Bangla phonology comprises of 35 segmental phonemes and 5 non-segmental features in all.
Segmental phonemes are divided into two broad natural classes, viz. vowels and consonants. Bangla has 7 vowel and 28 consonant phonemes.
Among these 7 vowels /æ/ and /ɔ/ show a skewed distribution in the language as other than a few monosyllabic words like থ / thɔ / 'stunned' , চল / t̃ʃɔ / 'let's go' etc. They never occur word-finally, while the rest 5, viz. /i, e, a, o, u/, have quite ubiquitous distribution. In terms of the frequency of occurrence also /æ/ and /ɔ/ have a lower rate among others, while /o/ and /a/ are the most frequent ones.
All these 7 vowels have their nasalized counterparts in the language. Phonetically the nasality of the Bangla nasalized vowels tends to be fairly weak, at least weaker than the nasalization of standard French vowels. Phonologically nasalization is a distinctive non-segmental feature of the vowel system as it causes meaning differentiation in the language, e.g. আট / aʈ / '8' vs. আঁট / ãʈ / 'tight', কুড়ি / kuɼi / '20' vs. কুঁড়ি / kũɼi / 'bud' etc.
The nasalized counterparts of the 7 vowels are:
Among the above /æ̃/ and / ɔ̃/ are much less frequent than the others.
Vowels /i, u, e, o/ have their predictable semivowel counterparts [ i̯, u̯, e̯, and o̯] respectively. These semivowels never occur word-initially rather they always occur word-medially or word-finally as the non-syllabic 2nd component of a diphthong. For example,বই / boi̯ / 'book', বউ / bou̯ / 'wife', ভয / bhɔe̯ / 'fear', চওড়া / tʈ̃ɔo̯ɼa / 'wide', etc.
Phonetically at least 17 diphthongal vowels are attested in the language, all of which are falling in nature, e.g. ii̯, eu̯, oe̯, ɔo̯ etc.
Phonologically 3 vowel heights are functional in the language as low mid and low behave in a similar way in respect of different phonological processes, though phonetically 4 vowel heights are attested.
Phonologically all the 7 vowels are of same length though phonetically they may have long counterparts.
The most interesting phonological processes of Bangla involve vowel segments to the relative exclusion of the consonants. Such processes will be discussed under morphology.
|ṭh ḍh||ts͡h ʤ͡ h|
The 5 basic points of articulation, viz. Labial, dental, retroflex, alveolo-palatal, and velar; the existence of a retroflex series; and the distinctive characters of voicing and aspiration of the consonantal segments mark Bangla as a fairly typical Indo-Aryan language.
Among the 28 consonant phonemes 3, viz. /hi/ /ŋ/, and /ɼ/, show a skewed distribution while the rest 25 have quite ubiquitous distribution in the language.
/h/ occurs word-initially and word-medially but is prohibited word-finally; while /ŋ/ and /ɼ/ occur word-medially and word finally but are prohibited word-initially.
/r, n, k, t, ʃ, b/ are the consonants with a higher frequency of occurrence while the aspirated sounds show a lower frequency of occurrence in the language.
4 consonants, viz. /ʃ, n, h, r/ show relevant allophonic variations in the language as follows:
/ʃ/ The presence of an alveolo-palatal sibilant and the absence of a dental one is the marked feature of the consonant inventory of Bangla. However, borrowed words with a high frequency of occurrence, especially those from English, represent dental /s̪/ in their sophisticated pronunciation, e.g. সিনেমা /s̪inema/ 'cinema', সিল্ক /s̪ilk/ 'silk', বাস /bas̪/ 'bus' etc.
In Bangla words, /ʃ/ is realized as a dental [s̪] is realized as a dental [s̪] as the first member forming clusters in combination with /k, kh, t, th, n, p, ph, m, r, l'. For example, স্কন্ধ [s̪kɔndho] 'shoulder' , স্তব [s̪tɔb] 'a hymn' , আস্ত[as̪to] 'whole' , শস্তা [Sɔs̪ta] 'cheap' , শ্রী [s̪ri] 'Mr.' , স্নান [s̪nan]' bath'etc.
In fact, [s̪] has a controversial status in Bangla phonology. It is a phoneme on the basis of its distribution, especially its isolated occurrence in the large body of nativized words with high frequency coming chiefly from English. But it is an allophone on the basis of its distribution in the typical Bangla words and the words from Sanskrit, both modified and unmodified. This ambivalent status of [s̪] has been noted by different scholars in the field of Bangla phonology.
At the level of graphemes also [s] is mostly represented by a different character স - a fact that speaks for a different status of [s̪] Bangla phonology.
As a consequence of the ambivalent status of [s̪] the transcription convention, Bangla is considered neither phonemic nor phonetic, rather a compromise between the two.
This compromise is reflected in the current study also, [s̪] being written sometimes between phonemic slashes (//), and other times between phonetic brackets ([ ]).
/ʃ/ Is also realized as a retroflex [ʂ] immediately before a retroflex sound, e.g. কষ্ট [k ɔ ʂ ʈ o] 'suffering'.
Bangla alveolar /n/ has four allophonic realizations, viz. Dental nasal [n̪], alveolar nasal [n], retroflex nasal [ɳ] and palatal nasal [ɲ] depending on the environment.
The dental nasal [n̪] occurs word-medially when immediately preceded or followed by a dental sound, e.g. যত্ন [ʤ͡ɔ;tn̪o] 'care' , শান্ত [ʃan̪to] 'calm' , গন্ধ [gɔ;n̪dho] 'smell' etc.
The retroflex nasal [ɳ] occurs word-medially when immediately followed by a retroflex sound, e.g. ঠাণ্ডা [ʈhaɳɖa] 'cold' , পণ্ডিত [poɳɖit] 'an erudite', ঘন্টা [ghɔ;ɳʈa] 'hour' etc.
The palatal nasal [ɲ] occurs word-medially when immediately followed by an alveolo-palatal sound, e.g. ৰঞ্জিত [roɲjit] 'a name' , পঞ্চম [pɔ;ɲts͡om] 'fifth' , ঝঞ্ঝাট [ʤ͡hɲʤ͡haʈ] 'trouble' etc.
The alveolar nasal [n] occurs elsewhere, e.g. নীল [nil] 'blue' , নানান [nanan] 'various' etc.
/h/ often shows a voiced realization [ɦ] in combination with /r/ and /l/ in careful pronunciation, e.g. অপহূত [ɔpoɦrito] 'kidnapped' but অপহরণ [ɔpohɔron] 'kidnap' etc.
/r/ has 2 phonetic realizations, viz. A flap [ʕ] intervocalically and word-finally, e.g. আরাম [aʕam] 'comfort' , পরী [poʕi] 'fairy' , শুরু [ʃuʕu] 'start' , আবার [abaʕ] 'again' etc.; and a trill elsewhere, e.g. রাজা [raja]'king' , রং [rɔ;ŋ] 'colour' , ট্রাম [ʈram] ' ʈram' etc.
The feature aspiration of both voiceless and voiced aspirates tends to be suppressed pre-consonantally and word-finally in casual speech, e.g. মাঘমাস /maghmaʃ/ ' the month of Magh (a Bengali month)' , আধ /adh/ 'half' , লাভ/labh/ 'profit' , আখ /akh/ 'sugarcane' etc. tend to become /magmaʃ/ ad, lab, ak/ respectively.
Hence, pre-consonantally and word-finally voiceless aspirates tend to be merging with their unaspirated counterparts yielding the effect of neutralization.
/ ɽh / In careful sophisticated pronunciation, an aspirated retroflex flap /ɽh/ is available word-medially and word-finally, e.g. গাঢ় /gaɽho/ ' dark' , আষাঢ় /aʃɽh/ 'a Bengali calendar month' etc. But in popular pronunciation this sound is always replaced by the retroflex flap / ɽ/.
Dialectally sometimes the retroflex flap /ɽ/ is completely replaced by the alveolar trill / r / yielding homophonous forms like / bhara / for both ভারা / bhara / 'scaffold' and ভাড়া / bhaɽa / 'rent' etc.
Bangla consonant sequences are of two types, geminates and clusters.
Bangla has 15 geminate consonants. They occur word-medially and contrast with single consonants. Within a word the 1st member of the geminate forms the coda of the preceding syllable while the 2nd member forms the onset of the immediately following one. Geminates are:
Examples with geminates are ভাগ্য় /bhaggo/ 'fate' , আট্টা /aʈʈa/ 'eight o' clock' ,তাপ্পি /tappi/ 'patch' , নাব্য় /nabbo/ 'navigable' , কান্না /kanna/ 'weeping' , মাল্লা /malla/ 'boatman' etc.
Apart from these pure geminates there are geminate aspirated sounds like /ɖɖh, tth, bbh/ etc. as in আঢ্য/aɖɖho/ 'a surname' , পথ্য /pottho/ 'diet', অভ্যেস /obbheʃ/ 'habit' respectively.
In Bangla, consonant clusters with two members, frequently occurs word-initially as well as word-medially. A few clusters with three members occurring word-initially are also available in the language.
Word-initially, Bangla shows 34 two-members clusters, viz. /pr, pl, phr, phl, br, bl, bhr, tr, dr, dhr, ʈr, ɖr, kr, kl, khr, gr, gl, ghr, mr, ml, nr, hr, hl, s̪p, s̪ph, s̪t, s̪th, s̪k, s̪kh, s̪n, s̪r s̪l, s̪m, s̪ʈ/ as in প্রাণ /pran/ 'life' ,ভ্রমর /bhromor/ 'bee' , তৃণ /trino/ 'grass' , দ্রুত /druto/ 'speedily' , ট্রেন /ʈren/ 'train' , খ্রীস্ট /khriʃʈo/ 'Christ' , নৃত্য /nritto/ 'dance' , হ্রদ /hrɔd/ 'lake' , স্রোত /s̪rot/ 'watercourse' , স্থান /s̪than/ 'place' , স্টাইল /s̪ʈail/ 'style' etc.
Among these 34 clusters, 7 viz. /phr, phl, bl, ʈr, ɖr, khr, s̪ʈ/ are available only in words from foreign stock. Among these 7 /s̪ʈ/ often varies freely with /ʃʈ/.
Word-medially Bangla shows 23 two-member clusters, viz. /pr, pl, phr, br, bhr, tr, dr, dhr,ʈr, ɖr, kr, kl, gr, ghr, hr, mr, ml, nr,ʧ͡hr, ʤ͡r, s̪n, s̪l, s̪r/, e.g.সুপ্রভাত /ʃup.probhhat/ 'good morning',বিপ্লব /bip.plɔb/ 'revolution',আফ্রিকা /ap.phrika/ 'Africa',রাত্রি /rat.tri/ 'night',ম্যাড্রাস /mӕɖ.ɖras̪/ 'Madras',শীঘ্র ʃig.ghro/ 'quickly' ,অমৃত /ɔ;m.mrito/ 'nectar',বজ্র /bɔ;ʤ͡ .ʤ͡ ro/ 'thunder',সুশ্রী /ʃus̪.s̪ri/ 'good-looking'etc.
Among these 23 clusters, 3 viz. /phr, ʈr, ɖr/ occur in words from foreign stock and / ʧ͡ hr/ occurs very rarely.
Three-member consonant clusters occur only word-initially and they are 4 in number, viz. /s̪kr, s̪tr, s̪pr, s̪ʈr/, e.g. স্ক্রু /s̪kru/ 'screw' , স্ত্রী /s̪tri/ 'wife' , স্পৃহা /s̪priha/ 'desire' , স্ট্রাইক /s̪ʈraik/ 'strike' etc.
The two-member consonant clusters, both word-initial and word-medial ones, have either [s̪] as the 1st member or /r / or /l/ as the 2nd member. The three-member consonant cluster always have [s̪] and /r/ as their 1st and 3rd members respectively.
The consonant clusters, other than those occurring in words from foreign stock, are mostly available in tatsama words, i.e. the more or less unmodified Sanskrit words.
At the level of features, i.e. at a micro level of phonology, Bangla segmental phonemes may be analyzed in terms of 15 binary distinctive features, viz. Sonorant, syllabic consonantal, high, low, front, back, lateral, anterior, coronal, distributed, nasal, voice, tense, and delayed release.
