'just now'
		ra: th  'yesterday'
		paga:h 'tomorrow'
		utrI 'day before  yesterday'
		kə:lketh 'day  after  tomorrow'
		yuhus  'this year'
		parus  'last  year'
Manner :
		va :rIva : rI 	'slowly'
		zo:rI zo:rI 		'fast'
		dava:n dava:n 	'running'
		khakhri		'dragging'
		pəth’ri		'on the surface'
		te:z		'fast'
		lot/lכti		'slow'


Kashmiri is a verb-second language which means that the verb or auxiliary moves to the second position i.e. it occurs after the subject in a sentence. Some examples –

	1. 	rame:sh		a:v		ra:th
   		Ramesh 		come pst.		yesterday
   		Ramesh		came 		yesterday
	2. 	rame:sh		yiyi		pagah
    		Ramesh 		come fut.		tomorrow
    		Ramesh		will come		tomorrow.
	3. 	su		gatshi		garI.
    		He 		go fut.		home
    		He 		will go 		home.

Contrast these with the following examples :

	4.  	rame:sh	chu	nəv	kita:b	le:kha:n
     		Ramesh 	is 	new 	book	writing.
     		Ramesh  is writing a new book.

	5.  	su 	o:s	suni:ta:yi	tse:r	ta:n’	pra:ra:n
     		He	was 	Sunita for 	till 	late 	waiting.
     		He was waiting for Sunita  till late.

	6.  	təm’	a:si	ciTh’	li:chmIts
     		He erg. 	willbe 	letter	written.
     		He may have written a / the letter.

The 4-6 exemplify that the auxiliary has moved to sentence second position while the main verb occurs at the sentence final position.

In SVO languages auxiliary and the verb occur together after the subject NP.

Negation :

Addition of nI ‘not’ after the auxiliary in 1-6 above will enable us to obtain negative sentences. e.g.

	1a.	rame:sh 	a:v	nI	ra:th
     		Ramesh came not yesterday
         		Ramesh didnot come 	yesterday
	6a.	təm’	a:si	nI	ciTh’	li:chmIts
          		He erg. will be not letter written	
           		He maynot have written a/the letter.

Questions :

In yes/no questions the suffix – a: is added to the verb as follows :

	1. 	su	yiya:		paga:h ?
		He 	come fut. Q	tomorrow
		Will he come tomorrow ?
	2.	bI	nera: 		vכn’ ?
		I 	move fut. Q	now
		May  I leave now ?
	3. 	sכ	a:ya:		ra:th ?
		she 	come pst. Q	yesterday 
		Did she come yesterday ?

Note that kya: 'what' (question word) can be optionally placed at the beginning of the examples 1-3 above which would not alter the semantic import of these sentences. However, it may have pragmatic implications. Employment of a question word shifts the verb to third position in a sentence e.g.

	3a. kya : sכ 	a:ya:	ra:th?
	'What she came on yesterday?'	      
	'Did she  come  yesterday?'

Negation of a question is achieved by adding 'na:' after the verb. The question marker a: suffixed to the verb is shifted and suffixed to the negative marker na 'not'.

Example :
	1a. 	su 	yiyi 	na:	pagah?
		won’t he come tomorrow ?
	2a. 	bI 	ne:rI	na:	vכn’ ?
		won’t I leave now ?
	3b. 	sכ 	a:yi	na:	ra:th ?
		Didn’t she  come  yesterday ?

Compare the following pairs for a summary of the above :

	a. 	su 	yiyi	paga:h
    		He	will come 	tomorrow
	b.	su	yiyi 	nI	paga:h
		He 	will not 	come 	tomorrow
	c. 	su 	yiya:	paga:h ?
		will he	come 	tomorrow ?
	d.	su	yiyi  na:	paga:h ?
		won’t  he	come 	tomorrow.

Since pronominalization is a prominent feature of Kashmiri verb, a question can be formed by using the verb form alone as follows :

	4. 	(tsI)         gatshkha: ?
		(you sg. ) will you go ?
	5. 	(su)    gava : ?
		Did    he go ?
	6. 	(su/sכ)    ne:r’a:
		Will he /she leave ?
	7. 	(bI)        tsala: ?
		May I run  away ?

The employment of personal pronouns in the above instances is optional.

Wh- Questions –

The interrogative pronouns in Kashmiri begin with a k, hence one may call such sentences as K-questions. The interrogative’ pronoun kya 'what', kus 'who', kya:zi 'why', kar 'when' etc. occur after the subject and before the auxiliary or verb as follows :

	1. 	ra:mI		kar	a:v/yiyi
		Ram nom.		when	came/	come+In
		When did Ram come?/
		When will Ram come?
	2.	ra:mas		kar	chu	yun
		Ram dat.	when	aux	to come
		When is Ram supposed to come?
	3.	tsI	kar	yikh/a:kh
		you	when	come+In/came
		When will you come?
		When did you come?
	4.	tse	kar	chuy	yun
		you erg.    when         have         come+In
		when are you supposed to come?
	5.	yi	kus	chu
		this	who	is
		who 	is	this?
	6.	yi	kəm’	von
		this who erg. 	spoke/said
		who	said	this?
	7.	yi	kəmis	chu	d’un
		this     	who dat. 	is     	to give
		Whom is this / it to be given ?  
 	8. 	yeth 	kya:    	chu	karun ?
		this dat. 	what    	aux       	to do
		what is to be done with this ?
	9.	tse 	kya:	su~:cuth...
		you erg.what        	thought
		what have you thought....?

Directives :

A directive can be issued by using the verb-root alone as follows –

	1. 	tsI	tsal
		you sg. 	run away !
	2.	tsI	gatsh
		you sg. 	go !

The addition of IInd person sg. pronominal before the verb is optional .

If the number of addresses is more than one, the verb will reflect the number as follows :

	1. 	toh’		tsəliv
		you pl./hon. 	run away !
	2a. 	toh’ 	            	gətshiv
		you pl/hon. 	go!
	3a.	toh’ 	            	əniv
		you pl./hon. 	bring !