Bangla vowel phonemes, phonologically, are analyzed in terms of 4 distinctive features as follows:
Bangla consonant phonemes are analyzed in terms of 14 features as follows:
Thus the distinctive feature analysis of Bangla phonemes is as follows: ▏ + Syllabic ▏ /a/ ▏ + low ▏ ▏ - front ▏ ▏ - back ▏ ▏ + Syllabic ▏ /u/ ▏ + high ▏ ▏ + back ▏ ▏ - Syllabic ▏ ▏ + Consonantal ▏ /p/ ▏ + anterior ▏ ▏ - coronal ▏ ▏ - voice ▏ ▏ - tense ▏ ▏ - Syllabic ▏ ▏ + Consonantal ▏ /t/ ▏ + anterior ▏ ▏ - coronal ▏ ▏ - voice ▏ ▏ - tense ▏ ▏ + delayed release ▏ ▏ + Sonorant ▏ ▏ - Syllabic ▏ /m/ ▏ + Consonantal ▏ ▏ + anterior ▏ ▏ - coronal ▏ ▏ + nasal ▏
At the macro level of phonology, syllable is the minimum unit. In Bangla, the obligatory peak of the syllable is always a vowel or a diphthong. The onset and coda, which are optional in nature, are consonants, e.g. মা ¾ /ma/ 'mother' , চা /ʧ͡/ 'tea' , আম /am/ 'mango' , দুই /dui̪/ 'two' , বন /bon/ ' forest' , গ্রাম /gram/ 'village', আইন /ai̪n/ 'law' etc.
With respect to some phonological processes and counting, the vowel-ending syllables are considered 'light' while the consonant-ending as well as the diphthongal syllables, i.e. the syllables where the coda is present and those in which the peak branches, are considered 'heavy', e.g. /ma/, /ʧ͡/ are light syllables while /am/, /dui̪/, /bon/, /gram/, /ai̪n/ are heavy syllables.
In other words, the peak and coda combinedly determine the syllable-weight, while onset plays no role in that. Thus the peak and coda combine and form the rime node. If a flat structure is postulated erasing the peak and coda nodes under the rime, then the rule of syllable-weight may be formulated as follows:
In Bangla a syllable is heavy if the rime branches.
For example, all the heavy syllables shown here have branching rimes while the light ones have non-branching rimes as follows:
ɒ ɒ ɒ ɒ ɒ ▏ ╱ ╲ ╱ ╲ ╱ ╲ ▏ R C R C R C R R ╱ ╲ ▏ ╱ ╲ ▏ ╱ ╲ ╱ ╲ ╱ ╲ ╱ ▏ ╲ a m d u i̪ b o n g r a m a i̪ n
ɒ ɒ ╱╲ ╱╲ C R C R ▏ ▏ ▏ ▏ m a ʧ͡ a
Bangla monosyllabic words present total 13 cononical forms of which r, viz. V, CV, CCV, and CCCV, are light and rest are heavy. The 13 canonical forms are arranged in accordance with their descending order of frequency that are exemplified below. Here VV stands for diphthongs where the 2nd V is always a non-syllabic semivowel.
In polysyllabic words in addition to the above 13 canonical forms, 3 more patterns, viz. CCVVC, CVCC, and CCCVV, are also available, e.g.
Among these total 17 patterns, CV has the maximum number of exponents, approximately 54% in the language.
On the basis of the canonical patterns shown above and the principle of flat structure, the template for Bangla syllables is as follows:
The template shows that the syllable node (ɒ) branches into coda (C) and rime (R). Both the coda and the rime can have at the most three members each, among which R1 is the obligatory [+syll] nucleus and the rest, viz. C1, C2, C3, R2, R3, are the [-syll] optional satellites. The numbers in subscript indicate that (i) as one moves away from the nucleus the numbers increase, and (ii) in an actual syllable C2 is filled if and only if C1 is filled, C3 is filled if and only if C2 is filled, and R3 is filled if and only if R2 is filled.
One notable point here is that no Bangla monosyllable appears to have branching of this type, using all the options.
In polysyllabic words the intra word syllable boundaries are inserted according to the following rules:
i. Word-medial intervocalic CC sequences, except those with /r/ or /l/ as the 2nd member, are heterosyllabic. The syllable boundary is inserted between the two Cs, the 1st C being the coda of the syllable to the left and the 2nd C being the onset of the following one, e.g. the seQuences /rb/, / ʃtʃ͡ /, /tt/, and /kkh/ dare divided between two syllables in the words পূর্ব /pur.bo/ 'east',পশ্চিম /poʃ.ʧ͡ im/ 'west', উত্তর /ut.tor/ 'north', and দক্ষিণ /dok.khin/ 'south'.
ii. In the case of a word-medial CC sequence with /r/ or /l/ as the 2nd member, the 1st member of the seQuence is geminated and thus results in a CCC (which is CCr/l) sequence. The syllable boundary is inserted between the 1st and the 2nd members of the CCC sequence, the 1st C being the coda of the syllable to the left and the 2nd and 3rd Cs being the onset cluster of the following one, e.g. the seQuences /ttr/ and /mml/ in the words পুত্র /put.tro/ 'son', মাত্রা /mat.tra/ 'mora', অম্লান /ɔm.mlan/ 'untarnished' etc.
iii. The word-medial CCC sequences always have /r/ as their 3rd member and here the syllable boundary is placed right after the 1st member, the 1st C being the coda of the preceding syllable and the 2nd and 3rd Cs being the onset cluster of the following one, e.g. the seQuences, /s̪tr/, /ntr/, and /ʃpr/ in the words অস্ত্র /(ɔs̪.tro/ 'weapon', মন্ত্রী /mon.tri/ 'minister', নিষ্প্রাণ /ni&ʃ.pran/ 'lifeless' etc.
iv. There is only one word-medial CCCC seQuence, viz. /ŋʃkr/, where the syllable boundary is placed between the 2nd and the 3rd members, e.g. সংস্কৃতি /ʃɔŋʃ.kri.ti/ 'culture'.
The word-medial CCCC sequence has a dubious existence as often an epenthetic /o/ is inserted between the 1st and the 2nd members resulting in a /ŋoʃkr/ sequence, where /ʃkr/ conforms to rule (iii) for syllabification, e.g. /ʃŋ.oʃ.kri.ti/.
Bangla is a syllable - timed language.
Bangla has 5 non-segmental features, viz. nasalization, stress, pitch, length and juncture. Among these only nasalization is phonemic in the language.
Nasalization is a significant non-segmental feature in Bangla phonology as it causes sense difference between lexical items in the language.
Nasalization applies to vowels. All the 7 vowels of Bangla have their nasalized counterparts among which, as is already mentioned, /æ̃/ and /ɔ̃/ have a very low rate of freQuency in the language. The significant character of nasalization is exemplified below:
|u||পুতি||/puti/||'great grand song'||ű||পুঁতি||/pűti/||'bead'|
Bangla shows phonetic stress at two levels, viz. lexical and syntactic.
At the lexical level each word has its stress position fixed in the following manner.
i. Disyllabic words with the following canonical patterns are stressed on their 2nd syllables as follows:
ii. Disyllabic words with the following canonical patterns are stressed on their initial syllables as follows:
|CVCCVC||জঞ্জাল||[׀ʤ͡ onʤ͡ al]||'garbage'|
iii. Tri-syllabic words with the following canonical patterns are stressed on their 2nd syllables as follows:
At the syntactic level, words rather than syllables get relative stress in a sentence. According to the default pattern the initial word of each phrase/ sense group/ breath group of the sentence is stressed; or else the specially focused lexical item, if any, in the phrase / sense group / breath group is stressed.
In Bangla, lexical stress surrenders to syntactic stress as the latter is relatively stronger than the former.
Bangla shows pitch variations at the syntactic level resulting in different types of intonation pattern.
3 Chief intonation patterns are high falling, low rising and level.
Usually the statement sentences, Question sentences with Wh-words, and imperative sentences have the high falling pattern; the yes-no Question sentences have the low rising pattern; and the suspicion or hesitation sentences have the level pattern. For example,
Exclamatory sentences and long sentences with direct narration show remarkable undulations in their intonation pattern.
Length is a non-significant phonetic feature in Bangla.
Bangla vowels are considered to be short vowels. They show predictable relative length as follows :
i. In normal pronunciation, Bangla vowels in monosyllabic words, compared to those in polysyllabic words, are elongated.
ii. In polysyllabic words, vowels are reduced and the ration of reduction is proportionate to the position of the syllable concerned in the word, starting from the end and going towards the beginning, the vowel of the final syllable being longer than others.
Length of consonants is hardly of any significance even at the phonetic level.
Bangla has phonetic juncture, which is almost synonymous with pause of pronunciation.
In normal pronunciation, Bangla shows different grades of relative and predictable pause. The 1st as well as the most audible grade occurs between clauses, and between phrases; and the last as well as the non-audible grade occurs between syllables. In between these two more grades, one occurring between words and the other between the members of compound words may also be identified.
Sometimes at the phrasal level two different types of pause patterns, both possible, result in sense differentiation as follows:
/eʈa kanna/ /eʈa kan+na/ 'this-cl. weeping' 'this-cl. ear not' 'This is weeping' 'This is not ear'
Here [kanna] and [kan+na] are pronounced without and with an intra-word pause respectively. This insertion of pause is strictly known as juncture.
1. In Bangla, morphology is nil for adjectives, minimal for nouns and pronouns and quite productive for verbs. Bangla verbs are marked for tense, aspect, mood, person and formality; nouns for case, number, animacy and definiteness; and pronouns chiefly for case, number, person and formality. Bangla has neither grammatical gender nor any number agreement.
In the present discussion, the derivational morphology and the compound morphology will follow the inflectional morphology.
a) Nouns-Structure of root, stem etc.
iv) case markers and past positions of subject, direct object, locative, ablative etc.
A few adjectival relics bear evidence of the Indo-Aryan gender system, e.g. ¸ Á ¨ Í ¦ ° /ʃundor/ 'handsome', ¸ Á ¨ Í ¦ ° À /ʃundori/ 'beautiful', ¹ ‚ ¸ /hɔŋʃo/ 'gander', ¹ ‚ ¸ À /hoŋʃi/ 'goose' etc. Tatsama adjectival forms also show comparative-superlative relics like ¦ À ° Í ˜ - ¦ À ð Í ˜ 'ð - ¦ À ð Í ˜ '® /dirgho - dirghotɔro- dirghotɔmo/ 'long - longer-longest' etc.
1.2.1. Both nouns and pronouns inflect for 4 cases, viz. Nominative, Accusative-Dative, Genitive and Locative.
Nominative singular ending is ( for both nouns and pronouns, eg. পাখি ওড়ে /pakhi oɽ e/ 'bird flies', আমি করি /ami kori/ 'I do' etc. Animate nouns also show /-e/, e.g. বাঘে মেরেছে /baghe meretʃhe/ 'tiger has killed', Accusative- Dative singular ending is /-ke/ for pronouns and animate nouns, e.g. ছেলেকে বল /tʃh elekeɔlo/ 'tell (your) son', আমাকে বল /amakeɔlo/ 'tell me'; other nouns show ø, e.g. জল দাও /dlƷɔl dao̯/ 'give (someone) water' etc. Genitive singular endings are /-r/ after a vowel and /-er/ elsewhere, e.g. নদীর /nodir/ 'of the river', কাকের /kaker// 'of the crow' etc, Locative endings are /-e/, /-te/, and /-etc/. /-e/ and /-etc/ occur after consonants, e.g. ঘরে/ঘরেতে /ghɔre/ghɔrate/ 'in the room'; /-te/ after high vowels, e.g. নদীতে /nodite/ 'in the river', কুলুতে/kulute/ 'in Kulu'; non-high vowels take both /-e/ and /-te/, e.g. দরজায/দরজাতে /dɔrdƷae̯/ 'at the door' etc.
220.127.116.11. Irregular Genitive endings /-ker/ and /-ker/ appear with a few nouns of space and time, e.g.আজকের /adlƷker/ 'today's',তখনকার /tɔkhonkar/ 'of that time' etc.
18.104.22.168. Locative has a locational reading only for inanimat es, e.g.বাড়িতে নেই /baʈite nei̯ / 'not in the house'. Inanimate locatives also have an instrumental reading with non-volitional verbs, e.g. ছুরিতে আঙুল কেটে যেতে পারে urite aŋul keʈe dlƷete pare/ '(your) finger may get cut on a knife'. In fact, except for genitive ø and locative endings are widely used for all other cases, e.g.তোমাতে আমাতে যাবো /tomate amate dɮabo/ 'you and I shall go' etc.