The employment of toh 'you' pl. / hon is optional in the examples given above. Toh’ is also employed as a 2nd person sg. hon. pronominal.

A negative directive is issued by adding the negative marker ma/ma: 'don’t' as follows –

	1b.	(tsI)          	ma:          tsal !
		(you sg.) 	don’t         run away !
	1c. 	(toh’)         ma          	tsəliv !
		(you pl.)   	don’t       	run away !


There are four major types of phrases in Kashmiri:(a) noun phrase, (b) adjective phrase, (c) adverb phrase, and (d) postpositional phrase. The structure of these phrases is described below.

Noun Phrases

A simple noun phrase may consist of a noun, pronoun or a non-finite sentential clause. A complex noun phrase may consist of relative clauses or adverbial clauses. A noun phrase may function as subject, object or indirect object. It also occurs as a complement of a postposition or as a predicate nominal of a copula.

There are no articles in Kashmiri. However, a demonstrative pronoun does at times function as definite article. There is also an indefinite article suffix –a:/-a:h. A noun phrase is modified by an adjective, or a relative clause. Some examples are :

	1.Definite: hu  lədkI 'that boy'
	2.Indefinite: akh lədka:h (one boy-indef) ‘some boy)
	3.Adjective + Noun: nəv kita:b 'new book'
	4.Relative clause + Noun: yus ko:Th tse h’otuth su….
				Rel coat you-erg bought that	
				'the coat which you bought that……'

Adjective phrases

An adjective phrase is part of a noun phrase. The adjective phrase may consist of an adjective itself or may expand as a relative clause:

	1.	yi bəd kita:b
		'this big book'
	2.	hum tre bəd’ me:z
		'those three big tables'
	3.	yכs kita:b tami ən’ s כ 
		rel book she-erg me-dat brought-fsg that-fsg
		'The book which she brought that……'
	Adjectives may be modified by adverbs:
	4.	yi chuseTha: boD kul
		this is very bid tree
		'This is a very big tree.'

Adverbial phrases

Adverbial phrases may consist of simple or derived adverbs, postpositional phrases, or a string of adverbs as exemplified below;

	1.	shur chu te:z do:ra:n
		child is fast run-pres ptcpl
     	      	'The child runs very fast.'	
	2.	su chu seTha: zo:rI kathI kara:n
		he is very loud loud talk make-pres ptcpl
		'He talks very loudly'.	

Postpositional phrases

A postpositional phrase consists of a noun phrase followed by a postposition. Postpositions can be divided into three types: postpositions that require a dative case in their noun phrase, postpositions that require an ablative case, and those that require no case. Postpositional phrases usually function as adverbs. Example:

	1.	kita:b cha me:zas peTh
		book is table-dat on
		'The book is on the table.'
	2.	tavliya: cha ba:lT i:nas maňz
		towel is bucket-dat in
		'The towel is in the bucket.'
	3.	me ən’ nəv’ palav shuren kith’
		I brought new clothes children-dat for
		'I brought new clothes for children.'
	4.	su a:v gari peThI
		he came home-abl from
		'He came from his home.'

It is worth noting here that certain postpositions such as –nay, var:y, badlI, ‘without/instead’ modify verbs and infinitives;

	5.	su chu sra:n karInay daphtar gatsha:n
		he is bath d-without office go-pres ptcpl
		'He goes to the office without taking his bath.'
	6.	su a:v va:pas ciTh’ ha:vInay
		he came back letter show-without
		'He came back without showing the letter.'

Sentence types

This section describes simple, complex and compound sentence types. Major simple sentence types are: declarative, imperative and interrogative. Complex constructions involve subordinate clause(s). The formation of compound sentence is only through coordination.

Coordination –

Two or more simple sentences can be joined by employing the conjunctives as follows :

	1. bo:TI	gav	dili	tI	biTI	gəyi	jom
	Bota(mas) went Delhi and Bita (fem) went (fem.sg.) Jammu.
	Bota went to Delhi and Bita went to Jammu.
	2. təmis	və:ts	ciTh	tI	su	dra:v
	he dat.         reached fem. sg.	letter  and 	he 	left 3rd sg. 
	He received the letter and he left.
	3. biTas	korun	do:d	tI	sכ	niyakh	haspata:l
	bita fem. Dat. do pst      ill     and       she        taken  fem. sg. hospital.
	Bita fell ill and  she was  taken to the hospital.
	4. təmis	o:s	yun	magar	su	p’av	bema:r
	he dat. was    to come  but      he         fell         ill
	He had to come  but he fell ill.

Sentence coordination is marked mainly by the morphemes tI 'and' and magar 'but':

		1. bI go:s dili tI m’o:n do:s gav jom
		I went Delhi and my friend went Jammu
		'I went to Delhi and my friend went to Jammu.'

		2. sohnI gav tuhund garI magar toh’ ə:sivI nI gari
		Sohan went your home but you were not home-abl
		'Sohan went to your home but you were not at home.'

The conjunction maker tI 'and' can optionally be followed by another morpheme, ti 'also':

		3. aslam gatshi paga:h dili tI mohnI ti gatshi
		Aslam go-fut tomorrow Delhi and Mohan also go-fut
		'Aslam will go to Delhi tomorrow and Mohan will also go.'

The alternative conjunction morphemes ya:……….ya: ‘either……or’ are used as in:

		4. ya: peyi: az ru:d ya: peyi az shi:n
		or fall-fut today rain or fall-fut today snow
		'Either it rains today or it will snow.'