22.214.171.124. Overt case marking is obligatory only for the last conjunct and optional for the non-finals, e.g. ট্রাম(-এর) বাস(-এর) ট্রেন(-এর) ও ট্যাক্সির ভাড়া /ʈram(er) bas̯(er) ʈren(er) oʈӕks̯ir bhaɽa/ 'the fare of tram, bus, train, and taxi'.
126.96.36.199. Postpositions also express case relations, e.g.দিযে /die/: ছুরি দিযে কা/tʃhuri die kaʈo/ 'cut with a knife' (instrumental); থেকে theke/: জেল থেকে পালিযেছে /dɮel theke palietʃhe/ '(they) escaped from the jail' (ablative) etc. some postpositions are preceded by inflectional endings, e.g. ওপৰ /opor/: গাছেৰ ওপৰ /gatʃher oper/ 'on the tree' (locative). Etc.
1.2.2. Animate nouns and personal pronouns that inflect number Nominative plural endings are /-ra/, -era/, e.g. ছেলেরা / tʃh elera / 'boys',লোকেরা /lokera/ 'people', আমরা /amra/ 'we'; accusative 'dative and genitive are /-der/, /-eder/. E.g. ছেলেদের /tʃheleder/ 'to/of the boys', লোকেদের /lokeder / 'to/of the people', আমাদের /amader/ 'to us/our'. /-ra/ and /-der/ occur after vowel while /-era/ and '/eder/ occur elsewhere. Dative also shows dialectal /-ke/, e.g. ছেলেদেরকে /tʃhelederke/, লোকেদেরকে /lokederke/,আমাদেরকে /amaderke/ etc.
188.8.131.52. The common plural ending for both animate and inanimate count nouns is /-gulo/ which is /-guli/ in Sadhu and /-guno/ dialectally, e.g. ছেলেগুলো/tʃhelegulo/ 'boys', ঘরগুলো/ghɔrgulo/ 'rooms' (nominative); ছেলেগুলোকে /tʃheleguloke/, ঘরগুলোকে /ghɔrgulo (ke)/ (dative); ছেলেগুলোর /tʃhelegulor/, ঘরগুলোর/ghɔrgulor/ (genitive) etc.
184.108.40.206. Plural marker is optional for the non-final conjuncts of animate nouns, e.g.বাঘ(-এরা) সিংহর(রা) হরিণ(-এরা) ও হাতি(রা) একসঙ্গে চলল/bagh (era) (ʃiŋho (ra) horin (era) o hatira ækʃɔŋge tʃollo/ 'tigers, lions, deer and elephants marched together', but obligatory for pronouns, e.g.তোমরা আর আমরা গাইব /tomra ar amra gaibo/ 'you and we shall sing',
220.127.116.11. Animate nouns modified by a plural Quantifier always revert formally to the singular, e.g. অনেক লোক /ɔneck lok/ 'many people',
18.104.22.168. Reduplicated nouns and adjectives too denote plurality, e.g.গাছে গাছে /gatʃhe/ 'in the trees',বড়ো বড়ো বাড়ি /bɔɽo bɔɽo baɽi/ 'big houses'.
1.2.3. Bangla is a language with classifier system. A noun followed by an inanimate classifier expressed definiteness, e.g. ছেলেটা /ʈʃh eleɔa / 'the boy', জলটা /dɮɔlʈa/ মুখখানা / mukhkhana/ 'the face' etc, small numbers may intervene, e.g. ছেলেদুটো /ʈʃheledʈo/ 'the two boys'.
22.214.171.124. A modifier numeral always takes a classifier before a noun, e.g.পাঁচটা আম /pãʃʈa am/ 'five mangoes', দুজন ডাক্তার /duʤon ɖaktar / 'two doctors' etc. Num, -Cl. can occur alone with noun ellipsis, e.g. তুমি চারটে কিনেছ /tumi tʃarʈe kinetʃh o/ 'you have bought four'.
126.96.36.199. The default classifier is /-ʈa/ ( লোকটা /lokʈa/ 'the man', একটা /ækʈo/ 'one' which has two contextual variations, viz. /-ʈo/ (দুটো /duʈo/ 'two' and /-ʈe/ (তিনটে /tinʈe/ 'three'. The quasi 'diminutive/-ʈi/ (ছেলে /tʃh eleʈi/ and the true diminutives /-ʈu/ and /-ʈuku/ (একটু দুধ /ekʈu dudh/ and দুধটুকু /dud·ʈuku/ differ from the default classifier both grammatically and phonologically. Other classifiers are -জন /dɮon/,- খানা /-kh ana/, -গাছা /-gatʃha/ etc.
188.8.131.52. Numerals and count quantifiers use the same classifiers in the same way, e.g. কয়েকজন লোক /kɔekdɮon lok/ 'a few men'. কয়েকটা আম /kɔekha am/ 'a few mangoes'. The interrogative count quantifier /kɔ/ with classifiers yields কটা লোক /kɔʈa lok/ 'how many men', কটা আম /kɔaʈam/ 'how many mangoes'. These expressions suffixed to a noun denote definiteness and plurality of small number, e.g.বই কখানা /boi̯kɔkhana/ 'the (not many) books'.
1.2.4. As has already been mentioned, pronouns are influenced for 4 cases. For examples, nominative: আমি /ami/ 'I',তুমি /tumi/ 'You (O)' তুই /tui̯/ 'you (F)', সে /ʃe/ '(s) he (O)' etc.; accusative ' dative: আমাকে /amake/ 'to me', তোমাকে /to make/ 'to you (O)' etc.; genitive; আমার /amar/ 'my', তোর /tor/ 'Your (F)' etc. Pronouns present contextual allomorphs like /ʃe~ta/, /tumi~toma/, /ami~ama/ etc.
184.108.40.206. Personal pronouns show three points of formality in the 2nd person and two points in the 3rd as follows:
No gender distinction is made even at the lexical level. Person and formality are the sole parameters for subject-verb agreement in Bangla.
220.127.116.11. 3rd person demonstrative pronouns are: proximals: ইনি /ini/ (H. sg. এঁরা /ẽra/ (H., Plu), এ /e/ (O. Sg.), and এরা/era/ (O. Plu.); and distals: উনি /uni/ (H., Sg.) ওঁরা/őra/ (H., Plu), ও /o/ (O., Sg. ) and ওরা /ora/ (H., Plu.).
18.104.22.168. The demonstrative determiners along with the emphasizer /-i/ are: proximal এই /ei̯/ 'this', e.g. এই ছেলেটা /oi̯ tʃh eleʈa/ 'this boy'; distal ওম্প /oi̯/ 'that', e.g. ওই ছেলেটা /oi̯ tʃh eleʈa/ 'that boy'; and sequent ¸ সেই/ʃei̯/ 'that' (absent one), e.g. সেই ছেলেটা /ʃei̯ tʃh eleʈa/ 'that boy',
22.214.171.124. Relative pronouns are য়ে /dɔe/ 'who', য়খন /dɮɔkhon/ 'when', য়েখানে /dɔekhane/ 'where' etc.
126.96.36.199. Reflexive is নিজে /nidɮe/ 'self'. Any personal pronoun followed by /nidɮe/ denotes the reflexive sense, e.g.; আমি নিজে /ami nidɮe/ 'I myself', আপনি নিজে /apni niɮ/ 'You (H) yourself', সে নিজে /ʃe nidɮe/ 's/he (O) himself etc.
188.8.131.52. Interrogatives are কি /ki/ 'what',কেন /kæno/ 'why', কে /ke/ 'who',কোথায /kothae̯ / 'where', কখন /kɔkhon/ 'when', কাকে /kake/ 'whom', কত /kɔto/ 'how much',কেমন /kæmon/ 'how', কোন /kon/ 'which' etc.
1.2.5. Inclusive suffix is /-o/. E.g. আমিও /amio̯/ 'also I', জলও / dɮɔlo/ 'also water', লালও /lalo/ 'also red', কৰবও /korboo̯/ 'shall also do'
1.2.6. Exclusive as well as emphatic suffix is /-i/, e.g. আমিই / amii̯ 'only I', কালই /kali/ 'tomorrow itself',দেখবই / dekh boi̯ / 'I must see'
The domain of verb conjugation is very interesting both morphologically and phonologically.
The formation of verbal bases, their classification, different inflectional categories, ending and various phonological processes, derivational forms and various phonological processes, derivational forms and verbal compounds of Bangla will be discussed briefly and informally as follows:
184.108.40.206 Verbal bases: Bangla verbs form a closed though large class. Except through onomatopoeia, no new verb stems can be formed. Innovation is restricted to the creation of New NOUN DO, ADJECTIVE BE etc. type of conjunct verbs.
220.127.116.11.1.Structuarally Bangla verb bases are of three types, Viz, simple bases, (such as কর্ /kɔr/ 'do', পালা /pala/ ('escape'), conjunct bases, (such as জিগেস কর্/dɮigeʃɔr/ 'ask'), and compound bases (such as – খেয়ে ফেল /khee̯e p( (l/ 'gulp down')
18.104.22.168.2. Simple bases are monosyllabic (such as শেখ্ /ʃekh/ 'learn') which are non- causative; disyllabic (such as শেখা /ʃekha 'teach', পালা /pala/ 'escape') which includes both causative and non-causative and in some rare occasions even trisyllable, viz. reduplicated onomatopoeic forms (such as কনকনা /kɔnkɔna/ 'ache'). The first syllabic of the simple bases may be called the root vowel.
22.214.171.124.3. Disyllabic causative bases are very productively derived from the monosyllabic bases by adding a stem formative that surfaces as /-o̯a/ post vocalically and /-a/ else where, e.g. খা/kha/ 'eat', খাওযা / khao̯a/ 'feed';দেখ্ /dӕkh/ 'see',দেখা /dӕkha/ 'show' etc.
Disyllabic and trisyllabic non-causative bases have an empty stem-formative, which is mostly /-a/ (such as পালা /pala/, তাকা /taka/ 'look', দাঁড়া /dãɽa/ 'stand', কনকনা /khnkhna/) and rarely /-o/ (such as চিবো / tʃibo / 'chew', ঘুমো /ghumo/ 'sleep', বিলো /bilo/ 'distribute')
126.96.36.199.4. Monosyllabic bases, in their different morphological constructions, show systematic alternations of vowel heights, e.g.
|High alternate base||Low alternate base|
|'see'||দেখ্||dekh-||দেখ্/ দ্য়াখ্||dækh- (e~æ)|
|'do'||কব্ / কৰ্||kor-||কৰ্||kɔr- (o~ɔ)|
Bangla shows a 3-way distinction of vowel phonologically in terms of which the above alteration may be systematically measured as one step difference between the alternates.
The high alternates. i.e. the verb bases with mid and high vowels, are derived from their low alternates counterparts i.e. those with low and mid vowels, the basic forms, respectively by the application of a phonological rule of vowel raising. Various kinds of action nominal forms with the low alternate (such as – খোঁজ /khõdɮ/ 'trace'. ডাক /ɖak/ 'call', খেলা / khӕla/ 'game', ধরাধরি /dhɔra-dhori/ 'seeking favour', লেখাপড়া /lekha - pɔɽa/ 'education', খাওয়া-দাওয়া /khao̯a-dao̯a/ 'meal', চলন /tʃɔlon/ 'walking' etc;) justify the postulation of the low alternate bases as the basic forms;
188.8.131.52.5. Monosyllabic bases, because they show base alternation, are called derivationally potential bases. These derivationally potential bases include two groups, viz (i) showing regular systematic alternation of vowel heights, i.e. the regular ones as shown above and (ii) showing irregular alternations, i.e the irregular ones.
These irregular ones show various stem allomorphic conditioned morphologically and they are of three types as follows:
(i) Specially mutable irregular bases, e.g. — গে ~ গা ~ গাই /ge ~ ga~ ga̯i/ 'sing', নে ~ না ~ নাই /ne~ na ~na̯i/ 'bathe', স ~ স’~ সই /ʃɔ~ʃo~ʃoi̯/ 'endure',ব ~ ব’~ ব’ই/bɔ~bo~boi̯/ 'carry',রো ~ রু ~ রুই /ro~ru~roi̯/ 'sow', দো ~ দু ~ দুই /do~du~doi̯/ 'milk', among which the members with final /-i̯/ occur before a few specific inflectional suffixes like /-ib, -it, -il, -itʃtʃhe/ etc., and দা ~ দ্যা ~ দে ~ দি /da~dæ~de~di/ 'give', না ~ ন্যা ~ নে ~ নি /na~næ~ne~ni/ 'take'.
(ii) Supplective allomorphy, e.g. যা ~ যে ~ গে ~ গ্যা ~ গি /dɮa~dɮe~ge~gæ~gi/ 'go', আস্ ~ এস্ ~ আ ~ এ /aʃ~eʃ~a~e/ 'come', আছ্ ~ ছি ~ থাক্/atʃh~tʃhi~thak/ 'be/has'.
(iii) Defective, e.g. ন ~ ন/nɔ ~ no/ 'not to be'.
184.108.40.206.6. The verb bases, both causative, are classified into 8 sub groups according to their phonological shapes as follows:
i. Monosyllabic /CVC/ where V is not /a/, e.g. পড়্ /pɔɽ/ 'read', বোঝ্ /bodɮh 'understand', দেখ্ /dækh/ 'see',লেখ্ /lekh/ 'write' etc.
ii. Monosyllabic /CV/ where the V is not /a/, e.g. শো /ʃo/ 'lie down', হ /hɔ/ 'be', ছোঁ /tʃō/ 'touch' etc.
iii. Monosyllabic /(C)CV/ where V is /a/, e.g. কাট্ /kaʈ/ 'cut', ডাক /ɖak/ 'call', আঁক /āk/ 'draw' etc.
iv. Monosyllabic /CV/ where V is /a/ e.g. – খা /kha / 'eat', পা /pa/ 'get', যা /dɮa/ 'go' etc.
v. Disyllabic /(C) VCV/ where the root vowel is not /a/, e.g. ঘুমো /ghumo/ 'sleep', শেখা /ʃekha/ 'teach', চিবো /tʃibo/ 'chew' etc.
vi. Disyllabic /(C) VCCV/ where the root vowel is not /a/, e.g. ওলটা /olʈa/ 'turn over',ছোবলা /tʃhobla/ 'bite (said of a snake)' etc.
vii. Disyllabic /(C) VCCV/ where the root vowel is not /a/, e.g. লাফা /lapha/ 'jump', খাওয়া /khao̯a/ 'feed' etc.
viii. Disyllabic /(C) VCCV/ where the root vowel is not /a/, e.g. সামলা /ʃamala/ 'manage', কামড়া/kamɽa/ 'bite' etc.
In the conjugational process these 8 classes respond to the phonological rules in 8 different ways.
220.127.116.11.1. Bangla verbs are inflected for 4 categories, viz, tense, aspect, mood and person, as follows:
i. 3 tense, viz, present, past and future, of which present simple is overtly unmarked; past is /-il/ (surfacing also as 'l); and future is /-ib/ (surfacing also as 'b).
ii. 3 aspects viz. imperfect (ø), perfect (/-e/), and habitual (/-t/), of which the imperfect and perfect are followed by the auxiliary that surfaces as /-tʃtʃh/ or /-tʃh/; and habitual occurs only in past.
iii. Inflectionally only one mood, viz, imperative, is marked in present and future tene.
iv. 3 persons (that include different points of formality also) with 5 sets of personal suffixes are as follows:
/-iʃ / and /-en/ also surface as/-ʃ/ and /-n/ respectively. /-am/ is also /-um/ dialectally.
18.104.22.168.2.4. 4 types of non-finite inflections are as follows:
i. Perfective Conjunctive: the ending surfaces as /-e/ and added after the high alternant of the derivationally potential bases, e.g. করে /kore/ 'having done' etc. Other bases undergo modifications before the perfective conjunctive marker.
ii. Infinitive: The surface form of this suffix is /-te/ e.g. করতে /korte/ 'to do', আঁকতে /ãkte/ 'to draw' etc.
iii. Conditional Conjunctive: the marker surfaces as /-le/, e.g. করলে /korle/ 'if ... does/did' etc.
iv. Verbal Noun: The surface variants are for monosyllabic bases /-o̯a/ post vocalically (such as – খাওয়া /khao̯a/ 'eating') /-a/ elsewhere (such as করা /kɔra/ 'doing'); for other bases /-no/ (such as করা /kɔra/ 'doing'); for other bases /-no/ such as পালানো /palano/ 'escaping') and /-ba/ for all base (such as খাবা, করবা, পালাবা /khaba, kɔrba, palaba/).
22.214.171.124.3. 11 inflectional categories of verb conjugation are as follows:
1. Present Simple. 2. Present Imperative. 3. Present perceptive 4. Present Imperative. 5. Past Simple. 6. Past Habitual. 7. Past Imperfective. 8. Past Perfective. 9. Future Simple. 10. Future Imperative, and 11. Non-finites.
126.96.36.199.4. Verb conjugation involves phonological processes like degemination, semivowel formation and vowel harmony. Geminates are degeminated post-consonantally. In a VV sequence the 2nd V turns into a semivowel that agrees with the surrounding segments in different features. In vowel harmony a low or mid vowel is raised by one notch by a high vowel trigger at its right. In the conjugated forms of the Sadhu/High variety the high trigger always surfaces. But in cases of the colit/low forms the high trigger is often present underlying.
All these three processes in the low variety, however, may be accounted for in terms of underlying forms of suffixes, 8 phonological rules and their ordering restrictions.
188.8.131.52.5. The underlying forms of inflectional suffixes:
184.108.40.206. 8 phonological rules that derive the verbal forms are:
i. a-Mutation: the suffix initial /i/ when followed by another vowel or a non-final consonant changes the root vowel /a/ to/ æ/ (such as kaʈ -ie ↝ kæʈ -ie; kha-ile khæ-ile) ↝or stem vowel /a/ to /e/ (such as ʃekha-ie ʃekhe-ie) and ↝applies to bases under groups iii to viii of 1.1.6.
ii. Vocoid Raising: By this rule a high vowel raises its preceding vowels, viz. /e, o, æ, ɔ/ by one step to /i, u, e, o/ respectively in spite of any intervening consonant(s). This rule reapplies to its own output affecting each relevant segment only once, e.g. ʃekhe-ie ʃekhi 'ie ʃekhl-ie; ↝kæʈ-ie ↝ keʈ-ie; kɔr-ie ↝ kor-ie etc.
iii. Suffix Truncation: This rule deletes the initial vowel of a polysyllabic suffix after a stem ending in a consonant; e.g. ʃikh - itʃtʃhilo ↝ ʃikh -tʃtʃhilo; kor-ilo ↝ korlo; ʃekh -oa ↝ ʃekha etc.
iv. Degemination: the first member of either a non-final geminate consonant seQuence or of two identical non-final vowels when immediately preceded by a non-syllabic segment is deleted by this rule, e.g. ʃikh - itʃtʃhilo ↝ ʃikh - itʃhilo; kor-tʃtʃhe ↝ kortʃhe; gai̯thtʃhe; gai̯ tʃhe ↝ ʃikhi-ie ↝ ƒʃikhie etc.
v. Minor i-Deletion: This rule deletes /i/ if preceded by a consonant seQuence and followed by /e/. e.g. ulʈ-ie ↝ ute; ʃaml-ie ↝ ʃamle etc.
vi. Semivowel Formation: this rule weakens the first non low vocoid in any V1 V2 sequence where V2 is no lower than V1, e.g. hɔ-o ↝ h&ɔo̯; kha-un↝ kha-u̯n etc.
Vii. Semivowel Deletion: This rule deletes postvocalic pre consonantal semivowels in suffix initial position, e.g. kha-u̯n ↝ khan etc.
viii. Glide Assimilation: This rule applies to a semivowel and assimilates it either to the following semivowel /i/ (such as khau̯l̯-e ↝ khai̯i̯ -e) or to the height level of the surrounding vowels (such as ho-i̯o ↝ hoe̯o).
220.127.116.11. The rules (i) to (iv), in that order apply before (v) to (viii), among which (vi) crucially applies before (vii) and (viii).
18.104.22.168. A glimpse of the verbal conjugation types in terms of 8 verbal bases belonging to 8 different phonological categories is given below. The inflection illustrated in the chart is the third person ordinary. The non-finite category, i.e. row 11 includes all the 4 types. Sadhu/ high forms of the first base are given with in brackets [ ]. Gloss has been provided only for the first base as for the others it becomes predictable.
i. কর্ kɔr 'do' ii. হ hɔ 'be' iii. কাট্ kaʈ 'cut' 1. করে kɔre 'does' হয় hɔe̯ কাটে kaʈe 2. করছে kortʃhe 'is doing' হচ্ছে hotʃtʃhe কাটছে kaʈtʃhe করিতেছে [koritetʃhe] 3. করেছে koretʃhe 'has done' হয়েছে hotʃhe কেটেছে keʈetʃhe করিয়াছে [koriatʃhe] 4. করুক koruk 'let him/her/them do!' হক Hok কাটুক kaʈuk 5. করল korlo 'did' হল Holo কাটল kaʈlo করিল [korilo] 6. করত korto 'would do' হত Hoto কাটত kaʈto করিত [korito] 7. করছিল kortʃhilo 'was doing' হচ্ছিল hotʃtʃhilo কাটছিল kaʈtʃhilo করিতেছিল [koritetʃhilo 8. করেছিল koretʃhilo 'had done' হয়েছিল hoe̯etʃhilo কেটেছিল keʈetʃhilo করিয়াছিল [koriatʃhilo] 9. করবে korbe 'will do' হবে hɔbe কাটবে kaʈbe করিবে [koribe] 10. করবে korbe 'must do!' হবে hɔbe কাটবে kaʈbe করিবো [koribe] 11. করতে korte 'to do' হতে Hote কাটতে kaʈte করিয়া [korite] করে kore ‘having done’ হয়ে hoe̯e কেটে keʈe করিয়া [koria] করলে korle 'if.... does/ হলে Hole কাটলে keʈle করিলে [korile] did করা/ khra/ হওয়া hɔo̯e কাটা kaʈa করবা kɔrba 'doing' হবা hɔba কাটবা keʈba করিবা [koriba]
iv. খা kha 'eat' v. শেখা ʃekha 'teach' vi. ওলা olʈa 'turn over'
1. খায় khae̯ শেখায় ʃekhae̯ ওল্টায় olʈae̯ 2. খাচ্ছে khatʃtʃhe শেখাচ্ছে ʃekhatʃtʃhe ওলটাচ্ছে olʈatʃtʃhe 3. খেয়েছে khee̯etʃhe শিখিয়েছে ʃekhietʃhe উলটেছে ulʈetʃhe 4. খাক khak শেখাক ʃekhak ওলটাক olʈak 5. খেল khelo শেখাল ʃekhalo ওলটাল olʈalo 6. খেত kheto শেখাত ʃekhato ওলটাত olʈato 7. খাচ্ছিল khatʃtʃhilo শেখাচ্ছিলো ʃekhatʃtʃhilo ওলটাচ্ছিল olʈatʃtʃhilo 8. খেয়েছিল khee̯etʃhilo শিখিয়েছিল ʃikhietʃhilo উল্টেছিল olʈetʃhilo 9. খাবে khabe শেখাবো ʃekhabe ওল্টাবে olʈabe 10. খাবে khabe শেখাবো ʃekhabe ওল্টাবে olʈabe 11. খেতে khete শেখাতে ʃekhate ওল্টাতে olʈate খেয়ে khee̯e শিখিয়ে ʃekhie উলটে utʈe খেলে khele শেখালে ʃekhale ওলটালে olʈale খাওয়া/ /khao̯a/ শেখানো/ ʃekhano ওল্টানো olʈano খাবা khaba শেখাবা ʃekhaba ওল্টাবা olʈaba
vii. লাফা lapha 'jump' viii.সামলা ʃamla 'manage'
1.লাফায় laphae̯ সামলায় ʃemlae̯ 2.লাফাচ্ছে laphatʃtʃhe সামলাচ্ছে ʃamlatʃtʃhe 3.লাফিয়েছে laphietʃhe সামলেছে ʃamletʃhe 4.লাফাক laphak সামলাক ʃamlak 5.লাফাল laphalo সামলাল ʃamlalo 6.লাফাত laphato সামলাত ʃamlato 7.লাফিয়েছিল laphatʃtʃhilo সামলাচ্ছিল ʃamlatʃtʃhilo 8.লাফিয়েছিল laphietʃhilo সামলেছিল ʃamletʃhilo 9.লাফাবে laphabe সামলাবে ʃamlabe 10.লাফাবে laphabe সামলাবে ʃamlabe 11.লাফাতে laphate সামলাতে ʃamlate লাফিয়ে laphie সামলিয়ে ʃamle লাফালে laphale সামলালে ʃamlale লাফানো/ laphano/ সামলানো ʃamlano/ লাফাবা laphaba সামলাবা ʃamlaba.