Note that the word order of the constituent sentences undergoes a change. The verb is placed immediately after the coordinators. Compare(4) with the source sentences

       	4(a)	az peyi ru:d		4(b)	az peyi shi:n
		'It will rain today.'			'It will snow today.'

tI ‘and’ is used to conjoin two or more sentences undergoes a change. The verb is placed immediately after the coordinators. Compare (4) with the source sentences

		5. aslam chu kita:b para:n tI nazi:r chu iTh’ le:kha:n
		Aslam is book reading and Nazir is letter writing
		'Aslam is reading book and Nazir is writing a letter.'
		6. ra:jI cha g’ava:n, uma: cha natsa:n tI usha: cha asa:n
		Raja is singing Uma is dancing and Usha is laughing
		'Raja is singing, Uma is dancing, and Usha is laughing.'

The misplacement of coordination conjunction morpheme tI results is ungrammatical sentences :

      		5(a).	*tI aslam chu kita:b para:n nazi:r chu iTh’ le:kha:n

      		6(a).	* ra:jI cha g’ava:n tI uma: cha natsa:n usha: cha asa:n

Coordination does not merely involve juxtaposition of two or more independent sentences. There are various syntactic and semantic constraints on the construction of coordinate structures. In general, coordinate sentences express contrast, cumulative effect, cause and effect, sequential action, etc. The order of the conjuncts is interchangeable if a coordinate sentence expresses contrast or cumulative effect. Consider the following examples of various types of coordinate structures.

          		7(a).  yi lədkI chu da:na: tIhu lədkI chu be:kIl
		 this boy is intelligent and that boy is stupid
		'this boy is intelligent and that boy is stupid.'

        	  	b). hu lədkI chu be:kIl tIyi lədkI chu da:na:
		'That boy is stupid and this boy is intelligent.'

        		8 (a). su chu varzish kara:n tI sə:ras gatsha:n
		he is exercise do-pres and walk-dat go-pres
		'He exercises and goes for a walk.'
             		b). su chu sə:ras gatsha:n tI varzish kara:n

     		9 (a) tsu:ras ləj gu:l’ tI su gav zakhmI
		thief struck bullet and he was injured
		'The thief was hit by a bullet and he was injured.'

		(b). tsu:r gav zakhmI tI təmis ləj gu:l’
		'The thief was injured and he was hit by a bullet.'

     		10(a).toh’ vuchiv ja:n ku:r tI kəriv ne:thIr’
		you see-fut good girl and do marriage
		'You find a good girl and get married.'

		(b) toh’ kəriv ne:thIr tI vuchiv ja:n ku:r
		'You get married and find a good girl.'

Notice that (7) and (8) permit the reverse order, but (9) and (10) do not. The coordinate sentences (9a) and (10a) can be paraphrased to indicate that they are related with the subordination process as well.

		9(b). tsu:r gav gu:l’ lagnI sI:t’ zakhmI
	    	thief was bullet hit-inf-abl with injured
	   	 'The thief was injured by a bullet.'

		10(b)  ja:n ku:r vchith kəriv toh’ ne:thIr
	    	good girl find-past ptcpl do you marriage
	    	'Please find a good girl and get marriage.'

In the above sentences the cause and effect, sequential action and contingency are expressed without using the conjunction morphemes. The paraphrases indicate that the first conjuncts of sentences represent adverbial complements of the second conjects.

The conjunction morpheme tI sometimes fulfils the function of a disjunction as well. (7) can be paragraphed by using the conjunction morpheme magar 'but' as in :

		7( c).  yi lDkI chu ga:Tul magar chu lDkI chu be:kIl
	  	'This boy is intelligent by that boy is stupid.'

Besides conjoining sentences, the coordinating conjunction marker tI can be used to coordinate nouns (subjects, direct and indirect objects), verbs, adjectives and adverbs. The coordination of two noun phrases yields a plural noun phrase and therefore the verb agreement is affected. In case of coordinate subjects, the verb takes a masculine plural concord, whereas in case of coordinate objects, the verb agrees with the nearest object.

		11 (a). me het’ tsu:Th’ tI tse:rI
		   I-erg bought-mpl apples-m and apricots-f
		   'I bought apples and apricots.'

	   	 (b). me hetsI tse:rI tI tsũ:Th’
		   I-erg bought-fpl apricots and apples
		  'I bought apricots and apples.'

The coordinator magar ‘but’ is placed in the beginning of the second conjunct :

		12. ra:jI cha muDI sכ cha seTha: da:na:
		Raja is illiterate, but she is very wise
		'Raja is illiterate, but she is very wise.'

'But' coordination usually is used with adjectives and adverbials:

		13. shi:lI cha muDI magar ga:TIj ku:r
		Shiela is illiterate but wise girl
		'Shiela is illiterate but wise girl.'  				

Subordination –

zi/ ki 'that' occurs medially between the finite and the subordinate clauses, however, its employment is optional.

	1.	me 	cha 	khabar       (zi/ki)  	tsI 	a:kk 	ra:th
		I erg.     is       knowledge (that )        you      came  yesterday.
		I know that you came yesterday.
	2. 	təmis       o:s         khaya:l     (zi/ki)     kita:b         rə:v
		He  dat.   was        thought     (that)      book          lost.
		He believed that the book was lost.
	3. 	tse          ba:si:	 (zi/ki)   bI 	chus	apz’o:r
		you erg. seem    (that)    I         am          liar.
		It will seem to you that I am a liar.

The interrogative pronoun employed in subordination process begins with a y-

                        'who/ which'
		yus	yas	yim	yimI
		sg. mas.	fem./sg.	mas.pl. 	fem. pl.

	1. 	yus	ləDkI	ro:vmut	o:s,	su	lobukh	ə:d’
		which 	boy 	lost  	was, 	he 	found  	sometime back.
		The boy who was  lost, (he) has been  found  some time back.
	2. 	yכs	ku:r	rə:vmIts	ə:s, 	sכ	ləbIkh	ə:d’
		which 	girl	lost	was 	she 	found	some time back.
		The girl who was lost, (she) has been  found  some time back.
	3. 	yim       	kul’       	tsəT’mit’   chi, 	timan 	karav	khəri:da:r
 		Which    	trees         cut           	are,   	for those   will do       buyer.
   		For the  trees that have been felled,  a buyer will be found.
	4. 	yimI      kכlI 	hochi,	timan        ditikh	 kul’
  		which   streams     	dried up,   	to  those   were given  trees. 
		the  streams which  dried  up, trees have been planted there.


There are two categories of passive constructions: (i) personal passive and (ii) capabilitive passive. The personal passive is marked by the auxiliary yun and the ablative form of the infinitive of the main verb. The passive subject of the simple transitive is marked nominative. Certain exceptional verbs such as la:yun 'to beat', pra:run 'to wait' that inherently mark their objects in the dative in the active version, retain the dative case on the passive subjects. The passive nominative subject, but not the dative one, agrees with yun. The former subject is marked genitive followed by the ablative suffix and the postposition zəriyi / dəs’ 'by'. The postpositional phrase is often deleted. For exaples :

	1(a). 	su chu/os:/a:si səli:mas parIna:va:n
		he is/was/will be Salim-dat teaching
		'He is/was/will be teaching Salim.'

 	  (b).	səli:m chu yiva:n parIna:vnI
		Salim is come-pass teach
		'Salim is being tauht.'	

	2(a).	mohan lo:y səli:mas lo:ri sI:t’
		Mohan-erg beat Salim-dat stick-abl with
		'Mohan beat Salim with a stick.'

  	 (b).	səli:mas a:v la:ynI lo:ri sI:t’ mohnIni zəriyi
		Salim-dat come-pas beat stick-abl with
		'Salim was beaten by Mohan with a stick.'

In the double transitive construction, the indirect object retains its dative case and the nominative noun phrase (i.e. the former direct object) controls the agreement.

	3(a).	 mohnan li:ch ra:da:yi cith
	 	Mohan-erg wrote Radha-dat letter
		'Mohan wrote a letter to Radha.'

	 (b)	ra:da:yi a:yi cith’ le:khnI
		Radha-dat pass letter write
		'A letter was written to Radha.'

The capabilitive passive, impersonal in nature, usually requires a negative or an interrogative context. The capabilitive passive usually retains the postpositional agent. The agent is absent in certain constructions noted below.

	4.	təm’ hec nI kath kərith
		he-erg could neg talk do-past ptcpl
		'He could not talk.'

	5.    	su h’ok nI pəkith
		he could neg walk-past ptcpl
		'He was not able to walk.'


Declarative sentences are negated by means of the particle nI, which is added to the finite verb after the agreement and pronominal suffixes :

	1.	bi chus nI akhba:r para:n
		I am neg newspaper read-pres
		'I don’t read the newspaper.'

Constituents are also negated by means of suffixes such as nay, ros, bagə:r, varə:y, all meaning 'without'. The suffix nay follows the verb stem, while the others require the ablative infinitive form of the verb. Alternatively, they may be added directly to the nominal.

	2.	mohnI gav soku:l kita:bav ros/bagə:r/varə:y
		Mohan went school books-abl without
		'Mohan went to school without this books.'

Indefinite quantifiers such as kã:h 'someone', kẽh 'something', zã:h 'ever'. Kun 'somewhere' are negated by the normal sentential negation. The indefinite quantifiers in this context are usually marked by empathic particles.

	3.	təmis sI:th’ kari nI kã:h kath
		he-dat with do-fut neg someone talk
		'no one will talk to him.'

	4.	su kari nI do:stan hIndi khə:trI kẽh
		he do-fut neg friends-dat gen for something
		'He will not do anything for his friends.'

	5.	təm’ ha nI zã:h zindgi: manz ith’ li:mIts
		he-erg is neg ever life-dat in letter write-past ptcpl
		'He has never written a letter in his life.'

	6.	shi:lI gəyi nI kun ra:th
		Shiela went neg anywhere yesterday
		'Shiela went nowhere yesterday.'


Pronominalization includes reflexive, reciprocal, pronominal and deletion strategies.


The main reflexive pronoun is pa:n. When followed by a postposition, this takes the oblique from pə:n’. The emphatic pronoun is pa:nI. The empathic suffix-ay-may be added to it for extra emphasis. The result is pa:nay. The reduplicated form pə:n’ pa:nI also occurs as an empathic reflexive. The possessive reflexive form is panun. The reflexive pa:n is usually anteceded by a subject. The reflexive itself may be a direct, indirect object or a postpositional phrase. Examples :-

	1.	mohnan vuch panun pa:n ə:nas manz
		Mohan-erg saw self’s body mirror-dat in
		'Mohan saw himself in the mirror.'

	2.	mohnan von aslamas pa:nas mutalakh
		Mohan-erg told Aslam-dat self-dat about
		'Mohan told Aslam about himself.'

	3.	vəki:las chu pa:nas peTh baro:sI
		advocate has refl-dat on confidence
		'The advocate has confidence in himself.'

	4.	pa:nas kor aslaman a:ra:m
		refl-dat did Aslam-erg rest
		'Aslam rested himself.'

Reflexivization may also be controlled by dative subjects:

	5.	aslamas chu panun pa:n pasand
		Aslam-dat has self like
		'Aslam likes himself.'

The scope of reflexivity is usually restricted to the clause in which it is used:

	6.	mohnan von zi su/pa:nI va:ti vakhtas peTh
		Mohan said that he/refl reach-fut time-dat at
		'Mohan asked when his wife would come.'

	7.	mohnan prutsh ki təm’sInz/panIn’ zana:n kar yiyi
		Mohan-erg asked that his refl wife when come-fut
		'Mohan asked when his wife would come.'

Examples (6) and (7) show that reflexivization does not go down into subordinate clauses. Notice that reflexivization is possible within a non-finite and a small clause:

	8.	aslaman von səli:mas pa:nas kitshc a:y anInI khə:trI
		Aslam-erg told Salim-dat self-dat for tea bring-abl for
	      	'Aslam told Salim to bring tea for himself.' 	