22.214.171.124.Negation: The defective negative verb ন /nɔ/ 'not to be' and three negative particles, viz. না, নি, নেই /na, ni, nei̯/, are used to negate the verb forms.
126.96.36.199.1. না /na/ precedes the non-finite forms and follows the finite ones in all categories except the perfectives, করছে না, করল না, করবেý না, করত না, না করে, না করলে, না করতে, না করা /korhtʃe na, korlo na, korbe na, korto na, na kore, na korle, na korte, na kɔra/ etc.
188.8.131.52.2. নি /ni/ is the negative particle for the perfective category. It follows the present simple forms to negate both the present and past perfectives, e.g. করে নি / kɔre ni/ 'have/had not done'.
184.108.40.206.3. নেই /neiɔ/ is used to negate existence and possession and expresses the opposite meaning of the verb আছ্ /atʃh/ 'have/there is', e.g. জল আছে /dɮɔl arʃhe/ 'water is there', জল নেই /dɮɔl nei̯ / 'water is not there'.
220.127.116.11. Agreement: Finite verbs agree with the nominative subject in person and formality, e.g.আমি করি /ami kori/ 'I do', আমরা করি /amra kori/ 'we do', তুমি কর /tumi kɔro/ 'you (O) (Sg.) do', তোমরা কর /tomra kɔro/ 'you (O)(Plu.) do',আপনি করেন /apni kɔren/ 'you (H)(S.g.) do'. আপনারা করেন /apnara kɔren / 'you (H)(Plu.) do', তুই করিস /tuiɔ koriʃ/ 'you (F)(Sg.) do', তোরা করিস /tora koriʃ/ 'you (H)(Plu.) do',সে করে /ʃe kɔre/ 's/he (O) does', তারা করে /tara kɔre/ 'they (O) do', তিনি করেন /tini kɔre/ 's/he (H) does',তাঁরা করেন /tãra kɔren/ 'they (H) do' etc.
18.104.22.168. Feminine nouns are formed by adding /-i, -ni, -ini/ to masculine bases, e.g. বুড়ো-বুড়ি / buɽo - buɽi/ 'old man ' old woman', কাকা-কাকী /kaka- kaki/ 'uncle-aunt', ধোপা-ধোপানী /dhopa - dhopani/ 'washer man - washer woman', বাঘ-বাঘিনী /bagh - baghini/ 'tiger - tigress' etc.
22.214.171.124. Nominals are formed by adding /-i, -mi/ -mo, -tto, -ta, -pɔna, -giri, -tʃe / to adjectives and sometimes also to nouns, e.g. চালাক-চালাকি /tʃalak - tʃalaki/ 'clever'cleverness',বোকা-বোকামি/বোকামো /boka-bokami/bokamo/ 'foolish-foolishness', বন্ধু-বন্ধুত্ব /bondʃu/ /bonḍhutto/ 'friend-friendship',নীচ-নীচতা /nitʃ-nitʃota/ 'mean-meanness', ধিঙ্গি-ধিঙ্গিপনা /dhiŋgi-dhiŋgipɔna/ 'immodest-immodesty', কেরানি-কেরানিগিরি /kerani-keranigiri/ 'clerk'clerkship',নীল-নীলচে /nil-niltʃe/ 'blue-bluish' etc.
126.96.36.199. Addition of /-i/ to place names yields adjectives and inhabitants or language names, e.g. গুজরাট-গুজরাটী /gudɮrat - gudɮaʈi/ 'Gujarat ' a native of a Gujarat' /language of Gujarat/of Gujarat. Other denominal adjectives with /i/ are ¸সুখ-সুখী /ʃukh- ʃukhi/ 'happiness'happy' etc.
188.8.131.52. Privative suffix /-hin/ (as in অর্থহীন /ɔrth ohin/ 'meaningless') is more productive than the privative prefix /be-/ and /gɔr-/ (as in বেগতিক /begotik/ 'helpless', গরমিল /gɔrmil/ 'disparity')
184.108.40.206. Causative bases are regularly formed by adding /-o̯a/ suffix to the simple bases, e.g. দেখা /dækha / 'show', খাওযা /khao̯a/ 'feed' etc.
220.127.116.11. Irregular types of action nominals are also formed from the verb bases, e.g খোঁজ /khõj/ 'trace', ডাক /ɖak/ 'call',পড়া /pɔɽa/ 'study', লেখালিখি/lekha-likhi/ 'repeated correspondence', লেখা-পড়া /lekh a-pɔɽa/ 'education', খাওয়া-দাওয়া /khao a da a/ 'meal', চলন /tʃɔlon/ 'walking' etc.
1.5.1. Nominals: Compounding is a productive process of producing new words by joining the existing one. The constituent of the head compounds are of 4 types.
18.104.22.168. 1st member head: উত্তরাধুনিকতা /uttoradhunikɔta/ 'post- modernism' etc.
22.214.171.124. 2nd member head: ঘরবন্দী /ghɔrbondi/ 'confined in the room', উড়োজাহাজ /uɽ odɮahadɮ/ 'a flying ship/aero plane' etc.
126.96.36.199. Both the members are head ভাইবোন /bhai̯ bon/ 'brother and sister' etc.
188.8.131.52. None of the members is head: চারপেয়ে /tʃarpee̯e/ 'quadruped' etc.
184.108.40.206. One type of compound like constructions, called echo constructions, are available in Bangla, e.g. বই-টই /boiɔʈoiɔ/ 'book etc'. আকাশ-টাকাশ /akaʃʈakaʃ/ 'sky etc'. In these constructions the word is followed by its echo word which starts with /ʈ/
220.127.116.11. In perfectives and imperfectives the auxiliary base /atʃh/ is compounded with the root, e.g. করেছে /koretʃhe/, করছে /kortʃhe/ etc. In case of imperfectives even emphatic and suffixes can intervene between the two members as the nature compounding is comparatively loose here, e.g. করেওছে /koreotʃhe/ 'has also done' etc.
18.104.22.168. Two types of verb stems viz. compound verbs and composite verbs; show even more loose type of compounding.
i. Compound verbs have a verb+verb structure, a pole in perfective conjunctive /-e/ followed by a vector, e.g. শুয়ে পড়্ /ʃue pɔɽ/ 'lie down', ফেলে দে /phele de/ 'throw off', করে নে /kore ne/ 'finish off', etc. A group of some 14 verbs can act as vector.
ii. Composite stems have a non-verb+verb structure, e.g. জিগেস কর্ /dɮigeʃ kɔr/ 'ask', অপেক্ষা কর্ /ɔpekkha kɔr/ 'wait', রাজিহ /radɮi hɔ/ 'agree', জেরক্স কর্ /dɮerɔks̯ kɔr/ 'Xerox' etc.
Both (i) and (ii) are more or less productive processes.
Bangla is a head-final language where the principle word order is SOV.
1. Sentence Types: -- The principle types of sentences found in Bangla are a) declarative, b) imperative and c) interrogative.
Examples are given below for these three types:
a) Declaratives are the statement sentences without question, command or request. The basic word order is followed for this type of
sentences, i.e., the Subject(S) precedes the Object(O) and the Verb(V) follows it.
1. আমি বাড়ী যাচ্ছি ami baɾi յacchi I home go-pr-prog. 1P 'I am going home.'
b) Second person present verbal form is the imperative form and there is no subject for this type of sentence.
2. বাড়ি যাও baɾi ïeao. home go-imp 'Go home'.
c) Interrogative sentences are used for asking questions. They can be of two types-yes-no questions and Wh-questions. Yes-no questions are formed by using one complementizer /ki/ which indicates the question.
3. তুমি বাড়ি যাবে কি ? tumi baɾi ïeabe ki? You home go-fut-2P Q-Comp 'Will you go home?'
Wh-questions use the equivalents of English Wh-words which start with /k/ in Bangla. These words include /ke/ 'who', /ki/ 'what',/kæno/ 'why', /kɔbe/, /kɔkhon/ 'when', /kothaj/ 'where', /kon/ 'which' and their inflected forms.
The other way of forming yes-no questions is to keep the normal indicative SOV word order and change the intonation pattern normally used for a question, i.e., a rising intonation. E.g.
4. তুমি বাড়ি যাচ্ছ ? tumi baɾi ïeaccho ? you house go-pr-cont-2p 'Are you going home?' 5. তুমি কি খাবে ? tumi ki khabe? You what eat-fut-2P 'What will you eat?' 6. তুমি কোথায় যাবে ? tumi kothaj ïeabe? You where go-fut-2P 'Where will you go?' 7. কোন বইটা তোমার ? kon boiʈa tomar? which book-cl your 'Which book is yours?'
All the above sentences were the examples of simple sentences. There are also complex sentences where one sentence contains another sentence. The connectors which are used in Bangla are /ïe/ 'that' and /bole/ 'having said'. Both of these work as complementizers and the latter has a typical use in South-Asian languages, known as quotative.
8. আমি জানি যে সে আসবে না ami ïeani ïee Se aʃbe na. I know-pr-1P that (s)he come-fut-3P neg 'I know that (s)he will not come.' 9. সে আসবে না বলে আমি জানি ʃe aʃbe na bole ami ïeani. (s)he come-fut-3P neg quotative I know. 'I know that (s)he will not come.'
In the above examples the sentences are with finite subordinate clauses, however, there can be sentence with non-finite subordinate clauses and they are much common than this type. A separate section on the non-finite constructions follows in the course of the discussion.
Two types of speech are found in the language as the examples follow: --
10. রাম ভরতকেý বলল ‘আমি বাড়ি যাব' ram bhɔrotke bollo 'ami baɾi jabo' Ram Bharat-obj marker said 'I home go-fu-1P' "Ram said to Bharat 'I will go home'."
The next is the reported speech for the above direct speech where the 1st person pronouns within quotation is used as the 3rd person pronoun.
11. রাম ভরতকে বলল যে সে বাড়ি যাবে ram bhɔrotke bollo ïee ʃe bari ïeabe. Ram Bharat-obj marker said that he home go-fut-3P 'Ram told Bharat that he would go home.'
2.Internal structure of the sentence: In general, the sentences are with SOV word order as is already mentioned in the last section. There is only exception of this order, i.e., copular sentences. In general, Bangla does not use copula but sometimes it is used to draw extra attention towards the subject of the sentence. In those sentences, the verb comes after the focused subject and the word order becomes SVO. The following is the example of a copular sentence: --
12.তুমি হলে আমাদের গুরু tumi hole amader guru. you copula our teacher 'you are our teacher.' ('you' is focused)
The next sentence is without any copula which is more regular and the subject is not in the focus. This type of sentence is also called equative construction.
13. তুমি আমাদের গুরু tumi amader guru. you our teacher 'You are our teacher.'
Among the complex sentences, one important is relative clause construction. Following is the example of that type of construction: --
14. ছেলেরা পড়তে চায় না তারা বাইরে যেতে পারে (ïee chelera)1 porte caj na (tara)1 baire ïeete pare. those boys to study want-pr-3P not they out to go can-pr-3P ' Those boys who do not want to study can go outside.'
In the above construction /je/ is the relative prornoun.
15. যাকে যা দেবার তাকে তা দিতে হবে (jake)1 (ïa)2 debar (take)1 (ta)2 dite hɔbe whom what giving-poss (s)he-obj that to give be-fut 'What has to be given to whom, that has to be given to him/her only.' 16. আমি এমন ছেলেকে চিনি যে এ কাজ পারবে ami (æmon cheleke)1 cini (je)1 e kaj parbe. I such boy-obj marker know-pr-1P who this work can-fut-3P 'I know such a boy who can do this work.' 17. রীনার যা টাকা ওকে তো অনেকেই বিয়ে করতে চাইবে rinar ïea ʈaka, oke to ɔnekei bie korte caibe. (Dasgupta 2001) Rina's what money, her of-course many wed to-do will-want 'Given the money Rina has, there will of course be many who want to marry her.'