	9.	aslam chu [mohnas panun dushan] ma:na:n
		Aslam is Mohan-dat refl enemy considering			
      		'Aslam considers Mohan, his enemy.'

Example (8) is ambiguous because the reflexive pronoun is coreferential with the subject of the main as well as with the subject of the subordinate clause.

In possessive structures, the reflexive form panun ‘self’ is used in place of possessive pronouns. It agrees with the following head noun phrase in number and gender. Following are its forms in nominative case: panun (msg), panin (mpl), panIn (fsg), panIni (fpl). For example,

	10.	bI chus panun/m’o:n kamrI sa:ph kara:n
	   	I-m am refl/my room clean d-pres
	    	'I am cleaning my room.' 


The primary way of expressing the reciprocal relationship is by means of an expression akh əkis 'to one another', which is a combination of cardinal akh 'one' and its dative case form (akh+is = əkis). There is no nominative form of the reciprocal and the dative form is used in its place. The reciprocal forms can occur only within a clause, which may be simple or non-finite.

	1.	timav kor akh əkis seTha: madath
		they-erg did one another-dat very help
		'They helped each other very much.'

Reciprocals may be used as a direct object, indirect object, pospositional or possessive phrases :

	2.	tim samIkh’ akh əkis va:riya:hi kə:l
		they-erg met one another-dat lot abl period of time
		'They met each other after a lot of time.'

	3.	timav dit’ akh əkisc o:b
		they –erg gave one another beating
		'They thrashed each other.'

	4.	tim chi akh əkis peTh takhsi:r khara:n
		they are one another-dat on blame placing
		'They accuse/blame each other.'

	5.	əs’ chinI akh ək’sund garI gatsha:n
		we are not one another-poss home go-pres
		'We don’t visit each other’s house.'

Mutual reciprocity is expressed by the use of pa:nIvən 'mutual' :

	6.	tim čhinI pa:nIvə:n’ kath kara:n
		they are not each other talk do-pres
		'They do not talk to each other.'	

Personal pronouns may not have their antecedents within the same clause. They occur in all sorts of structures. For example, they occur across finite subordinate clauses, adverbial clauses, coordinate structures, discourse structures, etc. In adverbial clauses the lpronoun may be optionally deleted :

	7(a).	[yeli/suba:zar gav] sohnan hets pa:nas kitsh Tu:p’
	   	rel/he market went Sohan bough-fsg reft-dat for cap
	  	'When he went to the market, Sohan bought a cap for himself.'
    	 (b).	[yeli sohan ba:zar gav] Ø pa:nas kitsh hetsin Tu:p’
	   				bought -3sg
	  	'When Sohan went to the market, (he) bought a cap for himself.'
    	 (c).     	[yeli sohan ba:zar gav] təm’ hets pa:nas kitshTu:p’
		'When Sohan went to the market, he bought a cap for himself.'

In a narrative text or natural discourse, deletion is used very frequently to refer to a previous coreferent.

Sentence types

This section describes simple, complex and compound sentence types. Major simple sentence types are: copular, declarative, imperative and interrogative. Complex constructions involve subordinate clause(s). The formation of compound sentence is only through coordination.

Simple constructions

Copular sentences

The verb a:sun ‘to be’ is employed in copular sentences. The copula may take a predicate noun, predicate adjective, or a predicate adverb as a complement. Examples :-

	1.	su chu da:kTar
		he is doctor
		'He is a doctor.'

	2.	sכ ha zi:Th
		she is tall.
		'She is tall.'
	3.	təm’sInz a:va:z cha mədIr
		his/her voice is sweet
		'His/Her voice is sweet.'

The copular verb is obligatoryly retained in both affirmative and negative sentences. In the case of coordinate structures, it is optionally deleted under identify. Examples :

	4.	mohanI chu vaki:l/ *mohnInI vaki:l
		Mohan is lawyer
		'Mohan is a lawyer.'
	5.	aslam chu nIDa:kTar/* aslam nI da:kTar
		Aslam is not doctor
		'Aslam is not a doctor.'
    	6(a)	aslam tI mohnI chi Da:kTar
	       	'Aslam and Mohan are doctors.'

     	 (b).	aslam chu Da:kTar tI mohnI ti
	       	Aslam is doctor and Mohan also
       		'Aslam is a doctor and so is Mohan.'

     	 (c).       	na chu aslam vəki:l  tIna mohnI
	       	not is Aslam lawyer and not Mohan
	       	'Neither Aslam nor Mohan is a lawyer.'

The copular is used for universal truths, existence, definition, identity etc.

   	7.      	khכda: chu
                  	God  is 
	       	'God exists.'

  	8.       	nəsi:b chu panun panun
            		luck is self self
  	      	'One is born with his/her own luck'

 	9.       	poz chu paza:n
 	     	truth is revealed
           		'The truth (eventually) comes out.' or 'The truth cannot be hidden.' 

The copula verb always takes a complement. Sentence (7) can be interpreted as:

	10.	khכda: chu poz/mu:ju:d/prath ja:yi
		'God is true/present/everywhere.'

In (7) the complement does not appear at the surface and is understood as poz 'true', mu:ju:d 'present', prath ja:yi 'everywhere.'

The copula is also used as a member in the compound verb sequence a:s 'be' + khasun/gatshun/sedun 'climb/go/become' which renders the meaning of 'to become':

	11.	azkal chu siriyi jalId khasa:n
		nowdays is sun quick climb-pres ptcpl
		'The sun rises early in the morning these days.' 	

	12.	dכh khכtI dכh chu gatsha:n vakhIt kru:Th
		day more day is go-pres ptcpl time difficult
		'The time is becoming difficult day by day.'

	13.	azkal cha sapda:n suli: anigaTI
		nowadays is becoming early dark
		'It becomes dark early (in the evening) these days.'

Declarative sentences

In declaratives the finite predicate (auxiliary or a verb) occupies the second position. The first position is usually occupied by a subject, but it may also be occupied by other constituents of the sentence best known as topic in a V-2 language.

	1(a)	aslaman dits kita:b mohnas ra:mIni khə:trI ra:th gari
	    	Aslam-erg gave-fsg book Mohan-dat Ram-dat for yesterday home-abl
	    	'Aslam gave Mohan a book for Ram yesterday at home.'

  	 (b).         	mohnas dits aslaman kita:b ra:mIni khə:trI ra:th gari
  	 (c).        	Ra:th dits aslaman gari kita:b mohnas ra:mIni khə:trI
  	 (d)          	gari dits aslaman ra:th mohnas kita:b ra:mIni khə:trI

As shown, the constituents following the predicate show a considerable freedom of movement.

Declarative sentences can be grouped into three categories on the basis of the classification of verbs: intransitive, transitive and dative. The subjects may be realized as agents, experiencers (i.e. dative subjects), themes (i.e., passive subjects) or expletive forms. The subjects of most transitives and a few intransitives are marked ergative in the past tense. The subjects are marked dative in the context of a dative predicate. All other subjects are marked nominative.

	2.         	mohnI a:v ra:th
	      	Mohan came yesterday
            		'Mohan came yesterday.'

	3.	mohnan d’ut nəsi:mas kalam
		Mohan-erg gave Nasim-dat pen
		'Mohan gave a pen to Nasim.'

	4.	me a:kh tsI pasand
		I-dat came you-nom like
		'I liked you.'

	5.	palav a:yinI mi:nIni zəriyi chalnI
		clothers came-pass neg Meena by wash-inf
		'The clothes were not washed by Meena.'

	6.	kita:b pərIm
		book read-sg
		'I read a book.'

	7.	kita:b ditsnas
		book gave-3sg
		'He gave her/him a book'

Note that a few intransitives such as asun ‘to laugh’, vadun ‘to weep’, ladun ‘to quarrel’ take ergative subjects in the past tense (for details of their forms see Koul 1987: 43-4)

	8.	me/asi/təm’/tami/timav os/vod/lod
		I/we/he/she/they-erg laughed/wept/quarrelled
		'I/we/he/she/they laughed/wept/quarrelled.'

	9.	tse osuth/voduth/loduth
		'you-sg-erg laughed/wept/quarrelled'

	10.	tכhi osuvI/vodvI/lodIvI
		'you-pl-erg laughed/wept/quarrelled'

The intransitive verb natsun ‘to dance’ takes an ergative as well as nominative subject:

    	11.(a)     	bI notsus
     	       	'I-nom danced-lsg'

       	    (b).     	əs’ nəts’
	      	'we-nom danced'

        	    (c).      	me/asi/təm’/tami nots
 	        	I/we/he/she-erg danced
	        	'I/we/he/she danced.'

A transitive direct object may also be overt or ‘pro’ form. In the perfective the direct object is marked with nominative case. In the non-perfective the case of the pronominal direct object is decided by person hierarchy.

	12.      	səli:man roTus bI
		Salim-erg caught me-abl sg
		'Salim caught me.'

Perfective 'pro' object:

	13.	səli:man roTus
 	      	Salim-erg caught 1sg
            		'Salim caught me.'

Direct object in the nominative:

	14.(a)	bI chusath tsI parIna:va:n
 		I am you teach-pres ptcpl
		'I am teaching you.'
      	    (b).	parIna:va:n chusath

   	15(a).	bI chusan su parIna:va:n 
		I am he teach-pres ptcpl
		'I am teaching him.'
	   (b)	parIna:va:n chusan
  	16(a).	tsI chuhan su parIna:va:n
		you are he teach-pres ptcpl
		'You are teaching him.'
     	   (b).	parIna:va:n chuhan

Direct object in the dative:

	17(a)	su chu me parIna:va:n
		he is me teach-pres ptcpl
		'he is teaching me.'
    	   (b).	parIna:va:n chum 
	18(a).	su chu təmis parIna:va:n
		he is him-dat teach-pres ptcpl
		'he is teaching him/her.'					 
	   (b).	parIna:va:n chus

The indirect object is always marked dative. The verb inflects for first and third person, only if pronouns are not overtly present. The verb obligatorily inflects for the second persons pronoun, which may be optionally deleted.

	19.	təm’ d’ut me/təmis akhba:r
		he-erg gave me-dat/him-dat newspaper
		'He gave me/him a newspaper'.

	20.	akhba:r d’utnam/d’utnas
 		newspaper gave-1sg psfx-1sg psfx/gave-3sg psfx-3sg psfx
		'He gave me/him a newspaper.'

It is worth mentioning here that weather expressions in Kashmiri fall into two categories. The first type does not have any expletive subject as in:

	21.	ru:d p’av
		rain fell.
		'It rained.'

The second type carries the third person singular pronominal suffix-n on the verb.

	22.	Regular weather expression			Alternative form
		obur khot					obur kho:ru-n
		clouds rose				clouds rose-3-sg
		'It has clouded over.'				'X has raised the clouds.'

Note that the third singular suffix-n is also found in some other expressions such as natural processes, natural forces, expressions of health etc. (see Koul and Hook 1984 for details).

Imperative sentences

The basic imperative is expressed in the unmarked form. There is also a polite form known as precative. Both forms inflect for number. The plural forms are used to express honorific status. The unmarked form is expressed by the verb stem itself. Imperative forms are given in the below table. For example:

	1.	cith’ par/pəriv
		letter read/read
		'Read the letter.'

	2.	shuris di/diyiv miThə: y
		child-dat give sweets
		'Give sweets to the child.'