The first two examples of relative clause construction have the relative pronouns at the left of the matrix sentence followed by their coreferences. These constructions are called the left relatives and they have some different characteristics from the classical type of relative known as right relatives as exemplified in (16) where the antecedent occurs at the left of the sentence followed by only one relative pronoun. The last example (17) has a relative pronoun /ja/ 'what' which does not have any antecedent or coreference anywhere in the rest of the sentence. This is traditionally called a headless relative.
The other important type of clause is a small clause which is a verbless clause consisting of either a noun and an adjective or a noun and a noun. The typical examples are like the following: --
18. ওরা পাথরকে দেবতা ভাবে ora [pathorke debota] bhabe. they stone-obj god think-pr-1P 'They think the stone god.' 19. আমি রামকে বোকা ভাবতাম ami [ramke boka] bhabtam. I Ram-obj stupid think-past-1P 'I thought Ram a stupid.
No discussion on the clause structure can be completed without mentioning the non-finite constructions. There are three types of participial constructions in Bangla along with the infinitival. The infinitive is formed by adding /te/ with the verb; for example, from the verb root kɔr 'to do' the resulting infinitival form is /korte/'to do'.
20. আমি এটা করতে চাই ami eʈa korte cai. I this-cl to do want-pr-1P 'I want to do this.'
There is a third type of verbal small clause with the infinitive form as the following: --
21. আমি সোমাকে গাইতে শুনলাম ami [ʃomake gaite] ʃunlam. I Soma-obj to sing hear-past-1P 'I heard Soma to sing.'
The three types of non-finite verbal clauses in Bangla are the imperfective with the homonymous /te/ form like the infinitival, the perfective with /e/ ending and the conditional with /le/ ending. The imperfective /te/ is generally reduplicatedly used and only in this use it retains its imperfective aspectual sense, i.e., non-completion of that action. This is used when two actions take place simultaneously. E.g.
22. আমি যেতে যেতে গাইছিলাম ami ïeete ïeete gaichilam I go-imp go-imp sing-past prog-1P 'I was singing while going.'
The other type of use of imperfective is found when one action follows the other and the verb of the first action takes the imperfective ending. This use is frequently found with an emphasizer attached with the imperfective form. E.g.
23. রমা বাড়ী যেতে রিমা বেরোল rɔma bari jete rima berolo. Rama house go-imp Rima go out-past-3P 'Rima went out after Rama had gone home.'
The perfective participle is formed with the ending /e/ after the verb and is used when one action follows the other like the previous use of imperfective. But the difference is, for that use of imperfective the subject of the main clause should always be non-coreferential with the subject of the adjoined participial clause while for the perfective the subjects, if volitional, must be the same.
24. আমি বাড়ী গিয়ে খাব ami bari gie khabo. I house go-perf eat-fut-1P 'Having gone home I will eat.'
The conditional participle marker in Bangla is /le/ and it is used in two different senses; one is typical conditional use and the other is the same sequential event use like the perfective and the imperfective. Both the uses are exemplified below: --
25. তুমি চাইলে আমি দেব tumi caile ami debo. you want-cond I give-fut-1P 'I will give you if you want.' 26. রাম বাড়ী ফিরলে আমি বেরোব ram bari phirle ami berobo. Ram house return-cond I go out-fut-1P 'I will go out after Ram comes back.'
The next lower level structure which comes after the clause structure is the phrase structure. In this section the few main phrases such as Noun Phrase, Adjective Phrase, Postpositional Phrase, Verb Phrase and Adverb Phrase will be discussed. However, there are many more phrases postulated for the description of the language which will not be taken into consideration.
A Noun Phrase or NP consists of nouns or a personal pronoun. In older theory, all the constructions with a noun were thought to be a
phrase where N is the head. But latter development in the theory has revealed the fact that a NP is part of a higher functional
phrase known as Determiner Phrase or DP where D is the head of that phrase. Though Bangla has no overt D like English
27. আমার এ দুটো লাল বই amar(poss) ei(Dem) duʈo(Q-Cl) lal(A) boi(N) my this two-cl red book 'These two red books of mine'
A Classifier is an element attached typically with a quantifier or a noun in Bangla. This element is a special feature of Eastern Indo-European languages such as Asamiya, Bangla and Oriya. The default or the most frequently found classifier in Bangla is /Ta/ which is not only used with a quantifier (e.g. 27) or a noun (boiʈa book-Cl 'the book') but also can be used with a verb or an adjective. The other classifiers of Bangla are human classifier /jon/ as in carjon lok four-jon persons ' four persons', collective classifier /gulo/ as in /lokgulo/ person-cl 'the people', non-human classifier khana as in boikhanabook-cl 'the book', ʈukuas in dudhʈuku 'this little amount of milk' and khani as in ɔnekkhani pɔthmuch-khani way 'a long long way'.
An Adjective Phrase is generated in the specifier position of the NP consisting of the adjectives which are the modifiers of the nouns. However, adjective as a category is hard to distinguish from others, probably it is safest to say that adjectives can be recognized from their functions in a particular context. Typical adjectives include bhalo 'good', kharap 'bad' etc but quantifiers and nouns often serve the functions of the adjectives. E.g.
28 a) অনেক লোক এসেছে ɔnek lok eʃeche. many people come-pr perf-3 'Many people have come.' 28 b) অনেক বেলায় উঠেছি ɔnek bælaj uʈhechi. much part of the day-loc get up-prperf-1P '(I/we) have got up late in the morning.'
In 28 a) /ɔnek/ is a quantifier but in b) it is modifying the noun /bæla as an adjective.
The nouns used as adjectives are very common in the language, e.g. the name of the colours are all used as the modifiers of a noun as in /lal boi/ 'red book'.
Unlike English, Bangla has postpositions which occur after a NP in a postpositional phrase (PP) typically consists of a NP and a postposition. E.g.
/nice/ 'under', /opore/ 'above, on', /paʃe/ 'beside', /kache/ 'near', /bhetore/ 'in, inside' etc are the common postpositions. The NP preceding takes the genitive case before these postpositions. E.g.
29. বাড়ির ভেতরে 30. মাদুরের নীচে baɾir bhetore madurer nice house-gen inside mat-gen under 'inside the house' under the mat
A Verb Phrase may consist of just a verb or a verb and an NP or a PP. Examples of each type of VP are given below: --
31. চলো cɔlo. go-imp 'Let's go.' (only a verb) 32. বাড়ী চলো bari cɔlo. home go-imp ' Let's go home.' (NP+V) 33. আমাকে নিয়ে চলো amake nie cɔlo. me with go-imp 'Take me with you.' (PP+V)
An Adverb Phrase consists of an adverb modifying the verb. The typical adverbs are formed with the addition of /kore/ or /bhabe/ with the adjective. E.g. bhalobhabe good-bhabe 'in a proper manner, well', cɔʈkore 'fast'. There are some adverbial words like taɾataɾi 'fast', /aste aste/ 'slowly', druto 'fast' etc. Another way of making adverb is to add /e/ with the verb as in heʃe'laughing' from the verb haʃ 'to laugh'.
34. সে হেসে চলে গেল ʃe heʃe cole gælo. (s)he laughing went off 'She went off laughing.'
Some adjective can function as a modifier of a verb like /bHalo/ 'good' as in the following sentence.
35. চোখে ভালো দেখতো পাই না cokhe bhalo dekhte pai na. eye-loc well to see can neg 'I cannot see well (by the eyes).'
An adverb can modify an adjective or another adverb also. In such cases, quantifier can be used as the adverb. e.g. in the following sentence, /ɔnek/ is used as an adverb.
36. আজকাল অনেক ভালো দেখতে পাই না ajkal ɔnek bhalo dekhte pai. nowadays much well to see can 'Nowadays I can see much better.'
Therefore categorization of the adjectives and the adverbs is purely functional depending on the circumstances where they are used.
3. Coordination: -- The simple sentences are conjoined to make compound sentences with the help of the conjunctives, this process is known as coordination. The most common conjunctives are ebɔŋ/, /o/ 'and', /kintu/ 'but' and ɔthba/, /ba/ 'or'. These words join two sentences, clauses, phrases or words. Examples are the followings: --
37. আমি ও আমার ভাই [ami] o [amar bhai] 'I and my brother' 38. রাহুলের বোন বা কবিতার ভাই [rahuler bon] ba [kobitar bhai] 'Rahul's sister or Kavita's brother' 39. আমি যাব কিন্তু খাব না [ami jabo] kintu [khabo na]. I go-fut-1P but eat-fut-1P neg 'I shall go but not eat.'
For joining two sentences, clauses, words or phrases a pair of words such as /hɔj..nɔj 'either..or' is also used. E.g.
40. হয় আমি এ বাড়িতে থাকব নয় তুমি hɔj ami e barite thakbo nɔj tumi. either I this house-loc stay-fut-1p or you 'Either I will stay in this house or you.'
4. Negation: -- The negative particle in Bangla is /na/ 'not' which occurs post-verbally in the finite construction and preverbally in the non-finite construction. E.g.
41. আমি যাব না ami jabo na. I go-fut-1p not ' I shall not go.' 42. আমি না গিয়ে সোমা গেল ami na gie Soma gælo. I not go-perf Soma go-past-3p 'Soma went after I having not gone.'
5. Anaphora and pronominal: -- The pronominals which follow the principle A of Binding theory are known as the anaphora. An anaphora must have an antecedent (the binder) in its binding domain. The binder and the anaphoric pronoun are always coreferential. The reflexives and reciprocals as mentioned in the next two sections are the typical examples of anaphoric pronouns.
On the other hand, pronominals follow the principle B of Binding theory which says that they must not be bound in the binding domain. The example following shows the binding condition for the pronominal: the pronominal /take/ can be bound by the matrix clause subject Gopal but never by the same clause subject Mohan where it occurs.
All the personal pronouns are this type of NP which must be free in the binding domain.
43. গোপাল জানে যে মোহন তাকে ভালবাসে gopal1 jane je mohon2 take1/3 bhalobaʃe. Gopal knows that Mohan him/her loves
'Gopal knows that Mohan loves him(Gopal)/her(some lady whose reference is not mentioned in the sentence.'
6. Reflexives: -- A reflexive is a pronoun which is used instead of repeating the same subject noun or pronoun. In English
these pronouns are made of adding
44. আমি নিজেকে বিশ্বাস করি না ami nijeke biʃʃaʃ kori na. I myself-obj beleive not 'I don't beleive myself.' 45. তোমরা নিজেদের ওপরে বিশ্বাস রাখ tomra nijeder opore biʃʃaʃ rakho. you-pl yourself-gen on trust keep 'You(pl) keep trust on yourself.' 46. রাহুল নিজেকে বিশ্বাস করতে পারছে না rahul nijeke biʃʃaʃ korte parche na. rahul himself-obj beleive to do can not 'Rahul is not able to beleive himself.'
7. Reciprocals: -- The reciprocal pronoun is /pɔroSpɔr/ 'each other' in Bangla which is used instead of two nouns conjoined with a conjunctive. There is no separate word for 'one another' also in the language.
47. রাহুল ও রমা পরস্পরকে ভালবাসে [rahul o rɔma]1 [pɔroSpɔrke]1 bhalobaʃe. Rahul and Rama each other-obj love ' Rahul and Rama love each other.' 48. আমরা পরস্পরের জন্য ভাবব amra pɔroSpɔr pɔroSpɔrer jonno bhabbo. we one another one another-gen for think-fut-1p ' We all will think of one another.'
8. Comparison: -- The comparative degree is expressed in the language by the use of two postpositions /ceje/ and /theke/ 'than' preceded by an NP in its genitive form. E.g.
49. আমি তোমাদের চেয়ে বড়ো rami tomader ceje bɔro. I you-gen than old 'I am older than you.' 50. সোনা লোহার থেকে দামী Sona lohar theke dami. gold iron-gen than expensive 'Gold is more expensive than the iron.'
9. Equatives: The Equative construction has already been discussed under the section 2.
10. Possessive : The Bangla word for the possession verb is /ach/ 'to have'.
The subject of this type of construction is in genitive case.
51. আমার বই আছে amar boi ache I-poss book have 'I have books.'
The verb /ach/ is also used in the existential
52. নদীর ধারে একটা গাছ আছে nodir dhare ækʈa gach ache river-gen side one tree have 'There is one tree on the riverside.'