Verb StemAddressee
par 'read'parpəriv
an 'bring'anəniv
di 'give' didiyiv
khe 'eat'KheKheyiv

In the above examples the imperative is preceded by a topic element. The verb may stand alone if it is flanked by pronominal objects. The presence of the pronominal objects is indicated by the pronominal suffixes as show in the below table. Examples:

2nd person
Object (dative)
1st person
3rd person
SgPl Sgpl
Sg -um--us-ukh
Pl -v’u:m--v’u:s-hu:kh
	4(a).	ha:vum
		show-1sg psfx
		'Show me.'

 	  (b).	hə:v’u:m
		show-1sg psfx

The polite imperative is expressed by the precative suffix-tI/-tav (sg/pl) as in

	5(a).	cith’ partI
		letter read
		'Read the letter.'

	 (b)	cith’ pər’tav
		letter read
		'Please read the letter.'

The obligative imperative, which expresses moral obligation, and duties if formed by means of the suffix –izi/-izev (sg/pl) as in

	6.	cith’li:khizi/li:khzev
		letter write/please write.
		'You should write a letter.'

	7.	poz vən’zi/vən’zev
		truth say
		'you should tell the truth.'

The imperative may be negated by means of the particles mI and matI. The particle precedes the verb and may be inflected by the precative marker t as in

	8.	po:š mI tsaTh
		flowers not pluck
		'Don’t pluck the flowers.'

	9.	tse:r matI kartI
		delay not do
		'Don’t be late.'

Interrogative sentences

Two types of interrogative sentences will be discussed: (a) yes-no questions, and (b) question word questions.

Yes-no questions fall into three major categories: (i) neutral (ii) leading and (iii) alternative questions depending on the answer sought by the interrogator. Neutral yes-no questions are generally marked by the question marker a:, added to the finite predicate at the end of all inflections.

	1.	mohnan li:cha: cith’?
		Mohan-erg wrote-ques letter
		'Did Mohan  write a letter?'

An optional question marker k’a: may also be added to these constructions. k’a: usually occurs in sentence-initial position and throws the verb into third position :

	2.	(k’a: ) tsI le:khIkha: az cith’?
		you write-fut today letter
		'Will you write the letter today?'

Kashmiri maintains its verb second order in yes-no questions, provided k’a: is not counted as the first element. Most V-2 languages do not allow verb second order in such constructions.

The negative marker precedes the question marker:

	3.	tsI yikh na: paga:h daphtar?
		You come-fut neg-ques tomorrow office
		'Won’t you come to office tomorrow?'

The prohibitive imperative marker mI is placed in the preverbal position and is attached to the question marker a:.

   	4(a).	tsI mI gatsh paga:h ba:zar
	       	you neg-ques go-fut tomorrow market
	       	‘Don’t go to the market tomorrow.’
    	  (b).	tsI ma: gatshakh paga:h  ba:zar?
	        	You neg-ques go-fut tomorrow market
 	       	'Are you going to go to the market tomorrow?'

 	5.(a)	tsI ne:rakh nI az
	         	you leave-fut not today
	         	'You will not leave today.'
    	   (b).	(k’a:) tsI ne:rakh na: az?
		ques you leave-fut not-ques today
		'Won’t you leave today?'

	6.(a)	tsI mI ne:r az
		you not leave-fut today
		'Don’t leave today.'
   	   (b).	(k’a:) tsI ma: ne:rakh az?
		(ques) you neg-ques leave-fut today
		'Aren’t you leaving today?'

Leading questions are followed by a negative tag if the expected answer is positive. If the expected answer is negative, the main statement is expressed in the negative form and the tag takes the positive shape.

	7(a).	az cha garmi:, cha na:?
		today is hot is neg-ques
		'It is hot today, isn’t it?'

	 (b).	a: az cha garmI
		yes today is hot
		'Yes, it is hot today.'

	8(a).	az cha nI garmi:, cha?
		today is neg hot is-ques
		'It is not hot today, is it?'

In alternative questions, a special marker kinI is placed between the alternative elements, and the verb is suffixed with –a: .

   	9.             tsI yikha: az kinI paga:h?
		you come-fut-ques today or tomorrow
		'Will you come today or tomorrow?'

	10.	tsI gatshkha: daphtar kinI nI?
		You go-fut-ques office or neg
		'Will you go to the office or not?'

Alternative questions can be used in finite subordinate clauses, which results in the placement of the verb at the end of the clause:

	11.	me chu nI pata: (zi/ki) suc eya: dכd ya: na
		I be not know that he drink-fut-ques milk or not
		'I don’t know whether he will take milk (or not).'

In question word questions, question words such as kus 'who', k’a: 'what', k’a:zi 'why' are placed immediately before the finite predicate. Question words may be immediately preceded by a subject or other sentence constituents. Note that no constituent can be placed between a question word and the predicate/verb. The question word may be preceded by one constituent only. All the constituents of a sentence may be questioned :

	12(a).	mohnan kəmis li:ch cith’ ra:th daphtaras manz?
		Mohan-erg who-dat wrote letter yesterday office-dat in
		'Who did Mohan write a letter to in the office yesterday?'
	   (b).	kəm’ lich cith’ ra:th daphtaras manz?
		Who-erg wrote letter yesterday office in
		'Who wrote a letter yesterday in the office?'

In order to question more than one constituent two types of strategies are employed. In the first type all the question words are moved before the finite predicate:

	13(a).	mohnan kəmis k’a: d’ut ba:gas manz?
		Mohan-erg who-dat what gave garden-dat in
    	   (b).	kəm’ kəmis k’a: d’ut ba:gas manz?
		Who-erg who-dat what gave garden-dat in

In the second type the question words may be left in situ. However, it is obligatory to move at least one question word before the finite predicate:

	14.	kəm’ kəmis k’a: dits ba:gas mãnz?  		
		who-erg who-dat what gave garden-dat in 
		'Who gave what to whom in the garden?'

Multiple reduplicated question words are used in a distributive sense. These follow the single word question pattern. The paired elements are always treated as a single unit.

	15.            doyimi vəriyi kus yiyi yo:r?
		next year-abl who who come-fut here
		'Next year who will come here?'

	16.	mohnan k’a: k’a: h’ot shuren hIndi khə:trI?
		Mohan-erg what what bought children for
		'What are the items Mohan bought for his children?'

	17.	dili kכs kכs ja:y vuchivI tכhi?
		Delhi-abl which which place saw you-erg
		'Which places did you see in Delhi?'

Minor sentence types

Apart from the above-mentioned four types of simple sentences, some minor sentence constructions may be of exclamatory, vocative and interjection types. Exclamatory sentences are marked by strong intonation or are preceded by exclamatory question words are exemplified below:

	1.	az ko:ta:h ja:n dכh chu!
		today how good day is
		'What a pleasant day it is!'

	2.	kə:tsa:h shəri:ph ku:r!
		how-fsg gentle girl!
		'What a gentle girl!'

	3.	va:h k’a: bə:th!
		oh what song
		‘What a song it is!’

Vocative expressions consist of address terms as follows:

	4.	hayo: nazi:ra:!
		oh-meg Nazir-voc
		'O Nazir!'

	5.	haye: ku:ri:!
		oh-fsg girl-voc
		'O girl!'

Interjections are usually one-word emotive utterances which express surprise, delight, etc. The expressions are: ah, aha: oh, shaba:sh, va:h va:h, etc.

Complex and Compound Constructions

Complex sentences

Complex sentences are formed with the help of one or more subordinate clauses, which may be either finite or non-finite. Finite and non-finite subordinate clauses are described below. Some of the complex constructions involving relative and adverbial clauses are also discussed.

Finite subordinate clauses are linked to the main clause by the subordinator zi/ki, which follows the main verb. The word order in a finite subordinate clause follows the root clause V-2 pattern.

	1.(a)	me chu pata:  ki/zi təm’ h’ot nov ko:Th ba:zrI
		'I-dat is knowledge that he-erg bought new coat market'
         	   (b).	me chu pata:  ki/zi ba:zrI h’ot təm’ nov ko:Th
		I-dat  is knowledge that market-dat bought he new coat
		'I know that he bought a new coat in the market.'

The elements of the subordinate may not be moved to the main clause:

	1.(c)	* me chu pata: təm’ ki/zi h’ot ba:zrI nov ko:Th
   	   (d).	* me chu pata: təm’ ki/zi ba:zrI h’ot nov ko:Th

Finite subordinate clauses may be subjects, objects or complements of predicates.

Non-finite subordinate clauses in the infinitive also function as subjects and objects. The infinite is inflected for gender, number and case and is placed in final position. Infinitival object complements omit the subject of the embedded clause, which is the same as the matrix subject.

	2.              bI chus yatsha:n mohnas samkhun
		I am want –pres Mohan-dat meet-inf
		'I want to see Mohan.'

The subject is marked possessive just in case the infinitive is nominalised:

	3.             təm’sund dili gatshun chu mumkin
 		his Delhi go-inf is possible
		'His going to Delhi is possible.'

Question words with the infinitive, and non-finites in general, have a scope over the entire sentence and form a direct question. All overt elements of the infinitival clause may be questioned.

    	4(a).	kəmis gəyi səli:mas kita:b din’ məshith?
		Who-dat did Salim-dat book give-inf forgot-past ptcpl

       	 (b).	səli:mas kəmis gəyi kita:b din’ məshith?	 
		Salim-dat who-dat was book give-inf forget-past ptcpl
		'Who did Salim forget to give the book to?'

Relative sentences

Relative clauses may be finite or non-finite; finite clauses may be correlative or headed type. Relative sentences with finite clauses are marked by the relative pronoun yus and the correlative su, which decline for gender, number and case and show different forms for animate and inanimate nouns.

	1.	yכs ku:r dili cha ro:za:n sכ cha zə:vij
 		rel girl Delhi-abl is live-pres cor is slim
		'The girl who lives in Delhi is slim.'

	2.	dili (manz) ro:zan va:jen’ ku:r cha zə:vij
		Delhi-dat in live-inf agn girl is very slim
		'The girl who lives in Delhi is very slim.'

In the correlative type, the matrix clause follows the relative clause. The head noun usually follows the relative clause but it may also occupy other positions, as shown below.

	3(a).	yכs ku:r tse pasand chay sכ ku:r cha me ti pasand
		'rel girl you-dat like is cor girl is me too like'

	  (b).	[yכs ku:r tse pasand chay ] me ti cha sכ ku:r pasand
		rel girl you like is me also is she girl like
		'The girl who you like, I like her too.'

In the headed relative the head noun immediately precedes the relative clause. In both the correlative and the headed clause, pronouns may be followed by a full lexical noun, as exemplified below:

	4(a).	sכ ku:r [yכs tse pasand chay] cha me ti pasand
		cor girl rel you-like is is me-to also like 	
		'The girl who you like, I like her too.'

   	  (b).	[yכs tse pasand chay] sכ cha me ti pasand
		rel girl you-dat like is cor girl is me too like

All the constituents of a sentence can be relativized in both headed and correlative type relative clauses.

In a non-finite relative clause, the verb is marked with the present participle vun or the past participle mut (see table shown below). Both the participles inflect for gender and number. The non-finite form can be used only for subjects. Examples:

	5.             vuphIvun ka:v
		fly-pres ptcpl crow
		'The crow which is flying.'

	6.	pashas peTh khotmut naphar
		roof-dat on climb-past ptcpl person
		'The person who climbed the roof.'

Relative clause participles

Present PrinciplePast Principle

An agentive suffix vo:l is used to form nouns of agency. The suffix varies with gender and numberL vo:l (msg), və:l’ (mpl), va:jen (fsg), va:jinni(fpl). For examples,

	7.	[jemi ro:zan vo:l] l ədkhI chu m’o:n do:st
		Jammu-abl love-agn-msg boy is my friend
		'The boy who lives in Jammu is my friend.'


Copyright CIIL-India Mysore