11. Emphasizer: -- Bangla uses two emphatic particles /i/ and /o/ known as emphasizers. The first of these /i/ is known as dissociative emphasizer and the second /o/ is called associative emphasizer. The reason for such naming lies in the behaviour and use of the particles. Let us take some examples of those emphasizers: ---
53. শুধু আমরাই যাচ্ছি ʃudhu amra jacchi. only we-emph. go-pr.prog.-1p 'Only we are going. (no one else).' 54. শুধু ওরা যাচ্ছে না আমরাও যাচ্ছি ʃudhu ora jacche na amrao jacchi. only they go-pr.prog.3p not, we-emph. go-pr.prog.1p 'Not only they are going, we are also going.'
In 53, emphasizer /i/ attached with a set of persons consisting of me and some other members differentiates it from all other sets and specifies that only that set is involved in the discourse at that time. This is, therefore, can be called a dissociative emphasizer. Whereas in the example 54, the emphasizer /o/ is attached with the pronoun /amra/ 'we' includes a set consisting of me and some other persons with a set of other people denoted by /ora/ 'they'. Therefore, this is known as associative emphasizer. Emphasizer while attached with some element makes that element prominent in the discourse, therefore it is a focus-marking particle. It can be attached with the nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, postpositions - practically all kinds of lexical elements.
12. Topic marker and other particles: The topic of a sentence is that element about which the information is given in the sentence. As such there is no inherent topic marker in Bangla like Japanese which is ever-attached with the subject but /to/ is classified as a topic-marking particle in this language. E.g.
52. আমি তো আমার কথা বললাম এবার তুমি বলো ami to amar kɔtha bollam, ebar tumi bɔlo. I topic my story say-past-1p now you say-pr-2p ' I said my story, now you tell yours.' 53. বললাম তো কি করতে হবো bollam to ki korte hɔbe. say-past-1p topic what to do be-fut-pass ' (I already) said what to do.'
There are some particles in the language like /bujhi/, /naki/, /ïæno/, /ba/ etc which add extra shade of meaning to the clause where they occur. They are safely called particles at this stage of investigation but surely need more attention.
54. আহা ! তুমি বুঝি জান না ! jaha! tumi bjhi jano na!> Oh! you part know-pr-2p neg 'Oh! as if you don't know.' 55. তুমি নাকি জানতে না ? tumi naki jante na? you part know-past-2p neg 'It seems you did not know.' 56. এমন বলছ, তুমি যেন কিছু জানতে না ! æmon bolcho, tumi jæno kichu jante na. Such say-pr-prog-1p, you part anything kno-past-2p neg 'You are saying in such a manner as if you did not know anything.'
All these three particles can be moved at the end of the clause without a change in the meaning. The other particle /be/ has a different distribution, it occurs in a question following an emphatic verb or a wh-question element. E.g.
57.কেনই বা যাব? kænoi ba jabo? Why-emp part go-fut-1p ' Why shall I go?' (asked when the speaker argues for not going) 58. ও একা সম কাজ করবেই বা কেন ? o æka ʃɔb kaj korbei ba kæno? (s)he alone all works do-fut-3p-emp part why 'why will (s)he alone do all the works?'
13. Case markers: There are only three morphologically overt case markers in Bangla. One is for dative case and the marker is /ke/ which is in special cases used as accusative marker also. It is safe to call this marker as the objective case marker following Kelkar (1997). E.g.
59. ভিখিরিকে পয়সা দাও bhikhirike pɔjSa dao. beggar-obj money give-imp 'Give money to the beggar.' 60. মিতা গোপালকে ভালবাসে mita gopalke bhalobaʃe. Mita Gopal-obj love-pr-3p ' Mita loves Gopal.'
The next case marker is possessive /ɼ/ which is phonologically in complementary distribution with its variant form /er/. /ɼ/ occurs after the vowels and /er/ occurs elsewhere. E.g. /ramer boi/ Ram-poss book ' Ram's book', /ʃitar boi/ ʃita-poss book ' Sita's book'.
The typical experience subject takes possessive case marker in Bangla instead of dative which is commonly found in other Indian languages. E.g.
61. আমার ফুল ভাল লাগে amar phul bhalo lage I-gen flower like 'I like flowers.'
The third one is locative marker /e/ which is again phonologically in complementary distribution with the variant form /te/. /te/ occurs after the /i/ and /u/-ending words and for /e/ /o/ and /a/ endings both the /e/ and /te/ occur. For the words ending with the consonants it is always /e/ which is used. E.g.
62. /barite/ house-loc 'in the house', 63. /modhute/ honey-loc 'in the honey' 64. /chelete/ or /chelej/ boy-loc, locative marker used for nominative 65. /kouʈote/ /kouʈoj/ box-loc 'in the box' 66. /rajaj/ king-loc /ghɔrate/ room--loc 67. /ghɔrete/ or /ghɔre/ room-loc 'in the room.'
14. Minor Sentence Types: Apart from the main sentence types discussed in the section 1, there are some minor sentence types such as karma-katrvaacya and bhabvaacya of Sanskrit. The first type is found in case of a patient acting as an agent of a sentence. E.g.
68. অন্ধকারে বীণা বাজছে ɔndhokare bina bajche. dark-loc a musical instrument playing 'A Veena is playing in the dark.'
The second case is used when one wants to avoid a direct speech with someone and uses this typical indirect form where one can avoid the person and honourific agreement on the verb. E.g.
69. কোথায় থাকা হয় ? kothaj thaka hɔj where stay-verbal noun be-3p ' Where do you stay?'
As a detailed study is beyond the scope of this short note, the above description of the language is a very superficial one leaving all the details of the analysis.
|ভাই||/bhai/||' younger brother'|
|বোন||/bon/||' younger sister'|
|দাদা||/dada/||' elder brother'|
|দিদি||/didi/||' elder sister'|
|খুড়ো কাকা||/khuɾo/,/kaka/||' father' s younger brother'|
|জ্যাঠা||/jæʈha/||' father' s elder brother'|
|কাকীমা, খুড়িমা||/kakima/,/khrima/||' father' s younger brother' s wife'|
|জেঠিমা||/jeʈhima/||' father' s elder brother' s wife'|
|পিসি||/piʃi/||' father' s sister'|
|পিসেমশাই||/piʃemɔʃai/||' father' s sister' s husband'|
|মাসী||/maʃi/||' mother' s sister'|
|মেসোমশাই||/meʃomɔʃai/||' mother' s sister' s husband'|
|মামা||/mama/||' mother' s brother'|
|মামী||/mami/||' mother' s brother' s wife'|
|ঠাকুরদা||/ʈhakurda/||' paternal grandfather'|
|ঠাকুরমা||/ʈhakuma/||' paternal grandmother'|
|দাদু||/dadu/||' maternal grandfather'|
|দিদা||/dida/||' maternal grandmother'|
|TghO||/nati/||' (both son' s and daughter' s) son'|
|নাতনি||/natni/||' (both son' s and daughter' s) daughter'|
|নাতবৌ||/natbou/||' grandson' s wife'|
|নাতজামাই||/natjamai/||' granddaughter' s husband'|
|শালা||/ʃala/||' wife' s brother'|
|শলাজ||/ʃalaj/||' wife' s brother' s wife'|
|শালী||/ʃali/||' wife' s sister'|
|ভায়রা||/bhajra/||' wife' s sister' s husband'|
|ননদ||/nɔnod/||' husband' s sister'|
|নন্দাই||/nɔndai/||' husband' s sister' s husband'|
|দেওর||/dæor/||' husband' s younger brother'|
|ভাসুর||/bhaʃur/||' husband' s elder brother'|
|জা||/ja/||' husband' s brother' s (both younger and elder' s) wife'|
|ভাসুরপো||/bhaʃurpo/||' husband' s elder brother' s son'|
|দেওরপো||/dæorpo/||' husband' s younger brother' s son'|
|ভাসুরঝি||/bhaʃurjhi/||' husband' s elder brother' s daughter'|
|দেওরঝি||/dæorjhi/||' husband' s younger brother' s daughter'|
|ভাইপো||/bhaipo/||' brother' s son'|
|ভাইঝি||/bhaijhi/||' brother' s daughter'|
|বোনপো||/bonpo/||' sister' s son'|
|বোনঝি||/bonjhi/||' sister' s daughter'|
|ভাগ্নে||/bhagne/||' a male' s sister' s son' , ' a female' s husband' s sister' s son'|
|ভাগ্নি||/bhagni/||' a male' s sister' s daughter' , ' a female' s husband' s sister' s daughter'|
|বোনাই||/bonai/||' younger sister' s husband'|
|জামাইবাবু||/jamaibabu/||' elder sister' s husband'|
|বৌদি||/boudi/||' (both male and female) elder brother' s wife'|
|ভাজ||/bhaj/||' a female' s brother' s wife'|
|ভাদ্দরবৌ||/bhaddorbou/||' a male' s younger brother' s wife'|
|খুড়শ্বশুড়||/khurʃoʃur/=/khuɾo/+/ʃoʃur/||' husband' s or wife' s father' s younger brother'|
|খুড়শ্বাশুড়ী|| ||' husband' s or wife' s father' s younger brother' s wife'|
|জ্যাঠাশ্বশুড়||/jaʃʃour/=jæʈha/+/ʃoʃur/||' husband' s or wife' s father' s elder brother'|
|জ্যাঠাশ্বাশুড়ী||/jaʃʃaʃuri/=/jeʈhi/+/ʃaʃuri/||' husband' s or wife' s father' s elder brother' s wife'|
|পিসশ্বাশুড়ী||/piʃʃaʃuri/=/piʃi/+/ʃaʃuri/||' husband' s or wife' s father' s sister'|
|পিসিশ্বাশুড়ী||/piʃʃoʃur/=/piʃe/+/ʃoʃur/||' husband' s or wife' s father' s sister' s husband'|
|পিসেশ্বশুড়||/maʃʃaʃuri/=/maʃi/+/ʃaʃuri/||' husband' s or wife' s mother' s sister'|
|মাসশ্বাশুড়ী||/maʃʃoʃur/=/meʃo/+/ʃoʃur/||' husband' s or wife' s mother' s sister' s husband'|
|মামাশ্বশুড়||/mamaʃoʃur/=/mama/+/ʃoʃur/||' husband' s or wife' s mother' s brother'|
|মামীশ্বাশুড়ী||/mamiʃaʃuri/=/mami/+/ʃaʃuri/||' husband' s or wife' s mother' s brother' s wife'|
|দাদাশ্বশুড়||/dadaʃoʃur/||' (both paternal and maternal) grandfather-in-law'|
|দিদিশ্বাশুড়ী||/didiʃaʃuri/||' (both paternal and maternal) grandmother-in-law'|
|হলুদ||/holud/||' yellow' from /holud/ ' turmeric'|
|গোলাপি||/golapi/||' pink' from /golap/ ' rose'|
|খয়েরী||/khɔeri/||' dark brown' from /khɔeri/ '|
|বাদামী||/badami/||' brown' from /badam/ ' groundnut'|
|ছাই, ধূসর||/chai/, /dhuʃor/||' ash' from /chai/ ' ash'|
|আকাশী||/akaʃi/||' sky-blue' from /akaʃ/ ' sky'|
|বেগুনী||/beguni/||' purple' from /begun/ ' brinjal'|
|কমলা||/kɔmola/||' orange' from /kɔmola lebu/ ' orange fruit'|
|গেরুয়া||/gerua/||' saffron' from Sanskrit /goirik/ ' related to hill'|
|পায়ের আঙুল||/paer aɱul/||' toe' (no special term)|
|নাকের গর্ত||/naker gɔrto/||' nostril' (no direct term)|
|চোখের পাতা||/cokher pata/||' eyelash'|
|চেখের মণি||/cokher moni/||' eyeball'|
/kuʈno koʈa / 'cutting the vegetable'
|/ɖumo ɖumo/||' small dome-shaped' ,|
|/phali phali/||' long strip' ,|
|/jiri jiri/||' very small thin strip' ,|
|/kuci kuci/||' very small pieces' followed by|
|/kore/||' having done' used as an adverb.|
_____ kore kaʈa ' cut in the required reduplicated shape'
The ancillary used is /bõʈi/ 'the vegetable-cutting instrument'. E.g. ____ die kaʈa 'cut with a ___'
/baʈna baʈa / 'make paste of the spices by grinding'
ancillary used is /ʃil noɽa/ 'the big and small stones for making this paste of spice'. E.g. ___________te bat,na bãʈa 'make paste of the spices with the silnora'
/thẽto kɔra/ 'grind only with the small stone by hammering again and again (used for mainly ginger and garlic)'. E.g.
noɽadie _____ ' grind with the small stone nora'
(আটা/ময়দা) মাখা / (aʈa/mɔeda) makha/ 'make a dough of flour'
লেচি পাকানো/leci pakano/ 'make small ball from the dough'
(রুটি/লুচি/পরোটা)বেলা /ruʈi/luci/pɔroʈa bæla/ 'make bigger shape from the ball with the help of the belun'
The ancillary used is /belun-caki/ 'one round wooden or stone plate and a long round instrument'.
|ফোড়ন দেওয়া||/phoɽon dea/||' to season'|
|ডাল সাঁতলানো||/(ɖal) ʃãtlano /||' to season the boiled pulse'|
|ভাজা||/bhaja/||' to fry'|
|(ছাঁকা তেলে)ভাজা||/(chãka tele) bhaja/||' to deep fry'|
|সেঁকা||/ʃæ̃ka/||' to fry a roti on a tawa'|
|কষা||/kɔʃa/||' to cook with minimum or no water and different spices' , E.g,|
|মাংষ কষা||/maŋʃo kɔʃa/||' to cook the meat in such a way' .|
two types: /gũɽo mɔʃla/'spice powder' and /baʈa mɔʃla/ 'ground spice as paste'. All the spices used in the cooking are either of these two types.
|পোস্ত||/posto/||' poppy seeds'|
|হিং, হিঙ্গ||/hiŋ/||' fenugreek'|
|তেজপাতা||/tejpata/||' bay leaf'|
|সাজিরে||/ʃajire/||' caraway seeds'|
|মেথি||/methi/||' fenugreek seeds'|
|কালো জিরে||/kalo jire/||' black cumin'|
|গোল মরিচ||/gol moric/||' black pepper'|
|আমচুর||/amcur/||' mango powder'|
|মুগ ডাল||/mug ɖal/||' green gram'|
|মুসুর ডাল||/muʃur ɖal/||' red lentils'|
|ছোলার ডাল||/cholar ɖal/||' Bengal gram'|
|মটর ডাল||/mɔʈor ɖal/|
|কলাইয়ের ডাল||/kɔlaier ɖal/||' black gram'|
|অড়হর ডাল||/ɔɽohor ɖal/||' red gram'|
|মাংস||/maŋʃo/||' meat or chicken'|
|ক্ষীর||/khir/||' condensed milk'|
|অজুত||/ojut/||' 10 thousand'|
|নিযুত||/nijut/||' 10 lakhs'|
|সূর্য||/ʃurjo/||' the sun'|
|চাঁদ||/cãd/||' the moon'|
|ধ্রুবতারা||/dhrubotara/||' pole star'|
|শুকতারা||/ʃuktara/||' morning star'|
|সন্ধ্যাতারা||/ʃondhatata/||' evening star'|
|গামছা||/gamcha/||' Indian edition of towel'|
|লুঙ্গি||/luŋgi/||' lungi, a long skirt like cloth for men to tie from the waste'|
|ধুতি||/dhuti/||' dhoti, a white big cloth for men to tie from the waste'|
|চাদর||/cador/||' a cloth for the upper portion of the body taken with dhoti'|
|ফাতুয়া||/photua/||' a half-shirt for the men to wear with pajama or dhoti'|
|পাজামা||/pajama/||' a salwar like loose outfit for men'|
|এ||/e/||' 3rd person pronoun proximate'|
|ও||/o/||' 3rd person pronoun distant'|
|উনি||/uni/||' 3rd person pronoun distant honorific'|
|তিনি||/tini/||' he/she honorific'|
|তোমরা||/tomra/||' you pl.'|
|তাঁরা||/tãra/||' they honorific'|
|ওনারা||/onara/||' they distant honorific'|
|এনারা||/enara/||' they proximate honorific'|
|এরা||/era/||' they proximate non-honorific'|
|ওরা||/ora/||' they distant non-honorific'|
|যে.....সে||/je..ʃe/||' relative pronoun who'|
|হয়.....নয়||/hɔj..nɔj/||' either& or'|
|সেখানে||/ʃekhane/||' there distant'|
|অনেক||/ɔnek/||' many, much'|
|কয়েক||/kɔek/||' a few'|
|ক....||/kɔ../||' a few (followed by any classifier)'|
|চৌকো||/couko/||' four-sided, square'|
|হাসা||/haʃa/||' laugh, smile'|
|গন্ধ পাওয়া||/gɔndho paoa/||smell'|
There are four types of words in the Bangla lexicon: tatsama or Sanskrit words, tatbhava or derived words from Sanskrit, desi from aboriginal origin and foreign words.
ঝাঁটা /jhãʈa/ 'broom'
|টেবিল||/ʈebil/||' table' from English|
|চেয়ার||/cear/||' chair' from English|
|কাগজ||/kagoj/||' paper' from Perso-Arabic|
|দলিল||/dolil/||' file' from Perso-Arabic|
|সাইকেল||/saikel/||' bicycle' from English|
In Bangla discourse content dependent structure can be observed in the use of the folk language or folk register in order to give a separate identity to the folk language and to provide an atmosphere of fairy tales. The structures and lexical items like - হাউ মাউ খাউঁ hau mau khãu̯ an expressive of gulping ¸ সাত সমুদ্র তেরো নদী ʃat ʃomudro tæro nodi ' seven seas, thirteen rivers' , দৈত্যপুরী doittopuri ' demon' s palace' , সোনার কাঠি ʃonar kaʈhi ' gold stick' ,রাজপুত্তুর raʤputtur ' prince' , etc are examples of the stereotyped folk register, which are employed for the purpose.
Content specific structure can also be noticed (Majumdar, 1998 a) in the language structure of dialogues between the subalterns and the upper class people, which functions as a class variable structure. Content specific structure can also be noticed in the establishment of contrast, parallelism and substitution (Majumdar, 1998 b). The contrast between a character of a fairy tale and a realistic man of the modern social system is often created, which is evident from the following lines of Rabindranath Tagore's Rajputtur
আর সকলে হাটবাজার করে, ঘর করে, জগড়া করে...রাজপুত্তরু সে রাজ্য ছেড়ে চলে যায়
aɤ ʃɔkole haʈbadgar kɔre, ghɔr kɔre, ʤhɔgɽa kɔre ..... raʤ putter ʃe raʤʤo tʃheɽ;e tʃheɤe tʃole ʤae̯.
' All others do marketing, household work; quarreling ... the prince goes away leaving that place.'
Parallelism can be evidenced in the following structure.
গিরিশিখরের জল গিরিশিখরে ধরে না, মেঘের জল মেঘেরবাঁধন মানে না....তেপান্তরের মাঠ দেখে সে ফেরে না
giriʃikhɔrer ʤɔl giriʃikhɔre dhɔre na, megher ʤɔl megher bãdhon mane na .....tepantɔrer maʈh dekhe ʃe phere na.
' The mountain peak cannot hold the water of mountain-peak, the water of the cloud does not obey the tie of the cloud.....having seen ' tepantar' meadow, he does not return.'
Substitution is made by the author by deglamourizing the image of the prince and the princess of the fairy tale. They are changed into characters of a struggling man and a woman of the modern period.
The discursive formation of the story can be viewed not only from the structuralist point of view but also from the post structuralist perspective. The saussurean signifier - signified relationship that marks the relationship of the character of the prince in the fairy tale with the character of the ' young man' is deconstructed in the neither or nor framework of the post modern time and space of the social structure.
Coherence which indicates both formal linking or formal cohesiveness and logical (or thematic) cohesiveness is evident in Bangla literature. In studying the discourse of ' Rajputtur' of Rabindranath Tagore, Majumdar (1998 b) finds that though the characters of two tales that have been employed by Rabindranath, differ in respect of time, space and social background, the author by virtue of his own style could make them cohesive and complete. Cohesive of both form and content is evident throughout the text, which ultimately aims at reaching the reality of life.
Coherence of time and tense is evident in the establishment of myth in Tarasankar Bandyopadhyay's novel ' nāginī kanyār kāhinī' (Majumdar 1998 a).
Thematic coherence is also apparent in Jibanananda Das's poem ām bachad āger ekdin (Majumdar, 2002). The equation of life and death forms a complete network throughout the poem. The cohesiveness of place and time and the dynamicity of the human world and society could easily be traced from the analysis of the content of the poem. The proposed use of the verb forms serves the function of formal cohesion in the poem. The anaphoric forms like তবু tobu ' yet' , এ এম্প ei̯ ' this' , তাই - tai̯ ' so' function as discourse markers that contribute to the cohesiveness in the poem.
Use of particular grammatical structures in discourse as evident in the use of the perfective conjunctive form of verbs like ছেড়ে tʃheɽe ' having left' , পেরিয়ে perie ' having left' etc. indicates a kind of positional parallelism in the syntactic formation. This also indicates ' recurrence' and ' dynamicity' (Majumdar, 1998 b).
The use of various adjectival phrases like অদ্ভুত আঁধার ɔdbhut ādhar ' particular darkness' , যূথচারী আঁধার ʤuthotʃari ãdhar ' intense darkness' ,প্রগাঢ পিতামহী progaɽho pitamohi ' indepth grandmother' ,
থুরথুরে পেঁচা thurthure pæ̃tʃa ' feeble owl' , তুমুল গাঢ় সমাচার tumul gaɽho ʃɔmatʃar ' great deep news' , etc are noticed in Jibanananda Das' s ' ām bachar āger ekdin' (Majumdar, 2002).
The use of conjunctive marks like যেন ʤæno ' as if ' , যখন ʤɔkhon ' when' , আর ar ' and' , etc create contrast and digression in the discursive formation. Use of some particular grammatical structures has been observed by Majumdar (2002) in Jibanananda Das's work. For example, the use of habitual present in the syntactic constructions like - পেঁচা জাগে pæ̃tʃa ʤage ' owl wakes' , গলিত স্তবির ব্যাঙ... ভিক্ষা মাগে golito sthobir bæŋ .. bhikkha mage ' decomposed static frog ... begs' , মশা জীবনের স্রোত ভালোবাসে mɔʃa ʤibɔner srot bhalobaʃe ' mosquito loves the current of life' , etc. highlights the dynamic truth of life.
The negativization of the affirmative structure can be noticed in Bangla discourse. In Rabindranath Tagore's Rajputtur this is found in the description of the heroine for realizing the reality. This is done by destroying the illusion of the reader, which is the ulterior motive of the story. This is evident from the following lines.
চাঁপা ফুলের মতো রঙ নয়, হাসিতে তার মানিক খসে না---আকাশের তারার সঙ্গে তার তুলনা হয় না..
tʃãpaphuler moto rɔŋ nɔe̯, haʃite tar manik khɔʃe na - akaʃer tarar ʃɔŋge tar tulona hɔe̯ na.
' (her) complexion is not like the color of Champa flower, precious stones do not come out of her smile - she cannot be compared with stars of the sky' .
In Bangla, discourse analysis has also been done from the point of view of politico- Semantic interpretation. The history of the Bangla language and literature has been studied (Mukhopadhyay, 2002) keeping in view the socio - political scenario in its background. In course of the analytical study, the nation statist influence behind the artificial construct of establishing the standard colloquial Bangla has been viewed significantly. The discursive formation of the questionnaire of examination has also been analyzed which feeds to the same socio - political influence behind the establishment of the genealogical fantasy for the Bangla language. It is basically an establishment of a critique of the history of the Bangla language and literature that has been done by semantically interpreting it as an outcome of the socio- political setup of the Bangla language and literature.
Discourse analysis has also been done on Bangla advertisements (Dattamajumdar, 2000) from the socio - semantic point of view. The various communicative strategies in a particular social setting have been analyzed from the psycho - social perspective. The capitation like চৈতি হাওয়ার পন্থী tʃoiti hao̯ar ponthi ' with the wind of ' chaitra' (a Bangla month)' , দগ্ধ দিনে স্নিগ্ধ পোষাক dɔgdho dine snigdho poʃak ' light and comfortable dress in a scorching day' ,বসনে বৈশাখ bɔʃone boiʃakh ' Baisakh (a Bangla month) in dress' , are instances of message reduction. These captions without saying anything explicitly about garments capture the attention of the reader and create a social aspiration for having those garments. The discursive analysis of the various structures of such advertisements reveals the social reality that, a particular commodity is associated with a particular social group. The extent of the effectiveness of the communicative technique is dependent on the socio-cultural acceptability of the various aspects of the language used for the purpose.
Copyright CIIL-India Mysore